ELISA blood tests, which are based on the specific antigen-antibody reaction, rapidly evolved over the past three decades. During this time they have gone from a diagnosis of certain diseases in specialized laboratories to routine determination of a large number of allergens, pathogens of bacterial and viral infections, hormone levels, markers of cancer and cardiovascular disease, and other indicators. The latest technology in this area, are increasingly used in a recent years, a multiplex immunoassay analysis. The method allows the simultaneous determination of several parameters in a blood sample of small volume. This makes it possible to investigate not only the concentration of certain proteins (enzymes, hormones, signaling proteins, and others), but their interactions monitor autoantibody formation, to determine the specificity of antibodies to identify proteins and modifications to study their interaction with small molecules. Thus, a doctor, in addition to the final result becomes available assessment themselves processes in the human body. One of the modifications of the method provides for the simultaneous determination of the blood sample some of the most common and common respiratory viruses: influenza pathogens A/H1, H3 and B; respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, parainfluenza virus 1/2/3/4, adenovirus, metapneumovirus; Rhinovirus / Enterovirus, bokavirusa.
PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
Method PCR is a classic DNA analysis. It can specifically increase (amplification) of DNA sample billions of times and makes it possible to determine theoretically even one copy of the DNA without essentially sensitivity limits. In addition to the absolute sensitivity of the PCR is characterized by an absolute specificity, i.e. method does not give false positive results. It might seem like you can upgrade as the perfect method. However, scientists have found a way out of this situation. And currently in practice introduces a new technology — PCR in real time. Its principal feature is the quantitative analysis of the accumulated in the course of the reaction products, and the automatic registration and interpretation of data. Furthermore, during the reaction in real time eliminates this phase of the study, as electrophoresis, which reduces the requirements for laboratory and increases availability study.
PCR technology is now time are not only used for the diagnosis of pre-existing conditions, but also to identify a genetic predisposition to them. For each person drawing up possible genetic health passport. DNA studies can detect individual predisposition to diabetes mellitus, hypertension, peptic ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer. Identified adverse hereditary factors — a chance to prevent disease or delay the appearance of his first symptoms for many years. After all, the person has the time to change the way of life, conduct all necessary inspections and preventive measures. And if the disease has already started, the start of its treatment in the early stages and therefore increase its efficiency. In addition, for the spouses — the carriers of the defective gene, in which the disease does not manifest itself, making genetic passports is a reliable method to prevent the birth of a child with a genetic disease.
Microscopic examination of the
Microscopic research is an integral part of the overall clinical blood. While it is running are counted blood cells (red cells, white cells and platelets) and evaluated their shape. The object of the study is dried and stained blood smear. This method provides very important information, but if you analyze the "live" a drop of blood, the diagnostic value of microscopy increases many times. The problem is that the living cells contain too much water, which absorbs little light, and are therefore transparent (hence smear dried inevitable deforming cells). See live cells by using phase-contrast microscopy. The fact is that they alter the phase of light beams passing, and this variation depends on the thickness and refractive index of the object. The method, based on the reception of this difference, and allows you to get a clear image contrast and make visible the structure of the blood cells, makes it possible to observe the characteristics of their "behavior", found in plasma cells of living organisms and crystals of different compounds. When the phase-contrast microscopy can see the drops of blood platelet aggregation process, to assess the behavior of the red blood cells, is sufficient to their mobility, they are not combined in the sludge (education, similar to the coin columns of cells). Also found in the plasma switch, which normally should not be (crystals of cholesterol and uric acid) and the cells of bacteria and fungi.