This article focuses on high-accuracy model kits of the Yak-130, which has allowed Russian team RUSJET and its pilot Vitaly Robertus capture the league title at the World Championships Jet World Masters 2011 in the United States. On one of the photos shows a real Yak-130. Try to guess at what.
According to some reports, in Germany approximately two million modelers. Models is more popular in other countries in Europe and even more — in the United States. In Russia, this is a hobby prefer only about hundreds of thousands of people, and for the population of 140 million is a drop in the ocean. And yet specifically Russian team RUSJET managed not only to become the best in the world in the most complex class of radio controlled models, copies, and one hundred percent revolutionize the production of copies of the accuracy, raising the level of detail on the model previously unattainable height.
At competitions copies total party consists of 2-count: static (Metal) and flight in the ratio 50/50. Judges, from 3 to 5 people — experienced experts in the field of aviation and modeling. Participants themselves provide them with documentation set: more than 5 10 s quality large format photos of the prototype aircraft in all possible angles, with all relevant details and drawings of the original. These documents associate judge model participant.
Taken into account the small details: the outer contours of all parts, sheathing panels, hatches, locks, rivets, precision color palette, markings, labeling and even scrapes and damage seen on the prototype aircraft. But even the most brilliant static score will not be counted if the model does not rise up into the air. For summer programs from participants themselves choose aerobatics, suitable for their layout. Speed and smoothness of flight angular velocity model for maneuvering, general character behavior in the air and even the sound of the engines must be identical with the layout.
In remembrance of arbitrators shall appear that they behold the real plane in front of him. Almost throughout this pilot task: it must operate the machine properly and in the air, and even on the ground — during taxiing and permission to take off.
Idea to build a copy of the new training aircraft Yakovlev came up pilot Vitaly Robertus and coach Paul Lapshov far in 2005. While the team gained experience intense performances at international competitions with model airplanes F-15 and BAE Hawk. Years of experience have given speeches to realize that the importance of the choice of layout competitions models-copies is crucial. In this regard, we consider two factors — technological and aerodynamic.
The competition rules do not regulate any scale model, nor its actual size. Limited to only one parameter: the mass of the model without fuel must not exceed 20 kg. «Imagine to yourself that you have decided to build AN-225» Mriya «- says Pavel noodles. — To put the model in 20 kg, you choose the scale of, say, 1:20. This means that the standard 6mm rivet on the housing layout reincarnated as inconspicuous eye point, and hydraulic hose — in hair. The scale of our «Yak» — 1:4. Polutoramillimetrovuyu rivet completely and can see and recreate in the model. «
Aerodynamics are not perfectly scaled. Air viscosity and other characteristics of the atmosphere favor larger aircraft. Because profitably make a model while maintaining a very large mass capacity.
In the end, not all aircraft are suitable for model aircraft flying qualities of competition. For example, aircraft designed for supersonic speeds, is not quite good for «subsonic». Large sweep, small footprint and narrow profile of the wing with low drag give incomprehensible maneuverability, higher speed flight and landing speed that awkward and for the pilot, and the arbitrators.
Subsonic trainer Yak-130 with its huge wing low sweep proved impeccable choice for the creation of copies. Besides the new aircraft easier to copy, because it still would not like faded paint, oil stains and other signs of honor age.
Second step to work on a model — a comprehensive collection of disk imaging on a real airplane. Surfing the web will not help here. To get to the exclusive, sometimes you have to exhibit the properties of a real detective. Vitali and Paul persecuted the Yak-130 on all air shows, exhibitions, demonstrations, trials. Documentation requirements divine presence photos from all angles, including the bottom and the side. Had many times on duty at the end of the runway before the demonstration flights to photograph the car on the rise, and then race «race with the plane» to the top of the strip to remove the machine on landing with landing gear. Photo above — particularly unique, taking into account that the test flight occasionally doing aerobatics. «And you can go for fencing? Can I? Thank you! A climb into the cockpit? This is to the head? «
Chiefs led longish chain, nothing less, to the chief designer Yakovlev Design Bureau. After receiving a letter detailing the project, technical justification and already impressive list of sports awards team Konstantin Popovich gave resolution: guys need to promote. Cooperation with the Yakovlev Design Bureau has become a major factor in the development of the project. The first time modelers were able to work not only with photos and drawings of obscure encyclopedias, which at the technical level is unrealistic correctly re airfoils and fuselage, and with real drawings and sections applicable for the creation of a clear 3D-model.
Factory documentation has allowed exactly recreate the kinematics cleaning landing gear, brakes and air, which is especially important, flaps. Flaps on the Yak-130 move in a complex line of motion: first fade back, and later move down sharply. This happens due to the scheme of the pantograph with different length and shape of the links. Each flap 10 is suspended on support bearings, and this circuit absolutely recreated model.
Another know-how RUSJET — wheels. Rubber brewed in the same factory who manufactured tires for real Jaka. She repeats sketch tread every inscription, every runner. Not enough, under the weight of the wheel prominaetsya model exactly as true. Usually the bus to make the whole model of foam rubber or hollow, but with thick walls. Bus Plane RUSJET consists of a thin rubber sheath, foam rubber layer and a rigid composite structure that fills a large part of the place. Rigid insert allows you to maintain form and Myagenkaya filler determines the moral deflection, with all this wheel assembly with brakes came out to about 30% lighter.
