We are used to treat lightly the so-called "childhood infections", they can cause discomfort to the child, bring the problem to parents who are forced to sit on their child of the day and night, but usually they occur easily and quickly forgotten. However, the apparent harmlessness of such infections. They can be quite severe in children. In adults, the "children's" infections are much heavier, more often accompanied by complications and can even lead to death.
Recently prevalence of measles, mumps, rubella, and other infections in adults is increasing. Ironically, it is not least due to the widespread introduction of mass vaccination. It really helps to dramatically reduce the incidence among children, but over time the immune system is reduced, so that many teens and adults who, through vaccination, not chickenpox in childhood, are vulnerable to infection. Here are manifested insidious properties of the "children's" infections. This is confirmed by the observation that nearly half of adolescents and adults, has no antibodies in the blood, which should protect them from disease. Especially people prone to infection in groups — schools, vocational schools, universities, army, where outbreaks of childhood diseases affect so many at once.
In adults with measles is usually celebrated runny nose, mild conjunctivitis since the first day of illness. At the same time there are such frequent child's symptoms as catarrhal angina, puffy face, and changes in the throat redness confined to the posterior pharyngeal wall. In contrast, children in adult patients, there is a rough cough, shortness of breath, but can develop tracheitis and bronchitis.
Duration catarrhal period in adults is an average of 3-4 days, and, unlike children, characterized by the gradual emergence and development of symptoms with an increase during the period. Period rash retains the characteristic features — Stages of manifestation, with the spread of the person on the trunk and limbs, and the transition to the pigmentation. Rash typical of measles, bright spots with a tendency to merge. Continuing usually 1-1.5 weeks. Severe forms of measles are more common in adults (especially those over 70 years). One in five complications can occur — most often it is sinusitis, otitis, more rarely meningitis and pneumonia.
Measles during pregnancy increases the risk of serious adverse outcomes, which may be manifestations of premature birth, increasing the likelihood of spontaneous abortion and low birth weight.
Mass vaccination against mumps has led to certain changes in the nature of the spread of the disease. Earlier they were sick mostly children aged 3-6 years, in the last decade, there was a significant "povzroslenie" infection. Children 3-6 years develop a relatively rare, but the incidence among school children has increased by 14 times. Now students — nearly two-thirds of all cases, and the remaining one-third accounted for by adults. Moreover, among those previously vaccinated against mumps, registered a more severe form of infection.
At the moment, more than 30% of the adult population has no immunity against this "child" of the disease. Frequent outbreaks in closed collectives. In adults, the disease is not very different from the classic form. The disease is characterized by acute onset with fever up to 38-40 ° C, with the appearance of signs of general intoxication, pulling pain and feelings of tension in the parotid region, tinnitus, most marked a bilateral lesion of parotid salivary glands. Within 4-5 days of defeat peaks and disappears after a further 7-10 days.
Adult characterized by frequent involvement in the nervous system which indicates the severity of the disease. The leading role is orchitis, that is inflammation of the testicles, which is registered in a third of all male patients, which can lead to future infertility. Often, the pancreas is affected, which is manifested by abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting. Approximately 4% of the cases (and it is a lot) is developing meningitis.
With the increasing incidence of mumps, the order of the Ministry of Health introduced a vaccination (or previously vaccinated once — revaccination) pupils and students of 1-2 courses of secondary and higher education institutions, without a history of mumps. In Moscow, a regional calendar of vaccinations included re-vaccination against mumps students grades 9-10 who have not received it in the age of six.
The disease is widespread in both children and adults. Among all patients, more than 80% are children, mostly between the ages of 3 and 7 years. However, in recent years, the epidemic process of being attracted to adults, whose share in the total of cases per year is about 15%. Each year, about 100,000 ill adolescents and young adults exposed to rubella incidence periodic ups, and its level is increased every 3-5 years, followed by a decline. On the decline of rubella are sick, usually only children, while in the period of growing epidemic rise in the number of cases among adults.
