We offer our readers the final part of the analysis of the development of the U.S. nuclear triad, which is now part of the reformed U.S. strategic offensive forces.
Brand new long-range cruise missile
Reduce outfit intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), required for the application of a disarming strike against Russian strategic nuclear forces, the South American side, apparently, wants by adopting the latest generation of nuclear cruise missiles, air (ALCM).
Competition to develop promising ALCMs LRSO, which should change the cruise missiles, AGM-86B ALCM AGM-129A and ACM, was announced in December 2012. Officially, the U.S. Air Force asked to take part in it four leading American company, «Boeing», «Lockheed Martin», «Northrop Grumman» and «Raytheon». In the bidding process should be assigned to a single developer and supplier of modern cruise missile.
«Application of ALCM or SLCM in the usual equipment for a preemptive disarming strike by Russian strategic nuclear forces is unlikely»
In fiscal year 2013 for the development of the latest U.S. Air Force missile allocated two million dollars in 2014 — $ 5 million. Then within 3 years of the yearly funding for the work should reach 41.7, 209.0 and 352.9 million dollars respectively.
Adopting ALCM LRSO scheduled for mid-2020s, and by 2030 they should be one hundred percent change all the existing fleet of rockets ALCM, which were previously the moment will remain in service with the U.S. Air Force, passed by upgrading programmke LEP (Life Extension Program) in order to extend the current cycle missiles.
In April this year, Assistant Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air Force for strategic deterrence and nuclear integration Maj. Gen. Harenkak Garrett said in the Senate that the development of nuclear cruise missiles will be carried out in such a LRSO makarom so that they could be placed on all types of strategic bombers (SB) — Nuclear media weapons (nuclear weapons) available Sat-52H and B-2A bombers also promising LRS-B.
This was confirmed by the head of the Global Strike Command U.S. Air Force Lt. Gen. James Kowalski, «In the future, will change LRSO ALCM obsolescent and will be compatible with the B-52, B-2 and LRS-B».
The performance properties of promising ALCM remain closed, but its main characteristics can be estimated from the analysis of combat supplies available in the U.S. and technological groundwork for the development of long-range cruise missiles, first RGM-109E «Tactical Tomahawk.»
Given the depth planned for ALCM LRSO tasks of strategic containment of Russia and China, also made this day level turbojet engine, we can expect that the range of promising missiles will be more than 3-3.5 thousand kilometers at an average speed of about 800 km hour.
Since promising ALCM plan to use with subtle Security B-2 and LRS-B, designed for operations in enemy airspace, which owns strong inserted air defense systems, we can expect that the rocket itself will be made using the technology of «Stealth».
The main type of equipment ALCM LRSO likely become nuclear. But for the adoption of a rocket under the concept of «Global Strike» for it can be designed and ordinary warhead.
According to reports, equipment and nuclear missile is scheduled to make on the basis of nuclear charger (Yazoo) type W80-1, W84 or W61, held on modernization programmke LEP. Data Yazoo designed to equip Kyrgyz air (AGM-86B and AGM-129A) and ground (VGM-109G «Griffin») based also B61 nuclear bombs.
Precision bomb B61-12
These Yazoo have switchable power charge, the lower threshold which is 3, 0.2 and 0.3 kt. According to this aspect of nuclear warheads with similar power values can be attributed to YABZ small (1-10 km) and super (up to 1 km) of power, which makes them very pretty on the basis of beliefs minimize secondary acts. The upper power threshold indicated Yazoo — 200, 150 and 340 kt, respectively.
All nuclear chargers actually developed on one element base, which provides the highest interchangeability of their units. The total amount issued Yazoo designated types — 1750, 3150 and 350 units respectively.
Since the use of new missiles planned criteria saturated engagement enemy electronic countermeasures equipment, flight control system promising ALCM should be combined.
