Lifetime tests of Sukhoi Su-34.
View of the left engine compartment, performed with the use of high-strength and heat-resistant titanium. Wire strands are hundreds of strain gauges intended for voltage control in an aircraft structure, the system registration database.
SibNIA — the largest research center of aviation science in the East, Russia.
Specialists of the Institute are engaged in fundamental and applied research, testing of aviation and space technology, have a variety of scientific and technical services. In SibNIA also develop, modernize and repair light aircraft. Carry out maintenance of aircraft (abbreviated — LA) in operation.
SibNIA bust of the founder Sergey A. Chaplygin on campus.
To the left of the bust for the trees — a path to his grave: Chaplygin died Oct. 8, 1942, leaving a will to bury him in which he founded the branch, which was done. In 1969, the 100th anniversary of the great Russian aerodynamics institute was named after him.
Tomb, bust and nearby areas are historical monument (memorial) republican values entered in the state register. The current collective SibNIA values its history, and to preserve the heritage of their predecessors.
Briefly discuss the creation and ongoing opportunities SibNIA:
The Institute is an independent organization established immediately after the war (07/09/1946) The Council of Ministers of the USSR № 1593-684 on the basis of the Novosibirsk branch number 2, Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute Professor Zhukovsky (TsAGI). The branch was formed 19.08.1941 Resolution of the State Committee of Defense of the USSR number 513 in connection with the evacuation of businesses and organizations in the East of the USSR.
In 1941-1942, the work on the design and construction of buildings laboratories, as well as the work of scientists and experts who were evacuated from TsAGI, headed by one of the founders of aerodynamics — the academician, Hero of Socialist Labor, Honored Worker of Science Sergey Chaplygin.
For since the creation of the institute has become a major aviation center with a team of highly skilled professionals and a strong experimental basis to enable a static, fatigue and dynamic testing of aircraft weighing up to 500 tons of aggregates and fragments of structural, aerodynamic research to develop appearance LA, finishing design of the future LA, as well as mass-produced products of aircraft, flight tests of serial and experimental aircraft, aircraft equipment.
In Russia beyond the Urals SibNIA — one of a kind, nothing like this in the area do not.
In the European part of the country, in the town of Zhukovsky near Moscow since 1918, working TsAGI.
What does the institution now?
Some photofragments his everyday work I bring to your attention.
The wind tunnel T-203.
In the field of aerodynamic research SibNIA uses two wind tunnels. First — just after a major overhaul trumpet low subsonic speeds of T-203 with an open test section and an air speed of 90 m / s.
She was brought from TsAGI during the evacuation, was commissioned in 1944 to work fine so far, and now looks as good as new.
For reference, the speed of sound in air at normal atmospheric conditions at sea level — 330 m / s
In the wind tunnel studies conducted to test the aerodynamic configuration (or, more simply, the external form) LA
I was allowed to take pictures of the installation process in the test section model of light amphibious aircraft with "shelkovinkami" (white threads of), glued on painted black for contrast in the color of the surface to visualize the air flow around it.
From the "tools" there are aerodynamic balance — a serious design size, and ride the rails. Scales are designed to obtain information about the forces acting on the model in three spatial axes X, Y, Z and points on them though.
The photo called "stall" at the surface of the wing.
On the upper surface of the left console "flying" high angle of attack from the behavior model "shelkovinok" clearly observed stall (intense swirls, otherwise known as turbulence), which in a real flight leads to a significant drop in the lift of the wing and handling problems until stall and corkscrew.
Wind Tunnel T-205M.
The second of the available wind tunnels SibNIA — trans and supersonic flow rate of up to 1.7 Mach.
If a Mach number of one sound velocity is 1.7 — is 560 m / s or 2020 km / h Not bad, but …
At the moment, the pipe is on the overhaul, after which the rate of flow it will reach two Mahov!
