What is it?
Allergic rhinitis— Is an allergic inflammation of the nasal mucosa. Thus there is a runny nose, sneezing and swelling of the lining of the nose, itching. Allergic rhinitis is most common in children, adolescents and young adults. There are two types of allergic rhinitis: seasonal (hay fever or allergy to pollen) and perennial (reaction to household allergens: house dust, animals, etc.).
Allergic rhinitis occurs in contact with allergens (grass pollen, plants and trees, house dust, etc.) in the eyes and nasal passages sensitive to allergens person.
What's going on?
Seasonal rhinitis symptoms appear only at certain times of the year, the time of flowering. The characteristic symptoms are itchy, red and watery eyes, itchy nose / throat / hard palate, sneezing, runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal congestion. These symptoms can lead to irritability, headaches, sleep disorders, fatigue and even depression. Year-round rhinitis symptoms are less pronounced, but they are constant throughout the year and deliver a constant worry.
Diagnosis and treatment
The diagnosis is established ENT physician or allergist for inspection and rasprosy the patient about the nature of his illness. The doctor also order tests, including blood and urine tests, x-rays of the sinuses. To establish the allergen usually put allergological skin samples with samples of pollen in the region or household allergens. Allergen You can find and use of laboratory blood tests detect antibodies to it.
Treatment is carried out under the supervision of a physician. The most important thing in the treatment — to find out the cause of allergies and if possible to avoid contact with the allergen. It is not always possible. Therefore, most doctor appoints anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drugs, which completely relieve symptoms of allergic rhinitis.
Effective treatment is allergen-specific immunotherapy. For this patient entered into the skin more concentrated solutions of allergen in a few weeks. This gradual introduction causes the body to produce a kind of antidote. Carry out specific immunotherapy in advance to the beginning, for example, flowering body's sensitivity to a particular pollen was minimal. This method is not suitable for the slightest sign of deterioration. Furthermore, the course of therapy requires patience to obtain stable results, it is necessary to spend typically at least three years.
Avoid contact with the pollen — the best way to prevent seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ideal — leave for the period of flowering plants allergens in different climate zone. For the inhabitants of central Russia this may be, for example, the Baltic States, southern coast of the Crimea or the Russian North, where flowering takes place in a different time or a little earlier, on the contrary, later.
If this is not possible, you should observe the following recommendations.
- Refrain from walking in the forests and parks, trips out of town.
- Do not open the windows and doors in the house or office.
- Ventilate the room after the rain, at night and when there is no wind. At an open window or door can be hung well moistened sheet or several layers of cheesecloth.
- The highest concentration of pollen in the air is observed early in the morning and in the dry hot days, so in this period of time is not particularly encouraged to go out. After coming back from the street should be changed clothes.
- Take a shower at least twice a day. Be sure to wash your hair.
- Cover windows in the car when traveling, especially in the countryside.
- Do not dry after washing things in the street (on the balcony), as settles on them pollen.
- Every day is wet cleaning of the apartment.
- We recommend the use of air purifiers use of air conditioning with air filter at the output.
- Take medications prescribed by the doctor, and keep a diary of their condition, it will help your doctor to prevent allergy in the future.
Similarly, prophylaxis perennial allergic rhinitis is to reduce the probability of contact allergens (pet dander, dust, etc.).