Belarusian countryside in the 20th century: the lost


October 22, 1939 in Vilnius came nachupyranyya as cockerels letuvissky police and survivors of arrests, he survived. NKVD before his departure that robbed could rob, yes exported to the east …
October 28 letuvissky police laid siege to one hundred percent of the city. She wore a blue overcoat, reddish mark, with reddish band caps, yes only pazhamoytsku debated. For their kind of ridiculous and incomprehensible language inhabitants of Vilnius cleverly dubbed them "kalakutasami" — turkeys. On another day in Vilnius Brigade letuvissky entered the army, and hurried him weave "shavlisav" to take a warm office.
Zhamoytskie armed troops entered the Vilnius as strangers in a strange city. The town did not exist and 2 percent letuvissky residence and it was lost in the Slavic sea. For this and their troops met no one, no one greeted.
Soon followed by new orders. Of old inhabitants, Poles and Belarusians, thrown out of the city council, the railroad, companies and institutions, schools, administration. Their place was taken naezniki illiterate. Soon they pavyveshvali their signs, street names on pazmyanyali own way. Zhmudsky immediately entered the language in all governments and institutions. Currently Vilnius became dumb: everywhere needed a translator. People grumbled, cursed, outraged that they can not come to terms in their own hometown to own the most vigilant of actual cases.
Joseph Malecki. Under the sign of Chases, Toronto, 1976