Most likely, it will include an inertial system (MIS) laser gyro, an adjustable according KRNS «Navstar» correlation-extremal system (IES) type PTAN (Precision Terrain Aided Navigation), as a system of final guidance. It is estimated that a similar composition control system will provide her ALCM accuracy (CEP) is not worse than 3 — 5 meters. IES PTAN, which should be used to adjust the ISU in loss or inhibition signal from KRNS «Navstar» principle actually acts like a known system «float.»
The difference is that with the help of a member of the PTAN interferometric altimeter determined not only the relative heights of points on the surface, and the angles of the lines of the terrain.
In totality with the introduction of three-dimensional digital terrain maps it allows abandon engagement necessary for the functioning of IES «float» corrections districts, eliminating the predictability of the direction of impact ALCM.
In the interests of mobile objects dopoiska strike also get the current disk imaging on the situation along the route of flight on a rocket can be mounted camera.
Of course, promising that ALCM will have a two-way satellite link, as in RGM-109E «Tactical Tomahawk.» In this case likely will equip their equipment noise-speed satellite communications AEHF (Advanced Extremely High Frequency) EHF having the highest degree of survivability criteria nuclear war.
The same equipment is currently installed aboard bombers B-2A and B-52H. This will allow information exchange between producing Fri control bombers and missiles that meet U.S. operational concept of «fighting in a single information and communication space.»
Inclusion of missiles into the circuit of the future global information and control network will enable retarget them in flight, receive from their video along the flight path, the data on the technical condition of missiles, avionics their work, etc.
Available in the United States a significant technological advance on the main promising missile systems (engine, airframe, warhead, communication equipment and navigation) in totality with pretty huge by the standards of USA, the period of development can make a positive conclusion about the highest degree of luck creation ALCM LRSO .
Application ALCM as weapons in a preemptive disarming strike on the SNF group consisting of mobile and stationary missile systems protected optimally than the involvement for the same purpose of ICBMs and SLBMs.
If ALCM in action on mobile complexes possess the possibility of retargeting in flight according to external targeting, the current ICBMs and SLBMs can not do this.
In the latter case, the only way out is bespropuskovoe warheads covering the whole area, which could potentially move the mobile complex during the flight to the target BR, which significantly increases outfit weapons.
As for the destruction of protected stationary complexes, the ALCM and then due to a superior shooting accuracy have an advantage: for example, the possibility of defeat ALCM ALCM type of protected object with engineering resistance to excess pressure in the shock front, equal to 70 kg/cm2 is 0.85 and ICBM type «Minuteman-3» — 0.2.
As previously mentioned, the presence in the RVSN countless factions mobile ground missile systems (PGRK), part of which is constantly on the routes alerting, greatly complicates the application of a disarming strike against Russian strategic nuclear forces.
Of course, in this case, the implementation of such a strike would be impossible without a system for continuous monitoring of movement PGRK in their position areas, providing the definition and delivery of missile systems to coordinate means of destruction in real time (VLR).
The main principles of similar monitoring system were presented in U.S. nuclear strategy in 2002 (NPR-2002). Presenting it to Congress, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said the subsequent: «In order to successfully identify and accompany mobile targets until when the planned and executed their defeat, you need to solve a number of complex problems in the collection and processing of information. Modern satellite constellation is inadequate to ensure the fight against moving targets. Planned improvements of this group will create new capabilities for rapid and clear detection and tracking of mobile targets from the moment of their deployment Fri home before returning to these items. It will need to make agents capable of discrete or continuous deployment areas to track targets in collaboration with automated systems located in these areas. «
So Makar, promising control system will probably be combined monitoring system, including in its own composition of cosmic and air reconnaissance, intelligence and network-signaling devices (PSDs), deployed in advance PGRK position areas. Delivery and deployment of FPR in the designated areas is likely to be carried out using drones or cruise missiles in the period preceding a strike specifically.
In the years since the introduction of the NPR-2002 10 years in the U.S. to substitute vehicles of cosmic radar reconnaissance (SC HRD) «Lacrosse» created a new generation of spacecraft HRD based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) antenna. Development of new spacecraft conducted on programmke «Fia» (FIA — Future Imagery Architecture). At the moment, there are two orbits of 5 planned unit. They were put into near-circular orbit height 1070-1100 km and an orbital inclination equal to 123 degrees.
