Amebiasis (amebic dysentery)

Amoebiasis (amoebic dysentery).  Amoeba the wall of the colon.  Photo from www.sciencephoto.com

What is it?

Amebiasis (amebic dysentery) — a disease caused by a single-celled parasite tissue-dissolving amoeba (Entamoeba histolytica). Parasite affects the large intestine. It occurs everywhere, but more often in countries with a hot climate.

Amebamozhet exist in two forms:

  • trophozoite — active form, lives in the intestinal contents, are not viable outside the human body.
  • cyst — inactive form, , with the help of cysts is the spread amebiasis.

Trophozoites may cause diarrhea (diarrhea) and thus output of the human body. If diarrhea develops, the trophozoites become hard cysts that are excreted in the feces.

Infection occurs through contact with infected feces, which is possible under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions during sexual intercourse with an infected person.

What if this happens?

Often, the symptoms amebiasis so vague that man can live for years with the disease and do not pay attention to it. This may be diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal cramps, blood may appear in the stool, may from time to time a slight rise in body temperature.

Gradually, a person may develop wasting (cachexia), and anemia.

In the worst case scenario trophozoites penetrate the intestinal wall. In this case, there is destruction of the epithelium, damage to blood vessels and the formation of deep ulcers ulcers. Clinically it is manifested by pain in the course of the colon, Frequent, small bowel movement with a lot of mucus and blood (up to a kind of "raspberry jelly"), a rise in temperature, general weakness, loss of appetite.

Sometimes formed tumor-like formations — amoeboma, which can lead to intestinal obstruction.

If trophozoites penetrate the intestinal wall, it is fraught with inflammation of the peritoneum — peritonitis.

The penetration of trophozoites in the appendix tissue can lead to mild appendicitis. This is dangerous because if the operation to remove the appendix there is a risk of parasites in the abdominal cavity, so it is usually set aside for the operationTwo or three days, during which the patient prolechivayut preparations for destroying vermin.

Trophozoites can also affect the liver through the bloodstream to infect the lungs, brain and other organs.

Diagnosis and treatment

For the diagnosis of amebiasis take a stool sample. It may be necessary to perform a 3 to 6 trials. In addition, for the inspection of the interior surface of the rectum performed sigmoidoscopy.

Treatment appoint a doctor, and only the results of tests. At 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment to repeat analyzes of feces in order to verify the effectiveness of therapy.

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