"Instead we have literary — pavnavuka"
Michas Scoble: "Anatoly, start with the fact that the collected works of Yakub Kolos lucky, as none of Belarusian writers. Kolasa They went chatsverachy: two volumes in 1928, seven volumes — in the 1950s, twelve volumes — in 1960 th fourteen volumes — in the 1970s. And in This year started publishing dvatstsatsitomavik. Quantitative progress is obvious — in comparison with the latest edition added six volumes. How would you rate the quality of the new edition? Or it shows that Russian kolasovedeniyu — at altitude? "
Anatoly Sidorevich: "So called" professor of literature "can pout may grumble, but the scientific literature in Belarus had finished its existence in the late 1920s. That literature, which is indicated by the names of Ivan Zamotin, Vladimir Samoilov, Adam and other people’s men, was raped, strangled, and in its place came a hodgepodge of literature and ideology. Partisanship, nationality, class struggle in the literature have been his main aspects.
Rainer Lindner exploring Belarusian historiography, said that actually historiography as a science in Belarus was not. After, as Picheta, Dovnar-Zapol’skii and other historians an old school were removed from Belarus, the historical science, which was in Byelorussia, you can call pavnavukay. And I used this term when he wrote about The Complete Works of Yanka Kupala, in the medium to kupalaznavstva and general cultural history. The same failure understood and Collected Works Kolas. First that prepared people of a bygone era. Pretty view of the editorial board. I do not think Vladimir Gnilomedov whether Misha Isaacovich Mushinskii able to decisively break with the past. Surprisingly, but the editorial board and Misha got Myasnikovich — stately literary critic, for sure. There’s also helpful and the new director of the Institute of Literature Valery Maksimovic, whose reputation as a literary institution and administrator known. Of actually tekstolyagav Recieved hit seems to be one Teresa Dove. "
How were atheistic poems Kolasa
Scoble: "You mentioned Dr. Misha Mushinskii, who wrote the introduction to the Collected Works Kolasa. It takes as many as 150 pages — an entire monograph. But when I read it, I got the impression that the creator deliberately avoids certain facts Kolasauski biography. Particularly as regards 20s and 30s. Maybe I superfluous picky reader? "
Sidorevich: "This is not a picky reader seen. Mushinskii almost all mentions. For example, the fact that in the 1930s Vitaly Wolski came with a search warrant to Kolasa and put it against the wall with their hands up … This is what I heard from Daniel Konstantinovicha Mickiewicz, from Yankee Bryl. Bryl And he said Spike, as he several nights a week sleeping in a chair without undressing — expected arrest.
Or second fact may be mentioned. Yuri Vitbich recalled how he and a friend went on an errand to Kolasa. And he lived there, where at the moment the park administration bitter. Guests are coming up on the porch, opened the door, summer. And they hear the sounds of the violin and singing. (Teacher royal era had to be able to play a musical instrument, and Colas played the violin.) He plays and sings: "Kolesnitsegonitelya Pharaoh smote O Lord …" This "Caring people of Israel out of slavery", a popular book of the Bible to us. Guys knocked cautiously jamb, Colossus turned hastily adjourned violin, they chatted. And after a number of days Vitbich writes in the newspaper appeared atheistic poem Kolasa. He was obliged to show loyalty to the communist ideology. Afraid that the guys at him nastukayuts. "
"Substitution of the word" God "- a concession Kolasa Russian ideology
Scoble: "All of the previously collected works Kolas out at a time when censorship operated. Well, unless dvuhtomavik 1928 managed to jump. So here, in the word" From the Editor "in the first volume of the new edition states that" censorship and distortion avtatsenzurnyya Text corrected for an autograph. "How not to rejoice: finally have bestsenzurnaga Kolasa".
Sidorevich: "You are mistaken, and censorship was in 1928. Each municipal publishing was sitting palitredaktar. Absolutely. Do not forget, in 1928 revealed favorites Kupala" works. 1918-1928. "And in the pages of books Minsk saleswoman enveloping herring in stores. This is me time Paul said Prudnikov. So here, specifically in 1928, preparing own dvuhtomavik, Kolos reworked their "pre-revolutionary" product in accordance with the requirements of Russian ideology. Even then. After all, for example, could not remember the name of God, it was impossible to write the word "God" with a little letters.
