Deployment of strategic ballistic missile submarines began in those years when neither the USSR nor the U.S. had not yet launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with intercontinental range shooting. Because then subs were just a vehicle for the delivery of missiles closer to the objectives, ie within range, which makes missiles with a relatively small range of fire in a strategic tool. The principal feature of submarines with SLBMs in those years was their highest level of invulnerability. One side could not know where are directly at this time, on the other hand submarines armed with nuclear missiles, and even more so could not kill them. Submarines with SLBMs were highly effective tool for applying a guaranteed retaliatory weapon reliable nuclear deterrent.
But swimming in the oceans is not normal. Since March 8, 1968, our submarine «K-129» with ballistic missiles sank in the Pacific Ocean. Killed 98 sailors. There were other various kinds of tragedy and even clash with South American submarines.
So when in 1974 the Soviet Union was adopted by the first in the world with intercontinental range SLBM firing — liquid rocket R-29 throw-weight of 1.1 tonnes and a range 7800 km, there was a natural question about the necessity of walking with intercontinental nuclear missiles on the seas and oceans. But in those years, in the era of the arms race, the Soviet Union controlled such matters were not considered. The main objective of which was put before the developers — do not worse, but better is better than the Yankees. So did.
On the complexities of reincarnation ton submarine missile delivery closer to the targets in a nuclear submarine (NPS) with intercontinental range SLBM shooting and dilemmas faced by developers who have tried to make the design is not worse, but better is better than the Yankees, and the development of new models PL knows Ph.D., Dr. Yuri Grigoryev.
Submarine-based (left to right): R-29R, R-29RM, R-39, R-29RM «The Blue»
In MSC (Miass) was established family of liquid-propellant rockets, including a unique missile R-29RM (throw-weight of 2.8 tons, firing range of 8300 km), put into service in 1986. In 1983 he was adopted by the first in the world with 10 SLBM warheads — solid propellant missile R-39 (2.55 t throw-weight, firing range 8300 km), Curb amortization rocket launch system (APCC), which provides an opportunity to start ice conditions.
But at the present time when we in an active manner, without any contracts killed all solid-naval group and completed the construction of new submarines under adopted in the 2007 liquid rocket «The Blue» and its modification of the missile «Liner», the need to come with nuclear missiles on the seas and oceans arose from recent strength. The more so in the coming years we will go there just not on anything. If the Soviet submarine construction took less than 2 years, the latest Russian submarine under Project 955 missile «Bulava», built 16 years, and on alert her hitherto not seen.
P-29RMU2 RSM-54 «Blue» — Ballistic missile submarines
In the years remaining to complete the natural aging and withdrawal from the VFM last built in the USSR missile submarines 667BDRM projects, we are unable to build the latest group, which could be countered American grouping submarines «Ohio». And it’s not only in the presence or in the absence of the Russian missile submarine ocean, and in our geographical disadvantages. U.S., Britain, France and China washed by the seas, because of their submarines with ballistic missiles have free access to the ocean from numerous ports and bases located on the coast of the States, and we have no real ability to control it.
We have only two choices in the open ocean: the Kola Bay and the eastern ports, well, they are impeding exit narrows and straits, and in critical situations can be blocked by the adversary. In ordinary circumstances these two daily output Russian submarines in the ocean of cosmic controlled by South American and other systems as well as monitoring our submarines and their support accelerated nuclear submarines, anti-submarine aircraft and surface ships. This puzzle at the end of the last century began to make South American stationary underwater surveillance system SOSUS, SURTAS, aircraft «Orion» (about 200 units), multi-purpose submarines, and later Global System for underwater observation OUSS. Mobile control system DADS unfold specifically at our submarine bases.
With such a constant monitoring of the location of our submarines in the case of complication of the situation when applying enemy nuclear first strike on the terrain of our country will be hit immediately and our being under constant control of missile submarines, which did not have time to fulfill its primary and the main task — applying a crushing retaliation.
At this point the system SOSUS Americans actually mothballed (due invoices)
Because at the present time with the newest force had to choose rational place start our sea-based strategic missiles. In truth, if a ballistic missile launched from a submarine in the possession of their own shores, can reach the target on another continent for half an hour, for what is necessary for many days to bring up the missile closer to the goal or a walk with her on the world’s oceans. Intercontinental ballistic land-based missiles are perfectly their functions, being on their own locality. It’s time to teach and sea rocket to home basing.
The most basic function of a submarine previously — be a vehicle for the transformation of non-strategic missiles in strategic, has lost all meaning. Logical was generally not go out and be on its territory or nearby it in their own territorial waters protected. That still regards the second function of the submarine — to ensure secrecy, we must admit that, uniformly, with the creation of different systems of submarine detection and control of their movements, do this function in the ocean will become more difficult.
There is a natural question if transported by ocean expanses SLBM is not required, and provide stealth submarines in the ocean is becoming more difficult, for what is generally necessary ocean submarines SLBMs, these large underwater cruisers prodigious rates with nuclear reactors and complex systems? Why highly trained, trained crews perform complex underwater transatlantic crossings? Neuzh something to hide from the other side of the seat of our ballistic missiles can only rest in the oceans, where threats await our submarine at every turn and the crew have some help in a crisis situation, as in the current time, the presence of the Russian Navy in the seas and oceans slightly. Is it not possible to do it somehow poordinarnee without wasting large sums on building underwater mastodons? For Russia is an important issue. It seems that the answer to it can be positive if retreat from the prevailing stereotype decades that intercontinental ballistic missiles should be placed carefully on submarines and these boats, armed with SLBMs should surf the oceans.
