Heat slept for Nieman uniformly pale lights burst into the open window of the alien fighter equal steps. They hammered nails into Tipo glowing brain king. Stanislaw August Poniatowski can not sleep. In my head disturbing thoughts. He knows that tomorrow will be approved by the Diet treatise with Russia, and means big country 2-majestic peoples virtually end its existence. Recently the Russian salting Sievers laid before him a typical solitaire, who from the deputies and that he would vote. He knows who and how many paid or promised to pay for the consent. There, they are higher Crown and Lithuanian magnates feasting, here comes the much intoxicated laughter. Those who will vote against, who else thinks about homeland — in the minority.
Or jump on the horse, paimchatstsa to officers and soldier, who can still resist and try to raise an army and people! Another option. Get up tomorrow at the Diet and call on all MPs that they pronounced "NO!" Explain to them that meanly take their country. Neuzh something most of them did not falter heart?
But … lord goes to bed. Former mistress, all-powerful Empress, which put him on the throne, and now defeated. He — weak, feeble.
Vyacheslav Rakytskyy: And in Minsk studio without barriers we talk with writer Olga Ipatova. You are currently working on a piece for yourself since the time of the Grodno Sejm in 1793, when they were ratified divide tracts with Russia and Prussia and came what is called the second partition of Poland. Why do you particularly intrigued second section?
Olga Ipatova "First, because it is, in my opinion, was the most dramatic and catastrophic moment the last time the Commonwealth, where, as you know, came and our Belarus that was called then Lithuania. Decision about suicide (and on another it will not name) took the legislature — Diet. How can parliamentarians, the political elite of the country, to agree that their government ceased to exist What led to this? In Polish literature these actions are not described again. The greatest memory made me a novel Nobel laureate Vladislav Reymanta "Last Sejm Rzeczpospolita. "We, Belarusians, know this brand is not enough, although it is a large and significant part of our political history. Our homeland Then got the whole area of the former historic Lithuania (Belarus), and the Diet, where there were deputies from Lofty Duchy of Lithuania and even the crown hetman Zabello actually gave this Russian empire, already annexed the area, "for endless times." That’s why vodgulle 1793 stretches, you might say, until this time. This section responds now, for example, on the Ukrainian Independence: with whom Ukraine remains in the end, where it goes? Importantly it for Belarus … "
Rakytskyy: "But why did the deputies agreed on how you says suicide?"
Ipatova "By this led many assumptions and not only corruption and arbitrariness magnates, or manipulation of the nobility (the peasants, of course, no number). There was dissatisfaction with the policies and the gradual absorption of the Principality Lofty Crown and religious confrontation between peoples, and personal interests magnates and gentry, who were supported and our homeland, and Saxony. Naturally, the greatest impact has received Our homeland, especially after Catherine the second in 1763 was able to land on the royal throne with the support of former Czartoryski own fancy man, a former ambassador of Saxony and Rzeczpospolita in Russia Stanislaw August Poniatowski. For support she sought to convey Russian countryside eastern Belarus, eastern Latvia and give "thousands of farmers," who fled to Belarus because of languid serfdom in Russia. It also achieved its own only in 10 years, when there was one First section Speeches Paspalitay.Za these years, the country was created by "fifth column" of influential magnates and gentry, who was bribed and post facilities and busied only about their own interests. "
Rakytskyy: "But let’s not forget that the Grodno Sejm took place in the emergency criteria: the castle, where the meetings were aimed guns. Artillery could smash the lock on this rubble. Town was besieged army, even in the hall stood armed grenadery .. . "
Ipatova "A Russian salting Sievers dyrygavav all this sitting backstage … Horror, of course, need not be discounted. Then objectionable or rebels could abyss without a trace in Siberia — the tent, where were sitting prisoners nights and then went from Grodno. And the outcome of the vote was, respectively, sixty six votes — for, and only eleven — against. Afterwards actions Catherine cynically gave the order to knock medal "rejection Returns", as if the land would belong to but if the Russian Federation and supposedly even in municipal acts somewhere does not mean that it’s "newfound land." For the consent of the Diet were bribery and blackmail MPs force Russian (and Prussian) troops, scheming nobles and magnates, the inability of the upper classes Rzeczpospolita agree among themselves for the sake of the Fatherland, and much more. Here , Grodno royal castle was actually canceled tremendous government.’s going her agony, and against this background the novel Reymanta small butterflies dazzle people with their fear, protest consent betrayal. He describes how in the castle in the summer 1793 " reigned chaos, lawlessness and nearly hassle. Tangle of passion, hot resistance, raged in the hall. At the scene were a personal grudge, a thunderstorm swept mutual hostility and strife, a kind of madness took possession of the best part — so rampant they sought to death. "
Rakytskyy: "But Catherine, Duchess majestic being, adored Stanislaus Augustus, their even had a daughter. Why can love did not help keep the king on the throne?"