The picture shows spherical capsule closed working parts, the center of which (in the open hatch) can be considered external parts Apia working part-section 0.6 x 0.6 m and 2.4 m, where the models are similar to lying in the foreground. They are made of metal alloys due to heavy loads of supersonic air flow (velocity pressure reaches 3 tons per square meter!).
In SibNIA worked a number of outstanding scientists and talented engineers. Among them — the aircraft designer Robert L. Bartini
Bartini was multi-talented man, member of a family of Italian baron and a staunch communist. According to those who knew him well, a number of places biography of Robert Bartini shrouded in mystery.
Under his direction, a record aircraft "Steel-6" (1932) and "Steel-7" (1937) and its modifications, "arctic surveillance" (1935). Working in SibNIA in 1952-1957 years, he has created a draft of a supersonic strategic bomber-missile A-57 (1957) with a unique aerodynamic layout, designs of supersonic aircraft, amphibious aircraft vertical takeoff and landing, WIG.
< br>On a large poster hanging above the exit from the premises wind tunnel T-203 — Image Bartinini with his fist, compressed in a symbolic gesture of the revolutionary internationalist, next — his slogan, which he followed all his life, dedicating it to ensure that the Soviet aircraft were the best in the world and "… flew faster than black."
SibNIA aerodynamics have made a significant contribution to the development of domestic aviation.
They conducted research and participated (in the process of independent and collaborative work with specialists of TsAGI) in creating aerodynamic design aircraft of various types (including the world-famous Su-27 and its modifications, as well as some of the best in the world of sports aerobatic aircraft Su- 26 and their modifications), all types of WIG, other aircraft, designed in the Soviet Union and Russia.
For the creation of the Su-27 and Su-26, the former chief aerodynamicist SibNIA Stanislav Timorkaevich Kashafutdinov twice (in 1996 and 2003) was awarded the State Prize of Russia, along with several leading experts Pavel Sukhoi Design Bureau and TsAGI — this is recognition for all he headed at the time the team and an indicator of high-level research conducted in SibNIA. For his work on the Su-26 has received the State Prize and Sergei G. Derishev — the former chief of aerodynamics and flight dynamics of the aircraft.
Stand endurance test regional passenger aircraft «Sukhoi SuperJet-100» (SSJ-100).
The major scale and volume of work activity SibNIA continues investigation of the strength of aircraft structures. The institute deal with the problems of static, fatigue, thermal and dynamic strength. For this are the three corps of the stand-total area of 15 400 m 2, with a range of impact testers reproducible force on the landing gear from 75 kg to 150 tonnes, complex testing machines with reproducible force on the test specimen to 1 million tons and other equipment.
SSJ stand in the test case number 2/6. Case dimensions — 86? 21? 30 m, the area of the power ceiling-500 m2, powered floor — 1800 m2 with a maximum take-off weight of the test aircraft — 150 tons, their maximum size-60? 30? 18 m
The aircraft is developed by SSJ "Sukhoi Civil Aircraft" (CJSC "Sukhoi Civil Aircraft") to replace the Soviet machines Tu-134, and so on construction at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association named after Yuri Gagarin (KnAAPO them. Yu Gagarin) in cooperation with the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association named after Valery Chkalov (NAPO. Chkalov) and Voronezh Aircraft Building Society (VASO).
This specimen, serial number 95006, arrived at SibNIA November 3, 2008 aboard the lifting of the world's serial transport aircraft An-124 "Ruslan", the development of Oleg Antonov Design Bureau, which, incidentally, was the first chief of SibNIA in 1946 after his conversion branch of TsAGI as an independent organization.
The task of professionals SibNIA — to reproduce in the lab all the possible factors that will operate on a similar plane for the duration of its actual operation. That is to force the plane to live at an accelerated pace his difficult year life (in this case — more than 40,000 flight hours), not looking up from the ground, "bringing a sacrifice" for the sake of the safety of passengers and crew of his colleagues, who in April 21, 2011 ( the date of commencement of operation) conducted in the sky is already quite a lot of time.