Uncle Kolasa Lyosik with similar occasion at one point was in an unenviable situation. In Belpedtehnikume he explained the use of the word "dominion" and gave an example: "flooded devils holy place." Raises student Komsomol activist and sarcastically asks: "Uncle Lyosik! What the hell and what a holy place you have in mind?" And poor Lyosik horrified. He allowed ideological error. "
Scoble: "I do not kolasaznavets not tekstolyag. But during training poetic anthology" Beauty and Power "revisited an old edition. Remember, was taken aback when he found discrepancies in the text verses Kolasa" first thunder. "Starting a poem in the book" Vodgulle " (1922) reads as follows: "The Voice of God, quiet and fundamentally, thunder drive up …" In later editions — is the "voice of power." Looked — "power" instead of "God" and remained in a new Collected Works. And I understand its components. Say, will the creator … "
Sidorevich: "Listen closely," the Voice of God quietly and radically drive up the thunder. Meadow said thunder drawl, said an old forest. "Do you hear what sound recording? And at the moment," the Voice of power … "Everything. Spend recording. This is when taking a purely aesthetic side. Naturally, the substitution of the word" God "- a concession Russian poet ideology is compulsory revision. New Collected Works constantly references to Collected Works 1952. Above him, by the way, the whole team worked. As advisers were then Petro Glebko and Kondrat Nettles viewed, so that, God forbid, not Colas did any ideological errors. Do not forget that when Colace besides Maxim Luzhanin was sitting. "
"Where Kolos could protest against the abuse of his creative personality?"
Scoble: "Luzhanin in their own memoirs recalled how Glebko and Nettles brought Kolas my edits, and he does not always agree with them …"
Sidorevich: "The same kind of changes in textbook poem" East of the sun. "Remember?" In the east the sky plays overflow glitter, gold sprinkles over the grove and over the woods … "So, here, in the Russian editions of the poem missing third stanza: "And the golden sun sinks in the road, expensive to burn the candle at the altar of God." How is it — "A Candle … before the altar of God … "You, Comrade Kolos, religion preaching? It would seem that nowadays nobody forbids to return the first edition. But Russian reflex is triggered, all is left as it was, and with all this literary reference to" the will of the creator. "
Mention one fact in the history of literature. "Resurrection" by Leo Tolstoy published with the king, and there is also made notes. But if ryhtvavsya the publication of works of Tolstoy in 90 volumes, compilers checked back in and texts. And did not refer to "the will of the creator." After all, the whole of Europe, whole world knew that the royal censors cut novel "Resurrection." But then Tolstoy could send datsenzurnyya proofs in London, w
here his assistant was sitting Chertkov and published this same novel without censorship cuts. And from the English edition of the novel was translated into British, German, French, and other languages. And now tell me where Spike could protest against the abuse of his creative personality? "
Which option "newest land," says the canonical
Scoble: "What about the other texts in similar cases? Clearly, the poem" The newcomer land "has several options. So what is so iconic?"
Sidorevich: "Not the first option. Since Kolasa after pershapublikatsyi" newest land "very criticized for language errors, and he finished the poem. Imperfect and the option that now appears as the canonical and got on the translation workbench Czeslaw Senyuh. By my opinion, should be considered canonical edition of the "newest land" in 1927 — with invektyvami, with studs in the address Russian reality. Since then, that did Ear with his own poem later — it again as a concession poet censorship requirements.
On the other hand, I agree Kolos reworked their works. Take the poem "The first acquaintance." Compare nashenivskoy option (simple enough) and a variant of the same in 1928. It is the land and the sky. And if you’re a literary critic, you should note in the comments, which were edited temper. For example — changes in the poem "East of the Sun" were caused by political demands. Or — changes in the poem "first acquaintance" caused art requirements. Write it in the comments. And those who prepared the first volume dvatstsatsitomavika Kolosov, did not.
