In early April the TV news already showed hordes of tractors with plows. Graduate medical school and by coincidence Russian presidential adviser on agriculture, a former minister Skrinnik report: "This year, to such a number have already planted spring crops on a certain number of hectares more than in the past." And now again talking about the drought in the south, heard cries that the plans for crops under threat.
It seems that all agrochinovnikov, managers, directors, and farmers need to send a force to study and practice in the Penza region, in a wonderful farm "Pugachev". Maybe it will reach them, that there is a recipe for a long time, as cheaply and efficiently produce rich harvests. As if there is no example in Russia, the drought is not a reason to fold his arms and raising a panic.
No need to hurry
At first, after listening to the minister, I fidgeted and began ringing the village Red Poltso AI Shugurova, to invite himself to look at the field work in the TNV "Pugachev". Anatoly upsets:
— We have nothing happens, the technique is ready to leave the field to sow spring crops in late May, when the earth has warmed.
Just a Field Marshal Kutuzov. This is what a farmer is? — All rushed to sow and plow up a sweat, and he, Penza Oblast Duma deputy, quietly sent a working trip to the districts of the region? He is responsible for five of them, and no fuss.
Strange? — Say heavy peasant labor, not to straighten his back. And it turns out, you can plan the work so that everything from the machine operator to the head of the economy, and earn enough time, and solve household chores and relax without any problems. Even in the hottest harvest, when a labor heroism combiners once gave orders, in Shugurova everything goes slowly, according to the plan. And the culture in the "Pugachev" will never fit together. First winter, then turns spring: barley, wheat, oats. No more hectic and exploits in the harvesting takes a month. Q Shugurova quietly, he strategist, calculates everything in advance.
May has come, it is time to Shugurova. In Penza, I picked up on his own foreign car mechanic from the "Pugachev"? — Daughter drove to the hospital. Let it slip? — At his home in a prominent place hangs Certificate of Merit from the Alexei Gordeev, former minister and current governor of Voronezh. I ask, what good combiner is different from the bad, for that awarded? He shrugs. But one knows? — Strict control:
— God forbid that exceed the speed of retraction. Anatoly requires no more than 2.5-3 km / h hold. It is the best mode? — All to collect seed and technology do not drive.
Acute question? — who will sow?
Send Shugurova made famous projects of state programs for the development of agriculture, for review, or maybe find something to add? Sometimes it's pundits, and more dreamers or just amateurs. But all together threaten to overwhelm the country and the world of domestic meat and grain. Shugurov reads and laughs:
— It seems smart people, professors, experts at the agriculture and no life do not know of any real work on the ground just does not represent. Taught all over the country, and the fact that they themselves have written? — Bullshit-bullshit! Program of Ministry of Agriculture, of course, too, will not? Useful and impracticable, but it is closer to reality.
What is interesting in many of his writings refer to our newspaper and editor? — Say, there is support in the national press. And the appeal to the President of Russia.
And in fact, Shugurova, the most pressing question? — Rural population. It offended the state, where there is no work, the people took to drink. We need to save the village, the people, to gain a foothold even in positions of today. If nothing is done, then these items will soon surrender:
— The village is already working, then there was nobody. The villages of half-drunk guys go forever. Life is involved on alcoholism. If left untreated, all in a row. Trouble … We have something collective sober. Do you want? — Help. We have a worker? — Was completely fallen man, unmanaged. Took it treated her and companions died, his head came from. Who is the best.
Shugurov superstitiously knocking on the table with his fist, as if not to jinx it. His hands, like a blacksmith at the time of socialist realism paintings, already abuzz countertop.
— There are several other people on my conscience. Themselves say: "Shugurov saved, life saved." And yesterday, burying our former chauffeur. A normal guy, a hard worker. But divorced his wife and moved to another organization where there is no control. Felt "will", and here's the result? — From daily drinking at age 44 went into cardiac arrest.
One can not help think? — Not to restore the Soviet system of compulsory treatment for alcoholism? Lukashenko in Belarus retained, human rights activists are outraged, but our problem of manpower and a cool head in the village is not there.
