Adaptation

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In a broad sense, adaptation — it is an adaptation to environmental conditions. Human adaptation has two spectra: biological and psychological.

Biological level, common to man and animals, includes adjustment to permanent and changing environmental conditions: temperature, pressure, light, humidity, as well as to changes in the body: disease, changes in the body, control of any functions.

The psychological aspect of adaptation is the adaptation of the individual to the existence in accordance with the requirements of society and their own needs and interests. Social adaptation is done by learning the norms and values of the society (or, at least, people close to the family, the particular social group).

The main manifestations of social adaptation — interaction (including communication) a person with others and his activism. Social adaptation means that the person is able to learn, to work, to build an adequate system of relations with others, to change their behavior in accordance with the expectations of others.

Adaptation and learning

The life of any organism — is a continuous adaptation to changing environmental conditions. One kind of adaptation — is learning. There are three types of learning:

— Reactive learning: when the body reacts to some external factors, getting used to them.

— Operant learning: a complex type of learning in which it is necessary that the body "experimented" with the environment, and thus established a connection between different situations. By operant conditioning are: learning by trial and error method of forming reactions and observations.

— Cognitive learning. It requires not only grasp the connection between the two situations, and evaluate them based on their previous experience and the possible consequences. For cognitive learning disabilities include: latent learning, the development of psychomotor skills, insight, and, finally, learning through discussion.

Types of learning

The method of trial and error. Occurs in animals and humans, and is that the individual, having met with an obstacle, makes attempts to overcome it. Phasing out of inefficient operations, he finds the solution.

Forming Reactions. The peculiar method of "training" in which the correct response is reinforced by emotional or physical reward. It is believed that the speed of learning of children is the first that is by forming reactions. Once the child begins to utter any articulate sounds, babbling, "ME-ME-ME" delights others and especially the mother, which seems to be that the baby was her calling.

Learning by observation. Many forms of social activity is based on the observation of the behavior of others. Imitation — it is a way of learning, in which the actions of others reproduced without understanding their meaning. And with the suffragan Taught entirely individual learns some form of behavior, including an understanding of its effects. So people imitate celebrities, characters, and people in real life.

Latent learning. We were constantly receiving signals from the environment, of which we are aware, some perceive less clear, and some are not aware of at all. Thus in the brain are a kind of an environment map (or cognitive map) by which the body defines what will be the most appropriate response to the new situation or changing the usual circumstances. This is confirmed by an experiment on rats, taught in the maze to find the way to food. However, when a labyrinth filled with water, the rats were getting to the food in the same way, but by swimming (that is, using a completely different motor responses).

Insight. Certain pieces of information obtained at different times and, as it were scattered in the memory at some point come together and apply to the new situation. Insight is similar to the work of that decision comes spontaneously and is the original.

Learning by reasoning. The arguments used in the case where a person has no ready solutions, and use trial and error is inefficient. As with all other forms of learning, the result obtained by the arguments commonly used in all future situations.

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