Vyacheslav Rakytskyy: "Moscow itself, giving Vilnius to other people, recognize that the city, as well as its surroundings, there was Lithuanian. Chairman of People’s Commissars and the Commissioner of Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Molotov, in his speech to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR October 31, 1939 stated ( I quote from the newspaper "Izvestia" on November 1, 1939, translated into whiteRussian language)
"Russian Alliance agreed to transfer the town of Vilna, the Republic of Lithuania is not because it is dominated by the Lithuanian population. No, most of the Vilna Unknown Lithuanian. But Russian Government, the number of this, the city of Vilna … should belong to Lithuania as a city with which, on the one hand due to the historical past of Lithuanian country, and on the other — the national hopes of the Lithuanian people. "
Why in fact happen? Why Russian Moscow authorities gave ethnically and historically Belarusian Vilna Lithuanians? "
Oleg Cowards "Dali as no longer have someone to protect and defend Vilna Belarus. Should not forget that before this there was a terrible Stalinist repression. In 1937 wasand shot the whole Belarusian elite — from communist to nationalist. By the way, before you give Vilnius Lithuanians "zachystsili" Belarusian intelligentsia and Vilnius. In the midst of other — was arrested and Anton Lutskevich. That was to throw some notable word for Belarus Vilnius. "
Rakytskyy: "You immediately murmur against Belarusians, rejecting current plans of Moscow. So why politically Moscow on this was?"
Pant: "She had to redistribute Europe. According to the first agreement with Hitler, Lithuania came into the sphere of German interests. And Stalin wanted to join and he passed Litvu.Tamu Vilenschina Lithuania with the condition that will allow Lithuania have military bases on its territory. So it happened .’s why Lithuanians and was enjoying such a popular saying: "Vilnius — Lithuanian and Lithuania — Russian."
Rakytskyy: "What other large town, important cultural centers lost Belarusians in the 20th century?"
Cowards "Smolensk and Bialystok. These town on all ethnographic maps always designated as Belarusian. Their loss for Belarusians very painful."
Rakytskyy: "What guided by these forces, and they are specifically strength when taken away from the people of the whole town?"
Cowards, "In-1’s, they were guided by the fact that there is no such people. Should not forget that when created BSSR, butcher, Knorin and others argued that the Belarusian civilization not, it is part of the Russian nation civilization. And they BSSR considered artificial phenomenon, a buffer between Russia and Russian imperialism. Others felt when the Belarusian elite destroyed, with these people can do what you want. So Stalin presented Bialystok Poland after she was freed from the Nazis. "
Rakytskyy: "Would it be likely something similar in relation to other nations?" Pant: "And it was. It happened with Germany. When Russian troops seized Prussia, Kaliningrad Konigsberg became, and the Berlin train station there was a signboard -" Trains temporarily stroll. "Also, Mount Ararat — the main sign of Armenia — Turkey is on the ground . Such examples can cause a huge amount. "
Rakytskyy: "But back to you as indicated by death in the 20th century Smolensk. First, it must be said that at this time he was found after Russian conquest of the middle 17th century. Because Smolensk returned to Belarus and was a long time in her composed in the 20th century? "
Cowards "Smolensk returned to Belarus in the 19th century thanks to the efforts of the Kara and other scientists. Particularly large contribution to the return of Smolensk in the ethnographic map of Belarus did Adam Krikor. In 1882 he published the third volume of the" Picturesque Russia " where he wasas described ethnographic Belarus and borders were for Viaz’ma. By the way, none of this in Russia did not argue. And later, when the Germans occupied a large part of Belarus, Smolensk became the center of Western commune. Was such a region within the Russian Federation at the earliest Bolsheviks. And so, when they began to declare the Byelorussian SSR, Minsk and was occupied by the Germans, the capital made in Smolensk. It was the capital of Belarus, and a few days — with about 30/31-ga December 1918 to 4/5 January 1919. "
Rakytskyy: "As it was cut off from Belarus?"
Cowards "Coupled cut and Mogilev and Vitebsk and Gomel, and Smolensk. According orders Sverdlov and Lenin decided that a lot of Belarusians territories. Svyardlov and Joffe says that if Belarusians throw a huge area, and there may prevail nationalist elements, in fact they try to secede from the fraternal Russian Federation. "
Rakytskyy: "And now let’s fast forward from the east to the west of Belarus, in another of its cultural center — Bialystok. Belarusian What are his adventures realized in the 20th century?"
Pant: "Before this Bialystok played a huge role in bringing the western and eastern parts of the Byelorussian SSR. Specifically in Bialystok going National Assembly, where delegates voted to join the western territories to the Soviet Union and the Byelorussian SSR."
Rakytskyy: "In the midst of the circumstances of the loss of their lands and Belarusians biggest cultural centers called you first political preconditions, as external enemies.’s All understandable — Belarus is located between the major powers. And Belarusians themselves? Could still protect their town? Any of these cities may be referred to the country, by analogy with a man of heart … Dali stranger incidents and their heart? "
Cowards, "Not so helpless Belarusians. In 1944, coupled with Bialystok Stalin decided to deprive us of Polotsk. And almost everything was ready to pitch in the Polotsk Russia. But here too the Belarusian party favorites (incidentally, the guerrillas) outraged Ponomarenko oppose Stalin’s plan. Belarusians here for the first time and have not given merged Polotsk. principal, incidentally, in their argument was that lived here Scorina. And that Stalin assured. "
Rakytskyy: "But it seems that everything is always a fundamental right to their land redistribution, is solved shoulders Belarusians in large offices …"
Pant "in the offices alike. But from time to time it happened that on the streets. Example is the temporary loss of Vitebsk. How Vitebsk became a part of the Byelorussian SSR, the citizens of this town, to a greater extent not Belarusians began bombarding letters Moscow that they not want to live there in a Belarus. "
Rakytskyy: "And what would happen if Vilnius, Bialystok, Smolensk pain indestructible comprising Belarus, all 20th century and right up to a day or present?"
Pant: "We currently would be in the European Union, and the border was there, where it should have been historically and ethnographically — in Smolensk."
Rakytskyy: "You see there is only pros? Or maybe there are downsides?"
Pant: "Yes, of course, and some disadvantages. These would town, especially Vilnius, having been in the Byelorussian SSR, of course, would have lost at least one-half of its own cultural heritage. I strongly doubt that there were famous temples and churches. Minsk same all killed … And Lithuanians when occupied Vilna, withdid everything, so in Vilnius do not undermine any of the 1st temple. They retained virtually all, and for that he thanks. The same can be said of Bialystok. This is a question if Bialystok remained in Byelorussia, preserved if its building monuments? We could lose very many. A Smolensk — opposite. If he had stayed in Belarus may What more retained. "
Rakytskyy: "And the last question. With your opinion, what is all this there is a real prospect?"
Cowards "Civi
lized perspective — to join the EU. Then in Vilna and Bialystok we travel without visas. I do not put the question of reparations boundaries. In Europe, this issue has long been resolved. Most important thing is that we know our history, know their monuments and to attend these town at any moment without visas and obstacles. "

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