Belarusians in Shugurovskaya will not work
Last summer, in the "Pugachev" drove assistant to the president Lukashenko. And invited on his behalf to Belarus, to share experiences. Shugurov formed a mini-delegation sat in the car and went to Minsk. Requiring him two hours to the first person to tell about the method. Was well received, at the same time managed to see the country.
— Order and cleanliness of the envy. On the great roads have not met any traffic cop. Livestock and land great deal, but in the fields of solid chemistry.
Belarus is a major producer and exporter of potash. And his peasants throws in excess. And actively work with herbicides, sad Shugurov:
— But worse is that plow the fields with plows, turn layers of the earth, finishing off half-dead soil. I tell them I work with herbicides against weeds and pests? — God be with you. But why torment the earth, spending huge amounts of money, resources, energy, fuel for plowing where ploskorez would do well?
Without chemistry Belarus, on the conclusion of Anatoly Ivanovich, will remain with the nose. Enter the couple?, One of the prerequisites Shugurovskaya system to give the land a year to rest and recover, they can not afford. Too little land in the country, all in the work. And at the state level require a report "on the shaft." To show a high yield of the land are making tons of fertilizer and other expensive stuff. The impression is that the production cost of Belarusians do not care.
However, a slip Shugurov, "with our crops they could not shoot worse, and even better. But for this you have to stop and reflect. And they, as once in the Soviet Union, the program is compiled on the constant growth of production. No one even slightly slow down will not allow. "
In Russia easier, all for the most part are their own masters. Huh? Exactly? — Shugurov repelled exclusively on the economic component of his method. He was not interested in the shaft, volumes and even productivity. It sounds blasphemous, but it's a fact. The cornerstone he delivered cost. And so, with its system of agriculture "Pugachev" nearly three decades shows the profitability of 300%. The ruble invested? — Three earned. The other pleasant things: cleaner grain and livestock feed, excellent quality wheat exorbitant levels of gluten in grains? — Just a side effect.
For some reason, because minded and unbiased, whether that system of "Pug
achev" easier to accept people who are far from agricultural production. Shugurov gives an example:
— Do not selhoznik and gunner faster than anyone realized my system!
I explain? — In 1998 at the head of SEC "Giant-1" in the Kuznetsk district area was a retired artillery officer. Vladimir Kolesnikov, he had long known about Shugurova, came to be curious and … "sick" of his system. And? Gunner immediately introduced subsurface soil treatment. Out of habit, proves the correctness of the choice with a calculator in hand:
— One "Kirovec" can handle per day stubble 100 hectares of land. So? A plow plowing require this same area … (thinks) six tractors. This machine-pay, fuel consumption, equipment wear and tear. And where the village once sober six tractor drivers find it?
Drought-2010 "Giant-1", as opposed to thousands of households European part of the country, has experienced no problems. There were, as in the "Pugachev", in this terrible year with the harvest. Technology is something else, and moisture-.
And without water …
Cultivating the main unit in the "Pugachev"? — Ploskorez-cultivator — seeder. Cuts the weed from the bottom and throws up. Desiccation of the soil is minimal. Studies have confirmed? — After processing ploskorez moisture loss per hectare amounted to 11 tons. A lot? But when processing cultivator CLS-6 with the working bodies of the company, "Lemken" hectare loses 296 tons of life-giving water. Working bodies on imported machinery as tailor-made? — In the United States and Canada, the major grain-producing regions, falls to one thousand millimeters of rainfall a year. And we have from 180 to 400 mm, in the Penza province every third year of drought. It's the ocean to dry land, and we? — Save. A simple domestic ploskorez and weeds disassembled and parts vlagosberezheniya is 27 times more effective.
The conclusion? — Do not rely on expensive imported equipment and beautiful. Well, if you want to dry the soil and kill all living things in it? — Welcome to the field with a plow. It? Way, in particular because of rainy regions and plow plow to the ground to dry. But with such a plowing increase the humus will not wait, micro-organisms and earthworms will die. Then one way out? — Drag on the bags of fertilizer and herbicides.
There is an equally important factor: the method is rooted in the south-west. But not in Europe or America, and the Russian Empire. And it rains too "charged". And? Found? — neperepahannoe plow the field excess moisture will not take!