What should we bring to the ordinary reader — ideal or worse? Of course, the better. Either there is another method. Used it Vladik Davydovskaya when deposits favorites Vladimir Dubovki series "Poetry of the twentieth century." There’s poem "On Belarus, May Briar! .." Placed in a 2-ways. Why is it so impossible to make in the Collected Works Kolasa? "
Scoble: "In the first volume Kolosov dvatstsatsitomavika placed and Russian poetry. As Kupalovskaya Collected Works — Polish-language. However, Kolos narifmovat in Russian more than Kupala Polish — about fifty works. What they look like from an artistic point of view? "
Sidorevich: "I will answer for you so. Adnafamilets Kolasa Adam Mickiewicz wrote in Polish and became a classic of Polish literature. Konstantin Miscavige not could become classic Russian poetry. A classic of Belarusian literature he became. "
Why Kolas slipped away partisan topic
Scoble: "After the war, Yakub Kolas took up writing novels about the guerrillas under the title" The Earth is calling. "But he did not carry out the plan. How do you think that is why the creator of the" quagmire ", the creator of such vivid species as grandfather Talash again slipped away partisan topic ? "
Sidorevich "Santa Talash acted in the Soviet-Polish war. Before Kolas was a very sad experience Alexander Fadeev, the creator of the novel" The Young Guard. "His characters arbitrarily, without a party and Moscow, made a clandestine company settled the fight against the invader. And here came" Young Guard "in the first edition, and Fadeev gave the head:" And where the guiding role of the Party? "And Fadeev was obliged to invent this role.
Kolos was in a similar situation. All our failure epic war prose that writers were required to write with caution. Take Ivan Chigrinova. He had, as gomeapat, dosing in the novels own positive and negative, to demonstrate the leading role of the Party. The same was required to make Boris Sachenko in the novel "The majestic forest." Because — that "the Earth is calling?" When Russia were mishandled NKVD troops and destroyed local autocratically organized guerrilla groups who did not want to obey the party committee?
The time will come, and someone writes, as the hero of the Union of Russian Varvashenya destroyed peasant self-defense groups (not LBP, which was later made Ermachenka of Cuba). Farmers plowed funny day and NIGHT MODE, taking guns on his shoulders, guarding their village against robbers, who came out of the woods. So I could not write Kolos truthful thing about the guerrillas. "
Scoble: "And why not write to the table?"
Sidorevich: "What in the box did not read it? .. It Misha Pryshvinu fooled Stalin. At the reception of Russian writers leader asked:" And you, Michael M., as before about dog writing? "" Yes, Joseph Visarionovich, about the dog. "And Pryshvin wrote not only" about the dogs, "he left behind a diary for themselves in eight volumes. It is an inexhaustible source for historians, and — once — beautiful prose!"
Who wrote for Kolasa journalistic articles?
Scoble: "The failure of our poets besides that from time to time be made by publicists. Forced Kupalu and even wrote for him. Forced and Kolasa.’s Here with some of his articles:" There is no place for nasty traitor Russian sacred ground "( 1938), "The Party — our will, our brain, our heart" (1953) … How to deal with similar texts? "
Sidorevich: "Thanks to Vitaly Skalaban, I climbed into the kitchen and saw a similar article Kupala printed on the machine for some reason Misha Klimkovich. And even changes made hand Klimkovich. Good to see in the collections of essays with similar articles or given faksymile typescript with handwritten revisions creator. And which can be say …
Boris told me about one episode of weeds. Goes another issue municipal loan for economic reconstruction after the war. On this occasion, "Lima" must seem recognizable artists appeal to the people. And under it, as it is written with the CC must also be signed Kolasa. Written appeal. No poet in Minsk, he vorachivaetsya from Moscow by train. Weeds with the employee come to train. Ear not come out. Neduzhitsya him, he can not raskaturhatstsa. Messengers go in the car, explain what they need, and hear in response: "Fuck you in there … Write, what would you like! "But at the moment this appeal include, apparently, in Collected Works Kolasa".
Scoble: "Anatoly, was released until the first volume. Total recall, volumes will be 20. And work on them as I know, still is. What would you wish for the future compilers, editors, and everyone who works on the Collected Works of Yakub Kolasa? "
Sidorevich: "I have nothing to wish can not. Specified method, patterns of elongated trunk. Coming soon second that he is cut out for the same patterns. Dvatstsatsitomavik Kolasa as desyatsitomavik Kupala not up to academic publication. This is pavnavuka . Unfortunately, scientific kolasovedeniyu as general this literature, Belarus does not have. "
Contact the creator of transmission: m.skobla @ tut.by
"Instead we have literary — pavnavuka"