Ipatova "As in politics love one, and municipal interests — something completely different. From the novel almost 30 years have passed, Catherine was no longer just a haha and pobkditeli that one hundred percent dependent on its whims. A Polish lord still tried to pursue an independent policy, he even appealed to other states for help (when there were the first land grabs Rzeczpospolita), but no government did not help him. brewing revolution in France, other countries also had their problems. way, the project separation areas weakened Rzeczpospolita between Russia, Prussia and Austria, appeared in 1763. Austria, not waiting to address this issue, in 1770, captured the first two starostva and salt accumulates in Poland. A dissatisfied with the decree of Catherine ordered to do Pskov and Mogilev province , which included 10’s cities of Belarus. Later it was legalized Tipo Convention between Russia, Prussia and Austria, August 5, 1772 in St. Petersburg. But Catherine "walked" in velikadushnasts: it guaranteed Rzeczpospolita preservation cardinal rights, such as the indivisibility of the country ( later that obviously turned deception). Could not add understanding between the Polish and Russian empress master, and once stately ON Prince Stanislaw August and adopted by the State May 3, 1791 Constitution. In it, namely, the freedom was guaranteed to "everyone only one foot to step on Polish soil. "Reformers hoped that it will be enticed farmers from Russia, which later will be able to make scheduled Seimas 100000th army capable of defending the country.
Rakytskyy: "But the freedom promised by the other estates, raised against the Constitution and reformers limited part of the gentry, which also contributed to the death of the country …"
Ipatova "Yes, it was a crucial mistake of those who was not a traitor, did not belong to the Prussian or Russian Party and considered himself a patriot of the country and was it. Addition, part of the Belarusian nobility supported Catherine in the probable ON isolation from Poland by dynastic union of the Principality with the Russian Empire. So it was a multi-pass, shmatvaryyantnaya game whose goal was one — to capture the Rzeczpospolita and use its resources for their own self-interest. Part influential tycoons who do not agree with the reforms, was created so called Targowica Confederation, which contributed almost occupation country. Hurt later joined her, and the Diet, quite podlomleno, urged MPs that "resistance stupid" that he joined to Targowica Confederation only for warranty nerazdelnastsi Rzeczpospolita and by the statement of the Empress, that the country will not be divided into parts. because it lies much of the responsibility for everything that happened.
Rakytskyy: "What was the fate of the king after these events?
Ipatova "Grodno and he spent the last days of his own dominion, and later, in 1794, after the defeat of the uprising Tadeusz Kosciuszko, has no use, by the Empress, he lived here alone and signed the act of abdication of the crown in favor of Catherine second. After her death, already at the first call of Paul, he moved to St. Petersburg, where he died February 12, 1798. "
Rakytskyy: "And what would happen if the lord still had the courage to resist? If he decided to re-assemble all the forces that resisted captivity? If agreeing to reform, stick to their own solutions to the end?"
Ipatova "Maybe he still would have lost the throne. But — would remain in the history of the other figure. And maybe the townspeople received liberties and farmers obtained the land, there would be against a far country, which brings them serfdom? And Belarus
obtaining the right to self-determination, there could be even then, in the late eighteenth century, a free state, and not part of the area, which dispose of others. "
"On the ruins of the throne stood Rzeczpospolita … Himself as Stanislaw August Poniatowski deeply disturbed only one question: will pay as a reward for his obedience, the country was dismantled piece by piece to his country, his debts and provide him an opportunity to quietly live out the rest of years?"
Vladislav Reymant Nobel laureate.