And if you do not swim in the ocean, then what need 16-20 missiles on one submarine? Why not build a small submarine, for example by two missiles? According to the Contract START-1 (Article IV, paragraph 18) «Any party undertakes not to develop, test or deploy:
a) ballistic missiles with a range greater than 600 km, and launchers of such missiles to be installed on floating facilities, including free-floating launchers than submarines
b) launchers of ballistic and cruise missiles for the placement or attachment to the days of the oceans, seas or internal waters and inland waters or in its depths, or mobile launchers of such missiles, moving only in contact with the bottom of the oceans, seas or internal waters and inland waters Also missiles for such launchers «
Since this Contract, however, already outdated, placing intercontinental ballistic missiles on ships other than submarines, smoking, why not have missiles on small submarines, for example, with 2 missile silos, fixed horizontally outside submarine hull that are installed before the start of the vertical position. And swam to these small submarines in our territorial waters: rivers, lakes and coastal areas.
So submarines are needed nuclear reactors, sophisticated sonar system, torpedoes, large batteries, such as the submarine will be able to walk on the main diesel engines, including submerged getting air for diesel engines and crew through the snorkel. Do not need it, and heavy heavy-duty chassis, designed for immersion in the ocean hundreds of meters, as the greatest depth, even accidental, such submarine will be considerably less. She does not need a huge stroke speed as underwater and on the surface, more than 3-5 knots is enough to quietly move from one position to another.
Launch missiles made only from a surface position, which significantly simplifies the design of missiles and ship service systems. The command «prelaunch» fixation shafts is released and they are under its own weight, pivoting about an axis located above the center of mass is set into a vertical position, and wherein fixed. Accuracy vertical position and pitching SLBMs irrelevant.
Launch missiles can be carried out in the parking lot, and also on the move, if the depth of the fairway, you can deploy mines. Such a submarine will not need a massive and complex navigation system, rather receiver system «GLONASS». In addition geodetic connection parking places can be made in advance, and navigation support for the missile system during movement along the river can be set benchmarks, allowing to ship the system in motion to nullify errors accumulate coordinate space. With such a decent navigation software missile can be considerably simplified, since it is no longer necessary system adjustments line of motion of the rocket star (astorokorrektsiya), designed to provide highly accurate warheads missiles hit the target with significant accumulation of errors submarine navigation system in the process of finding a long submerged.
For additional masking small submarine, its operational service and amenities of a real crew can be built by ships, which on the outside should look like ordinary river boats or barges of various types, but the aft be substantially catamarans, so small submarine semisubmerged position could go up to ship from the stern, pass under his bottom and foothold there, and cutting the submarine would have been with all this in the ship superstructure. In this position, the ship and the submarine could be and in motion, and in parking lots. With all this in itself will carry submarine combat duty several crew members and others during this time will be able to rest on a surface vessel. No means of cosmic and even agents’ supervision from the shore will be impossible to fix the presence or absence of a submarine under the ship, and similar in appearance vessels can be configured to perform a lot of tasks countless civilian shipping.
Winter small submarines were frozen in ice can either on the surface or in semisubmerged position when the outside will only be cutting. To launch missiles from a submarine in the winter, frozen into ice on the surface, everything happens in the summer, as are frozen body only, and under no ice mines. At the start of the emergent situation ice cracked and crumbled explosive devices or other methods, then transferred to containers with missiles in the vertical position. This procedure is somewhat time increment prelaunch that retaliation is perfectly acceptable.
Should see that the operation of small submarines in the winter time it is more difficult problem, as in our northern country strongly little ice-water reservoirs. Perhaps because of this would be more appropriate to create small submarines as catamarans with one mine that will allow easier to solve the issue of lack of ice in the area of finding mines with a missile. But this is a real design issues.
Along the river (lake) can be equipped with numerous parking spaces small submarine. Essentially it’s just closed canopies, which are examining the ground or from space is unrealistic to solve the submarine is there or not. Some of these shelters can be equipped with wired communication systems to the onshore team Fri, while others will simply dummy created to disorient the enemy.
Keep control of the seat space such small submarines to deploy special masking and protection systems is virtually impossible. Wrong parking, a huge amount of cutting layouts submarine traveling on the river, and in the winter frozen into ice, radio silence because oboestoronnyaya parked connection will be via cable, low visibility in the infrared, as running river water carries away heat, and a huge number of other solutions will make this missile actually invincible. Should take into account the presence of large areas of rocky coasts in the Siberian rivers that can serve as a good natural defense against intercontinental ballistic missile warheads, as these are suitable for the purpose warhead at a small angle to the horizon (about 25 degrees), and cruise missiles to hit a target will be required on final flight flying up to her along the river, where they are more vulnerable.
Creating a small submarine is not a fantasy, but a real necessity, as the criteria of today’s chaos in our defense industry and science to dream about how we set up in the coming years a huge number of submarines of Project 955 missile «Bulava», having a throw-weight of 1 15 m, i.e. less than the long decommissioned South American «Traydeta-1», so the oceans will win and show the Yankees «gruel», as used to say once unforgettable «Nikita», this is really a fantasy.