The same applies to the other aircraft in the test SibNIA.
Metal box, which spoils the aesthetics of the image, protect others from the defeat of the fragments of the aircraft structure and the stand with a possible explosive destruction of the fuselage during the leak test with simulated pressure changes during a set of aircraft altitude.
In the picture above you can see the piping system boost the fuselage.
In order for us to feel comfortable as a passenger plane flying at any altitude, the cabin is a life support system pressure is maintained close to the normal atmospheric pressure. Consequently, the fuselage at high altitude in the thin air is like a balloon inflated, ready with the appearance of damage to burst at any moment.
If I scare you and tipped any desire to fly, please forgive me and read on.
To you and I, flying from point A to point B arrived safe and sound, and work modest workers closed the eyes of the enterprise called SibNIA, identifying problem areas experienced by the construction of aircraft and helping developers and operators to avoid potential problems by implementing then the required maintenance "products" throughout their life cycle.
SSJ-100 "without decor."
So it looks uncluttered, design the passenger compartment.
You can see the front door of the salon, significantly different in design from our door, such as an apartment. She has to open outwards on safety, though, in terms of ease of maintenance of tightness porch, it would be better on the contrary — most of the flight air presses, and very hard at it from the inside. That's why designers have to work hard. The result is obvious …
And this is a loading system.
We'll see the bottom surface of the left wing with the rejected mechanization. In the foreground, double acting hydraulic cylinders, otherwise known as not quite euphonious word energizer. They are controlled by computers in a special program, reproduce the operational load on the plane defined by the place of its construction. Their work is controlled by a unique control units and protection, developed by specialists SibNIA and have no analogues in the world (in the image blocks are not visible).
Strain measurement system.
On the right-hand console SSJ visible blocks of strain measurement.
In order to understand what he is experiencing stress or other airborne unit construction, it in problem areas all bleak strain gauges — small flat gizmos, converting his own strain in the change in the electrical signal which is broadcast in real time over the wire in the accumulation and processing of information and allowing judge of the stress-strain state of the structure. As a result, the overall picture is clearly visible in all voltage-controlled zones, and accordingly, damage arising.
Collector hydraulic stand.
test consists of a plurality of systems of which the most important one is hydraulic. With the help of its elements by teams of automated control system (ACS) are formed force transmitted directly or through mechanical parts (rychazhku) on the design of the aircraft. Actually, the most modern oil pump station serves the stand in 3600 liters of hydraulic fluid per minute.
Specialists in hydraulics SibNIA — high-class professionals. The developed their equipment is on a global level, and extreme (in aviation do not favor the word "last") of their development have no analogues in the world.
Lead engineer for testing aircraft for remote process control — automatic control system stand SSJ.
Now it's time to statzal — case-stand number 6. This — the largest in the country hall of static and fatigue tests of full-scale aircraft structures.
At the inlet
Its scope striking: size — 120? 86? 25 m, the area of powered floor — 10 000 m2, the power ceiling — 6800 m2. Maximum take-off weight of the test aircraft — 500 tons, their maximum size — 80? 80? 20 m In the statzale can simultaneously be tested 10-12 and 15-20 aircraft units on separate stands.
The housing design, the stand taken into operation in the mid 60-ies of the last century, is a set of powered floor with solid concrete pour in a plurality of parallel profiled metal gutters, a set of powerful strength of columns and ceiling of the power of longitudinal and transverse beams that are part of the test stands. A huge number of working metal!
Now, wearing a helmet, take a closer look to the inhabitants of this institution
Training and combat fighter Su-27UB
He — one of the first in the large family of "twenty-seventh." Double supersonic fighter combat training. It first flew in 1985. The designers have kept it in full avionics and armament single machine to give up a full-fledged combat aircraft. Moreover, the presence of a second crew member allowed in the future to develop a single multi-purpose fighter Su-30 for the Air Force and Air Defense of the USSR, and on its basis — many modifications multi-purpose fighter Su-30K (MC), which will discuss below.