It is possible that the new spacecraft will also be involved in the interests of experimental testing criteria in orbital flight of large deployable antennas long lengths (up to 300 m) for promising radar with SAR.
Last work intensively in the field of creation of small PSDs created for installation of air carriers at a distance of several thousand kilometers from Fri reception of information.
Within applets Global Strike NRT-BDA developed seysmohimicheskie sensor capable of detecting a range of up-moving ts, such as his engine (diesel-carburetor), chassis type (crawler-wheel), a multifunctional state (empty-laden), etc.
Parashyutiruemye sensors weighing about 2-kg have equipment to determine its own location according KRNS «Navstar» as transmission equipment acquired data to a receiving station via satellite. The main difficulty now, as it turned out, is to develop a massive compact power sources for the growth time of the sensors to reach 4 — 6 hours to several days.
Naturally less strategic bombers implementation (SBA) with the ALCM as a head means a preemptive disarming massive nuclear strike (MRYAU) is the difficulty of disguising massive rise SAT and significant warning time due to the long duration flight ALCM carriers to launch their borders.
In this regard, we can assume that a massive nuclear strike ALCM disarm objectives will be applied only in the final stages of the war escalation using ordinary means of destruction, since the implementation of such a strike in peacetime and during a particular hazard to anger reasons stated above is unlikely.
Only in wartime criteria arises possible opportunity to enter the attacked side deceived about the real objectives of nuclear ALCM disarming strike by his «disguise» in a string of several successive massive missile and air strikes ordinary ALCM. With all of this magnitude and implications of the latter do not have to put aside attacked the necessity of introducing its own nuclear weapons in response.
Besides deployment of FPR in position areas mobile strategic missile systems, which is a rather long and difficult process associated with the intervention in the sphere of municipal interests on the other hand, can really only be in wartime criteria.
Application ALCM or SLCM in the usual equipment for a preemptive disarming strike against Russian strategic nuclear forces is unlikely. It is not only several orders of magnitude increment outfit means impact and complicate his company, and will claim the creation of additional, quite complicated from a technical point of view, the outcome of the global control strike.
So, as a result of introduction of ordinary precision munition missile system elements can get some damage, but if all this does not happen to undermine the rocket itself, to draw concrete conclusions about the effectiveness of the impact will not be feasible.
Newcomer South American nuclear doctrine directly involves the creation of a massive U.S. counterforce potential of providing the solution of problems of both strategic and regional deterrence. In the case where deterrence reach the goal, Washington is ready to use its nuclear weapons for a preemptive strike on the nuclear infrastructure of a potential enemy.
In connection with the deepest cuts in strategic offensive weapons the U.S. and Russia, ICBMs and SLBMs United States apply to the current time disarming strike on SNF Russian Federation are unable. We can assume that in the near future as the main means of disarmament Russian strategic nuclear forces will be assigned to the U.S. SBA, armed ALCM.
The United States started building the latest generation of nuclear ALCM, which are expected to possess the highest precision shooting, long range and low visibility. Rockets install nuclear warheads with power switch, improved navigation system and jam-resistant high-speed data transmission bandwidth. These missiles will equip all types without exception American Security — carriers of nuclear weapons.
Drawing a disarming strike against Russian strategic nuclear forces can only be in the presence of the combined system for continuous monitoring of movement PGRK in their position areas, providing definition and coordinate the issuance of the means of missiles defeat in PMB. The monitoring system will include of cosmic and air reconnaissance, intelligence and network-signaling devices, deployed in advance PGRK position areas.
Massed disarming strike nuclear ALCM U.S. strategic nuclear forces of the Russian Federation on a possible final stage escalation of the war using ordinary weapons.
Misha Tsurkov, Head SIC defense 4th CRI Russian Defense Ministry, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Shushkov Andrew, a senior fellow SIC defense 4th CRI Russian Defense Ministry