RF must decide which format to cooperate with China in the strategically fundamental region
In the Arctic region in the Russian Federation has a legitimate and reasonable economic and geopolitical interests. But competitiveness for raw materials in the midst of ordinary evolving Arctic states, and the eighth session of the Arctic Council (AC) in Kiruna in May 2013 showed that claims to the Arctic and grow in the midst of new players, such as China, India, the land of the rising sun. That’s why you need to develop a strategy for the Russian Federation to protect their own national interests in the region, while cooperation can bring to davneshnego partner — China.
But why specifically China can become a partner of the Russian Federation in the Arctic? In 1-x, Our homeland in the region wants to develop its military presence by sea, air and missile forces and means to deter foreign military presence (particularly western states), and protect critical infrastructure. In connection with this it needed investment and technology, which can be obtained in the framework of the Arctic partnership with China.
In-2 as one of the Arctic states and naikrupneyshim on terrain and mineral resource the supplies power, Our homeland has a unique opportunity for the full development of these supplies using money, labor, technological resources in China, possessing advanced technologies for the extraction of resources and looking for partners their development.
B-3, is a priority for the development of the Russian Northern Sea Route, which could potentially become another method for China export their own products. Per pass on it Our homeland will be able to receive constant cash income.
B-4, as China Consistently in the AU officially confirmed its readiness to follow the principles of respect for sovereignty and sovereign rights of the Arctic countries. At the same time, being a great power, China longs to contribute to peace and security in the region, which indirectly indicates a low level of its political ambitions and desire to immediately contribute to regional development. In other words, China has no geopolitical claims to the Arctic.
B-5-x, Beijing fails to use the new status in the AU as a lever for the implementation of economic plans in the regional strategy, as AU — is a forum bringing together all interested players in the Arctic area. Unanimity of all members of the AU limited environmental sphere, because the interests in other areas are often diametrically reversed. Outside the jurisdiction of the AU are questions of extraction of natural resources, and infrastructure construction.
Sixth, the AU has a presence in China for only a symbolic meaning. He expects that will take feasible role in the formation and implementation of the regional agenda forward to. With all this involvement in projects in China will depend on building bilateral partnerships with each circumpolar power separately. Our homeland and China can use the AC as an additional platform for the exchange of conceptions on the development of the region.
But it is necessary to take into account the arguments of the enemies of Russia and the Arctic cooperation in this region. In 1-x, according to some estimates, by the year 2020-2040 in the summer Arctic will be shipping. Can pass through the region of new trade routes. Such prospects can not intrigue China as the world’s favorite export volumes. How should he be interested in establishing their own control over this strategic transport artery, can be using for this and military levers that unprofitable Russia.
In-2, lack of natural resources in China is responsible for its enthusiasm for the natural resources of the Arctic. Development of natural resources and development of new sea routes in the Arctic, of course, China may have to not only trade and economic, and geopolitical and — especially in the long term — strategic military importance.
B-3, China has decided to significant efforts to become a member of the AU. Despite the restrained statements, China practice markedly stepped up its diplomatic efforts in the Arctic direction, doing, namely, searching States — partners for the development of the region. This indicates that China is playing on the contradictions of the Arctic states, builds its policy aimed at securing its region.
B-4, historically under the control of, U.S. and Canadian Arctic is becoming the newest playground for China. Melting ice opens for China’s commercial and strategic abilities. If in the future China will be positioned in the Arctic nuclear submarine, it will create the conditions for strategic deterrence of Russia, Europe and the United States. Taking into account the individual expression of the Chinese military professionals and representatives of the generals can not be denied that China will defend its military interests in the Arctic, creating a group there and submarine forces.
Based on the arguments «for» and «against», we can say that a more pragmatic approach of — building a strategic partnership with China, aimed at the development of the Arctic direction in foreign policy. Not having a valid claim to the exploration and production of resources in the Arctic, also its geopolitical consolidation in the region, China can gain access to the extraction of resources and the Northern Sea Route in exchange for investment and technology. Lucrative contracts joint production of minerals, guarantees more appropriate criterion for use of the Northern Sea Route posodeystvuyut RF garner significant support from China in defending their own positions on the issue of expanding the boundaries of the continental shelf to the UN Commission. In the case of delay, the Russian Federation, China as a candidate will rapprochement with other Arctic countries, including the United States and Canada, which is bad for the positions and the impact of the Russian Federation in the Arctic as a whole.
Maria Nikolaevna Ananeva and Pavel Grachev A.