Obviously, the most important work in the development of model preparation — body. Unlike real aircraft fuselage, which is going from a huge amount of detail in the database model is reinforced monocoque. It begins with: preparation milling master model. Traditional technology body sawed by hand and controlled by the photos and sections. Subtotal published several approximated.
The model’s RUSJET was milled from a dense foam on specially prepared 3D-models on a 5-axis CNC machines. For technological reasons, had to be made separately some parts of the fuselage, for example vozduhopoglotiteli ducts and internal motor, gear doors and much more. Individual machine set up the pass on the model a few hundred labels, which greatly facilitated the application of the upcoming plating. So did the master model of the wing, empennage and deflecting surface.
After milling master model puttied, sanded, glass fiber reinforced, where necessary, and the master starts pointing markup fuselage. Using a ruler and a laser level it draws on the master model boundaries duralumin sheets in strict accordance with the jointing layout. When markup is ready, you can begin the most labor-intensive step of the work on the master model — pasting foil.
Compacted duralumin foil 0.1 mm wide, is used for plating baths — a very flexible material. She perfectly rolled, stretched along a curved surface. Jointing strips glued tight with tape glued on top of the foil, and then iron sheet trimmed by band oozed tape. Eventually, pieces of foil shape exactly repeated dural panel layout and have the exact boundaries.
From special «davilok» foil are pressed rivets and screw heads. Their number and placement exactly match the original. If inadvertently collector screw was screwed crooked model he too will be crooked. It is about 10-thousand framework of rivets and screws. Careful handmade foil covering only the fuselage model took Vitali and Paul about 3 months.
Master model fuselage comes out very weighty: two guys hardly carry it from place to place. Fortunately, she did not have to fly: the master is used for the production of industrial production — the matrix. The surface of the master model cover special composite material layer by layer, ready matrix attached wood and metal designs for amplification. As a result, the working surface of the matrix is exactly the same aspects of small master model. Total for building models was about 200 matrices for individual elements, including even glass and a protective helmet of the pilot.
For the production of at least some parts of the composite in the form of colored laid previously calculated set of materials (fiberglass, carbon cloth, Kevlar, lightweight foam sheet, honeycomb). This «sandwich» impregnated polymeric resins, together with the matrix is placed in an airtight plastic bag. From compressor pumped all the air bag. Thanks to the created vacuum defuse firmly sandwich and soaked moderately pressed over the entire area of the matrix. After polymerization of the resin is extracted from the matrix finished strong and lightweight item. With all of this in all the pointing accuracy is transferred to the surface of the part.
Foil and plastic monocoque model — this is a very fundamental development, anticipatory analogues based on beliefs and mass, and detail. Many modellers paste foil specifically housing models. They have to use a narrower foil worse transmission parts «breadboard». With all of this model still leaves more weighty than the pure plastic.
Up to the limit
With the creation of the parts of the airframe work on model is just beginning. Modeler to do an internal set of the fuselage, which is attached to all aircraft equipment, collect all items into a single unit, pave electronic, fuel and pneumatic band.
Equipment model in bulk. Yak-130 — two jet engine with fuel systems are independent, 5 batteries, compressed air system with a 12-cylinder, resulting in motion a mechanism for cleaning the landing gear, landing gear doors, air brake and axial partitions vozduhopoglotiteley, 22 control cars, four of which are responsible for slopes knobs in the cockpit. By the way, the competition in the cockpit «Yak» sits very real aviator — a flying suit with a face and chief pilot Yakovlev Roman Petrovich Taskaeva. Before the pilot placed LCD monitors, which displays a detailed view of the layout of electrical devices.
Taken together body, wing control surfaces, engine, chassis, and a basic set of equipment copyists called «ugly duckling.» This is just the layout of the upcoming «battle» of the aircraft that will fly in the competition. As such, the aircraft can make the first flight, demonstrating its flying characteristics. This is an exciting, but not a defining moment for its creators. Because there is still a long job. Need to spend a few 10’s flight with the same engines change options, performance management and aircraft assembly. Overestimate this step difficult, because without it, the model does not get a long summer and life is doomed to fall.
Second model is built with all the patches. Boils work on «breadboard»: cockpit: preparation, tubes antennas, sensors, sticker fixing protrusions, colors and models of small parts in precisely matched colors, apply labels and labeling, decorating scuffs and stains. Separately done even airplane accessories wheeled shoes, ladder, plug the motor carrier. Model receives a complete set of lighting equipment (15 lights), the layout position on aviation rules.
Since the start of the project to the long-awaited world title last 6 years stubborn careful labor. Best estimate of the work of Paul and Vitaly Yakovlev Design Bureau set designers seriously discussing with modelers ability creation of working models for class tests promising aircraft. This method was used already by «Boeing» aircraft coming in for tests X-48A.
Followers are not going to rest on our laurels. Currently, the club has made a new «Yak», which promises to outdo the first unit and flying qualities, and «breadboard». If all goes according to plan, he will be painted in the national colors of the newest Air Force aerobatic team of. Paul promises that dummy pilot new aircraft will even turn his head and waving his hand to the arbitrators. It is not easy to keep moving forward when you are on top. After zabugornye competitors remains only to catch up.
In the photo: driver Vitaly Robertus, coach Paul noodle technician Maxim Lions.