The concept "10 steps to a healthy diet", proposed by the scientists of the State Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Institute of Nutrition and the Moscow Regional Heart Center, there is nothing sensational. However, if it is to adopt, its principles will help any of us, not only to normalize your weight, but also to maintain health and vitality for years to come.
A healthy balanced diet should be based on a variety of products, mostly plant (not the animal) origin.
There is no product that could provide our body with all the necessary nutrients. The exception is only a woman's breast milk, which replaces all other baby products up to 6 months. Therefore nutrition, Scientists insist, should be as diverse. Compliance with special diets can only be on the advice of a doctor.
Bread, food and food products from cereals and pasta, potatoes is advisable to several times a day, at every meal. More than half of the daily diet should be borne by those products.
Scientists do not agree with the widely held opinion that these products — a source of energy and carbohydrates. They contain many other substances necessary for health: dietary fiber, mineral compounds, vitamins B and C.
It is a mistake, according to scientists, and the claim that these products contribute to the deposition of fat. In fact, the energy content of the starch is much less than the same amount of fat or alcohol. Most of the recommended eating more bread, better black and wholemeal.
A variety of fruits and vegetables should be consumed several times a day in an amount greater than 400 grams, in addition to potatoes. Consumption vegetables should be less than consumption fruit. Vegetables and fruit — a source of antioxidants, folic acid, iron, vitamins and minerals, which reduce the risk of hypertension, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.
Preference should be given vitamins and other nutrients from natural sources rather than from pills or dietary supplements.
Milk and dairy products low in fat and salt (kefir, sour milk, cheese, yogurt) should be consumed daily. Especially in need of dairy products children, adolescents and women.
If a person does not consume dairy products, it should be included in the diet of other calcium-rich foods — fish (sardines, salmon), dark green leafy vegetables.
Meat and meat products high in fat should be replaced by legumes, fish, poultry or lean meat. Portions of meat, fish or poultry should be kept small. The number of such meat products like sausages, sausages, pates, should be limited.
Animal fat improves blood cholesterol levels and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The report of the WHO expert on the problems of cancer, it is recommended to use no more than 80 grams of red meat a day.
Consumption of fat, including the products contained (meat, milk, etc.) should be from 15 to 30% of daily caloric intake. It is better to cook for a couple, otvarivaya, bake, or use the microwave. Reduce the addition of fat in the cooking process.
Particular attention is being paid to the fatty acids, which are part of the fats we consume. They are:
- saturated (NLC) — in butter, hard margarines;
- polyunsaturated (PUFA) — in vegetable oils, fish and some soft margarines;
- monounsaturated (MUFA) — in olive, canola and peanut oils.
MUFA most useful, especially olive oil. They exhibit antioxidant properties and to protect against oxidation of blood cholesterol. Recommended consumption PUFA should be about 7% of the daily diet, MUFA — 10-15%.
Preference should be given a diet low in sugar — no more than 10% of the daily diet. Foods that contain a lot of sugar, are a source of energy, but not a necessary component of a healthy diet. Sugar contributes to the development of caries. Scientists recommend drinking water instead of sugary drinks.
Common consumption salt, including salt in bread, canned foods, etc., should not exceed 6 grams (1 teaspoon) per day. It is recommended to use iodized salt. Excessive salt intake is associated with high blood pressure.
Canned, salted, smoked foods are not recommended to eat every day. Food should be moderately salt, and to improve the flavor add herbs and spices.
Iodine deficiency is a common pathology, especially among children and women. Iodized salt will ensure the prevention of diseases caused by iodine deficiency.
Ideal body weight should correspond to the recommended boundaries (body mass index of 18.5 to 24.9). It is necessary to maintain a moderate level of physical activity.
Normal body mass index, or Quetelet index (IR) is calculated as follows: IR = weight (kg) / height (m)2. Suppose you have a weight — 80 kg, height — 1.65 m We raise growth in the square — 1.652, we get 2.7225. Now, weight 80 kg divide by 2.7225, the result — 29.38. The index of 25 to 29 — evidence of excess weight — your case. And more than 30 signals an obesity. The higher the index, the more overweight.
Excessive accumulation of fat in the abdominal area is a greater risk to health than excess of its accumulation in the hips, as associated with high blood pressure, diabetes and early onset of coronary heart disease.
If you want to lose weight, do so slowly, changing diet and increasing motor activity. Safe rate of weight loss — 500-800 grams a week. You should not stick to diets with a sharp restriction of foods such as vegetables, fruits, bread and potatoes.
Consumption Alcohol should not exceed 2 servings per day (one serving — 10 grams of pure alcohol). With daily use of alcohol should refrain from taking it for at least one day a week.
Side effects caused by alcohol consumption are related to its effect on the brain, liver, heart muscle, intestine, pancreas, nervous system. Alcohol dependence leads to a deficiency of vitamins and minerals.