The copy arrived in SibNIA to the test, on the face of it, a lot, and fly well.
Su-27UB in the company of a multipurpose transport light aircraft SM-92T "Super FINIST" (left) and his brother Su-27SM (top right).
The picture was taken with a power ceiling statzala. The aircraft carries the remains of ve-ve esovskoy color, which flew until they developed a set resource was decommissioned and transferred to the SibNIA to determine the residual life and make recommendations for its renewal.
View from the end of the center of the tail boom of the Su-27UB
Well looked heat-resistant motor compartments with engine simulators and rectangular slots for cartridges shoot off false heat targets (LTC), otherwise called "flares" to reset the machines on the left and right of the beam. The shot hit the bottom of the vertical twin-finned tail with rudders.
And it's kind of the Su-27UB in the opposite direction — from the cockpit to the tail feathers. Wings hung rychazhkoy and therefore not visible.
Here it is, rychazhka — in all its glory.
This jumble of metal profiles, interconnected rods of different lengths, and with the design of the aircraft — simple tarp straps glued to the skin "88th" glue, and is called a resounding "rychazhka." No chaos — all designed and located exactly at the place for adequate reproduction of operating loads. Can you imagine what this beauty mount?
Wiring harness at the bottom of the keel go right to the sensors strain measurement system.
And this again rychazhka, but on the left wing of the Su-27UB.
For rychazhkoy seen the nose of the Su-27SM with the pilot's cabin. The nose radome undocked. Clearly marked ring of the forward bulkhead of the power assumed by the weight of the airborne radar (radar).
Look at last on the Su-27UB in the opening of the power ceiling. Seen a steady orange rows of strips of sheet metal, which places protection as unnecessary grooves in the power semi statzala.
SM-92T "Super FINIST" Su-27UB and Su-27SM
Multi-purpose fighter Su-27SM.
Su-27SM — The results of deep modernization of the world-famous Su-27 fighter designed to gain air superiority. The updated multi-purpose aircraft was capable of not only much more efficient to dogfight, but work on the land and sea targets with precision-guided weapons.
Modernization program for the Russian Air Force implements KnAAPO them. Yuri Gagarin.
After receiving "glass" cockpit with multifunction displays, additional points sus
pension arms, engines with increased thrust and a reinforced structure, the aircraft weight by. And this is a direct way to SibNIA — to test its strength.
The engine compartment and the central tail boom of the Su-27SM
In the compartments are seen weighing simulators engines AL-31F-M1 which are attached to the rod with dynamometers — elements of hydromechanical playback system operating load: traction motor forces generated when maneuvering the aircraft, etc.
The tail section of the Su-27SM with removed the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces.
In the process of testing for some reason the plane temporarily stripped tail — fins and all-moving horizontal tail.
Another photo of the stand of the Su-27SM.
It is clearly visible bright orange single-acting cylinders, yellow and gray rods rychazhki, maintenance floor stand with yellow and blue railing fence posts.
In contrast to the stand SSJ, in this case to play alternating loads of different amplitude and intensity rychazhka mounted on the power and the floor and the ceiling on the power. That part of it which is mounted on top, pulls, respectively, up, and that is the bottom plane — down. That's the way it is and the "flaps its wings" on the "whim" of our Siberian test engineers.
The nose of the Su-33. Front view.
In a dark corner statzala, hiding behind the bench for the endurance test of the wing passenger Tu-204, is awaiting the decision of his fate another aircraft of the Su-27 — carrier-based fighter Su-33.
They are in the service of Russia there are very few. And floating airfield at them too one — based in the Arctic heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser "Admiral Kuznetsov" from the Northern Fleet.
The specifics of flights from the deck of an aircraft carrier is such that the deck aviation pilots are considered the elite, even among "friends".
