Sore throat, usually associated with the common cold, but it may occur in diseases of other organs, not only the upper respiratory tract. Let's take a closer look at each group of causes of sore throat.
In most cases, the sore throat are infectious diseases of nasopharynx. Most often, they have a viral nature: SARS, influenza, infectious mononucleosis, measles, chicken pox and others. Less common bacterial infection in the first place, it is a sore throat caused by β-hemolytic streptococcus group A, as well as scarlet fever and diphtheria. Rarely seen angina, which is the cause of the defeat of mycoplasma, chlamydia, gonococcus, the tubercle bacillus or the causative agent of syphilis — Treponema pallidum.
Another uncommon but serious disease, accompanied by pain in the throat — epiglotit. Epiglottitis is called inflammation of the epiglottis and surrounding tissues, which can lead to airway obstruction. Cause it — the defeat of the bacterium Haemophilus influenzaeType B. Ill this disease, mainly children 2-4 years. Vaccination, since 1985, has significantly reduced the incidence of epiglottitis.
Also rarely cause a sore throat is the defeat of the oral mucosa fungi: yeast — sort of Candida (Candidiasis), mold — births Aspergillus and Penicillium. Mycoses pharynx appear as easily separated from the mucous membrane of the films cheesy kind. Their appearance can cause antibiotic treatment with cytostatics and corticosteroids. They also develop against diseases such as diabetes, blood disorders, and gastrointestinal tract, as a result of vitamin deficiency. Candidiasis of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus is celebrated in more than 90% of patients with AIDS.
The cause of pain in the throat, tickling and cough in children can be caused by runoff discharge from the nose and throat for sinusitis or adenoiditis.
Are allergic to pet dander, mold, pollen, household dust and other allergens can be shown not only redness, swelling of the face and head cold, but the pain in my throat.
The difficulty of nasal breathing
Trouble breathing through the nose can be associated with hyperplasia of nasal turbinates, a deviated septum or other conditions. They force people to mouth breathing, which leads to the fact that the mucous membrane of the mouth and pharynx is not hydrated, and there are dry and sore throat. Mouth breathing at night is often the cause of snoring, which causes damage to the mucous membrane of the pharynx and the occurrence of pain in glotanii.Oschuschenie dry and sore throat, especially in the morning, may be due to excessive dryness of the air, it is most often the case in winter, when the central heating works .
Air pollution and smoking
The contaminated air outside can cause constant irritation of the upper respiratory tract, but much more dangerous is tobacco smoke. Moreover, passive smoking is more dangerous to the upper respiratory tract than active. The so-called smokeless smoking (snuff and chewing forms of tobacco), alcohol and spicy foods can irritate throat and cause pain.
Diseases of the teeth and oral cavity
Pain in the throat can cause diseases of the teeth and surrounding tissues: periodontal disease, the pathology of teething, galvanic syndrome (formation of galvanic electric current in the mouth due to dentures and crowns made of alloys of different metals that are exposed to saliva, which acts as the electrolyte).
Aphthous stomatitis, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, which leads to disruption of the surface soil and the formation of the AFL (erosions). These erosions are painful, accompanied by a burning sensation in the mouth and can cause pain in your throat. Aphthous stomatitis, according to the generally accepted theory — a consequence of disorders of the immune system that lead to the erroneous recognition of proteins that make up the saliva, as alien.
Features of the anatomical structure
Rare are the one-sided pain in the throat, which becomes the cause of a long styloid process. This process begins in the tympanic portion of the temporal bone in children it is composed of cartilage, but with age it ossification. If this process is delayed (occurs in about 4% of cases), the cartilage is extended and the subsequent ossification forms a giant styloid process. If it reaches the lower pole of the palatine tonsil, or nerve plexus, it appears sore throat, if annoying glossopharyngeal nerve — give pain in the ear. Symptoms appear after the age of 30-40 years.
Excessive tension of the throat muscles, as well as the muscles in the arms or legs can cause symptoms. Sore throat after a concert, after delivering a long speech from the podium or due to excessively loud voice support for their favorite team at a sporting event — is the result of muscle tension throat.
Tumors of the throat, tongue or voice box, the thyroid gland can not show symptoms for a long time, in other cases there early enough hoarseness, difficulty swallowing andpain in the throat.
The presence of a foreign body in the throat accompanied by a sharp stabbing or cutting pain on swallowing, which first occurs during a meal. Most often, such a foreign body is fish bone or piece of meat bone.
Non-infectious systemic diseases
Gastro-oesophageal reflux — it casts of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus. He observed with gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia of the esophagus. Pass acidic stomach contents can lead to irritation of the esophagus is not only, but also the throat, causing pain. Pain, often accompanied by a sensation of a lump in the throat, can be caused by chronic esophagitis, esophageal varices, esophageal diverticulum, gastritis, cholecystitis, peptic ulcer.
In diabetic patients, the first manifestation of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) can be thirst and dry mouth, which lead to catarrhal changes in the throat. The same complaints are frequent in patients suffering from Cushing's syndrome (excess production of adrenal hormones). Dry mouth, impaired swallowing, sore throat frequently observed in patients with hypothyroidism.
Diseases of the spine, especially the cervical spine can cause pain in your throat. Neuralgia of the glossopharyngeal nerve is also the cause of such pain.
Deficiency of vitamins and minerals
Vitamin A deficiency causes dryness of the mouth and on the mucous erosion formation, including the mouth, cheilitis. Deficiency of vitamin B2 is manifested dermatitis, cheilitis, and glossitis, which seen burning and pain in the mouth when talking and eating, vitamin C and vitamin deficiencies — pain, hemorrhagic and necrotic processes in the mouth, mobility and tooth loss. Against the background of B12-deficiency anemia can develop glossit Moller-Gunter (bright red tongue with smooth papillae), and atrophy of the mucosa of the pharynx. Lack of iron content in the body — cause occurrence Plummer-Vinson syndrome, which is characterized by glossitis, impaired swallowing. These conditions give rise to a sore throat.