Technology in the "Pugachev" every year slightly, but the change? — How to dispose of nature. In winter, too much snow on the fields? — Winter podzadohnutsya may need to take action. Huh? Do not like harsh winter coming dry and hot weather? — There is reason to think, how to help them.
Amazing feeling? — Land on the fields "Pugachev" seems a well-groomed, like a fanatical gardener on six acres. Soft and supple. Only we use land more than any summer resident, will be? — About 7 hectares.
How much should you crazy per hectare of arable land
The first years of the virgin lands promised universal prosperity. Plowed! A total of lamentable? — Drought, dust storms, the harvest in question, delivery of grain, not to kill people through hunger, from abroad.
Forget that each plant is in the soil guardian angels? — Microorganisms. Plowing and mixing layers of the earth they were killed, went to root rot, fertile land turned to dust. Switched to chemical treatment. And this is a nuclear attack on the mother earth.
A key figure
Welfare TNV "Pugachev" led by Shugurova based on "The new system of agriculture" Russian scientist and practice of IE Ovsinskogo. The life of the scientist-agronomist? — Ready for an adventure story of the novel. In? Historical references Bazilevich represented almost revolutionary. He was born, as stated in the data in 1856. Nobleman, son of the landlord. In? 1875? — The first detention for four months. The second time — "for the smuggling of illicit intercourse with essays and unreliable persons" — into custody May 30, 1887. "According to orders from the highest 26? March 1888? G sent to five years under the supervision of the police in the Arkhangelsk province. I will plant 5? May 1888 in Kholmogory. " Even then Ovsinsky proposed and a new effective structure to work on the ground? — Company that every employee was the owner of the land, tools, and derive profit contribution from the resulting crop. True to this day? — TNV "Pugachev" organized for this scheme.
After Ovsinsky links to the Far East, where he learned Chinese ways of tillage, met with the "Chinese Bobby", now everyone knows called "soy". Even then predicted that soy? — This crop of the future.
After the exile and wandering, he began work on the ground. Therefore the most important for future generations was a small postscript in a criminal case? — author of works on agriculture.
Required couples rejection of the classical plow in favor of ploskorez (subsurface tillage), selection for sowing the seeds of the strongest and many other techniques taken from Shugurova Ovsinskogo. Needless to say, they were taken into account and implemented modern achievements, inventing new farming techniques, based on studies of soil scientists and their own experience.
But Shugurov is not the first to see the benefits of the system Ovsinskogo. Because of the deep plowing plow under crops in the Americas rose dust storms, soil has become depleted. And? Then came the farmer from Ohio Edward Faulkner. 40 years after the publication of Ovsinskogo in Kiev, he began to use the techniques described in the work of Ivan Paton. We can assume that the system Ovsinskogo Faulkner met through mass emigration of Ukrainians in Canada at the beginning of the last century.
First of all, Faulkner refused to plow the classic with the coup and the formation of deep plowing. By the way, subsurface tillage does not guarantee high yields, but only the first crucial step on the way to them. The system therefore is called the "system" that brings success only through an integrated approach.
Faulkner in their fields actually largely repeated the experiment Ovsinskogo, published "agrobestseller" "Madness plowman". Since then, with the mass introduction of his experience in the U.S. and Canada, as dust storms and droughts have forgotten, but in one of the Canadian universities hanging sentence plow, who came from Germany in the field: "A German scientist Sachs invention of the plow has done more harm to the world than all the Germans in the Second World War." Statement, of course, debatable: Canada has had its Battle of Stalingrad, to the base of the destroyed cities and vast losses.
In the history of Russia the first to apply in practice, after the most Ovsinskogo of course, a new system of agriculture (but carefully hid it) was Terence Maltsev, field crop farm "Lenin's Testament" Kurgan region. In 1942, the drought has destroyed all over the place all the crops in the region, the harvest was only his farm. Subsequently Maltsev? — Honorary Academician of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences, better known as the "People's Academy", twice Hero of Socialist Labor, winner of the Stalin Prize. It is highly risky for violation of the Regulation on deep plowing could be considered a threat and sit down for 10 years!
Feel the difference
Mechanical tillage weed control takes away from the cash register, "
Pugachev" 150 rubles per year per hectare. Achieve the same effect with herbicides is possible, but it will cost for about 1800 rubles.