July 17, 2001 during an air show dedicated to the Day of Naval Aviation, in the garrison "The Island" in the Pskov region on the Su-33 (hull number 70) was killed 47-year-old hero of Russia deputy commander of naval aviation of the country, Major General Timur Avtandilovich Apakidze — one of the first front pilots who have mastered takeoffs and landings on the deck, "Kuznetsova," The person who made every effort to preserve a Russian military carrier-based aircraft, when in her 90s has been put bold cross. Eternal memory to the Hero …
The commander of naval aviation and Russian Defense Minister himself is now attended to a problem generating the resource of the Su-33, and prepare a replacement in the form of a new multi-role MiG-29K (naval) and MiG-29KUB (ship combat training).
The nose of the Su-33. View from above.
On a dark background are clearly visible all the elements of design: white radome, canards (PGO), otherwise known as destabilizing factor, and issued an air brake on the upper surface of the central part of the fuselage, and the smooth lines of rivets outstanding location power set — frames, stringers , ribs, spars. Cockpit canopy open.
As a "younger brother" of the Su-27 aircraft took to the skies for the first time August 17, 1987, is significantly different from him because of the peculiar conditions of operation and features (as we have seen) canards, wing of a larger area with a powerful mechanized and folding consoles hook for inhibition by cables arresting gear, flight refueling system and other innovations. Reinforced by the design of its fuselage and landing gear.
On the basis of the Su-33 is designed and built by one of the Su-27KUB — the ship's combat training seater version with advanced avionics, the avant-garde with adaptive aerodynamics of the wing profile and the pilots, sitting shoulder to shoulder as the Su-24.
View of the center section of the Su-33.
In this picture, as in the previous year, witnessing working on the plane young professionals, which, as I noted in SibNIA enough. And it's good! There is someone to take "generations baton" from veterans of aviation science.
"The metal sky" over the Su-33.
This copy is based fighter has never been raised in the present sky, did not feel the cold gusts of salty wind of the Arctic Ocean, quivering with impatience to reheat turbine roar before the short takeoff aircraft carrier on the trampoline. Assembled on the stocks KnAAPO them. Yuri Gagarin, he carries the cross of their own destiny in statzale SibNIA sake of prolonging their life and safety of their fellow pilots.
Appearance deceiving — this one, hidden in piles of metal structures cute "Duckling" — none other than the formidable frontline bomber Su-34.
In the Su-34 a hard life. This is one of the most successful models of aircraft, born at the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union and one of the very few who managed to survive, and turning our eyes from the "duckling" into a beautiful "swan", constantly being improved during ground and flight tests.
Su-34, just starting their serial biography, like the Su-24, for decades, which is one of the largest aircraft in the Air Force park — is highly intellectual products of the famous KB Pavel Sukhoi and one of the largest aircraft manufacturing companies in the country — NAPO. Chkalov, gaining pace was peeled-scale production at the start of his rivals promising machine.
Development of the T-10B began June 19, 1986, the first flight T10V-1 — the prototype of the Su-34 (or, alternatively, the Su-27IB — fighter-bomber) was held April 13, 1990, and the first production Su-34 (T-10B- 5) took off from the airport of Novosibirsk aircraft plant more December 28, 1994.
As you have seen, the indices of the "T" is assigned an experienced products Sukhoi.
The serial production was on a very difficu
lt owing to well-known reasons related to the protracted crisis in the country.
As a descendant of the Su-27, it differs significantly from it constructively. One is struck by the unique design contours of the forward fuselage, instead of a three-dimensional two-seat cockpit for the pilot, sitting next to his shoulder to shoulder, as a precursor to the Su-24, which is to replace the Su-34 is created. For the first time on a similar type of combat aircraft crew established enough comfort for many hours of the long-haul flight.
View of the lower surface of the center-right, the root influx wing, the right engine air intake of the Su-34. Not the foreground you can see the elements of good rychazhki. All ingenious — is simple: cut to size metal parts, tarpaulin, wooden sticks, glue.
By this profiled channel air enters the engine Su-34. The engine is missing, so the "light at the end of the channel."