Rubella is considered mild disease. However, this definition is valid for the flow of the infection in children. The disease in adults is characterized by more severe, often occurs with prolonged fever, joint disease and internal organs. Of complications for adults more characterized arthralgia (joint pain), and arthritis (joint inflammation), which develops in 3 of the 4 cases, especially in women. A special problem is created by congenital rubella.
In total, according to the World Health Organization, rubella annually injure about 300,000 children. It is known that when infected women in the first week of pregnancy, fetal loss occurs in 80% of cases, for 2 to 4 weeks — 60%, and 5-week 8 — 30% and a 9-week 12 — 10%. When infected at a later date the probability that the fetus will develop defects decreases, but even 5 month danger still exists for one of the 10 children.
For congenital rubella is characterized by a triad of anomalies: cataracts, heart defects and deafness. However, the effects are also possible in the form of blood disorders (hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia), pneumonia, low weight and small stature at birth. Adverse effects on the fetus rubella is also seen spontaneous abortions (30%), stillbirth (20%), death in the first month of life (20 percent). Congenital rubella the cause of death in 20% of cases, the number of deaths due to intrauterine infections.
WHO recommended the need to include rubella vaccine into the national immunization calendar. By the calendar vaccination in Russia, adopted in 1997, rubella vaccination was made mandatory and for our country. However, unfortunately, is not yet defined the tactics and strategy of vaccination of women of childbearing age. In addition, the situation remains difficult because of the lack of domestic vaccine preparation, and purchasing existing imported vaccines is complicated by the lack of appropriate funding.
Chickenpox usually occurs in children, but it can also occur in adults, and, as in the case of other childhood infections, it runs harder and often leads to death. Although adult chickenpox affects approximately 2% of cases, they give 25-50% of deaths in this disease. According to some authors, among patients are men, mostly aged 18-23 years.
Symptoms in adults does not differ from the children, but the disease occurs much harder. More than 80% of cases there is moderate hepatitis, and 8% — heavy. In some cases, the recorded deaths. The disease usually develops in adults with acute fever (up to 39-40 ° C), acute malaise, weakness, headache. The nature of the rash is quite typical, but is characterized by a profusion. Adult characteristic swelling of the lymph nodes, which in children is rare.
Heavy, with subsequent complications during varicella occurs at any age and is not always associated with the presence
of other diseases, but at the same time, most of the disease is more common in people with blood diseases, severe congenital abnormalities, as well as the elderly.
Another problem associated with the activity of varicella in adults is another disease — shingles. And then, and other disease caused by a type of herpes virus. During the transferred varicella zoster virus enters the nerve cells and from that moment infection as if transfixed, waiting for a weakened immune system. The resumption of activity of the virus in the nervous system caused by the decrease in the intensity of immunity to the pathogen in middle and old age, leads to shingles, a painful characterized by intense itching in the characteristic rash that covers several areas of the body along the nerves. Itching preceded by intense pain in the affected areas. Lesions on the skin disappear within 3-5 days (sometimes — up to a month), and the very disease lasts 10-15 days.
Whooping cough — probably the only one of the "children" of infections is less scary for adults than for children. Pertussis ill children and adults, but to distinguish the infection in the past can rarely. According to statistics, the proportion of patients over 15 years among patients with pertussis is 5-12%. Probably adult whooping cough is more common, but often undiagnosed and not recorded as proceeds without the characteristic seizures. In a study of people with persistent cough lasting at 20-26% detected pertussis infection Based on the detection of antibodies in the blood.
In adults disease proceeds without attacks whooping cough, bronchitis manifests long. Body temperature typically remains normal and satisfactory general health.
In recent years, doctors are seriously engaged in the problem of "growing up" of children's infections. This question is the subject of many scientific papers and medical conferences. Great help in the fight against this phenomenon must have to develop more effective vaccines, as well as the introduction of new schemes of vaccination, capture a larger percentage of the population and provide a more durable immunity.