Experimental bomber Tu-135

Experimental bomber Tu-135

In 1958, the OKB-156, under the same codes as the plane «135» (Tu-95 ° C.) were begun work on strategic activities impact the aviation system, which by its design characteristics was similar to the M-56 Myasishcheva VM

Work on «135» were carried out under the control of SM Jaeger TexProekt department. Work on this topic to illumine 1960 beyond exploratory research did not go out prepared several preparatory projects supersonic strategic aircraft, which in the main options for repeating projects B-70 developed in the United States. Since 1960 the work of autumn activated. October 3, 1960 was signed by the USSR CM Resolution № 1057-437, according to which:
— OKB Myasishcheva VM transferred to OKB Chelomeya VN as a branch and are exempt from development and design of M-56 — a supersonic aircraft carrier. Question project «PCP», M-50 and M-52 should be addressed separately;
— AN Tupolev, due to cessation of work on the M-56, within three months should give proposals for the establishment of distant supersonic reconnaissance aircraft and supersonic aircraft carrier with the consideration of the ability of their series-built factory in Kazan number 22.
In this work, received by the design bureau designation — plane «135» (Tu-135), those in the department. Jaeger SM projects spotted a huge number of projects and the creation of reconnaissance aircraft missile systems based on strategic options for various distant supersonic aircraft. For nearly five years have done a great job on the selection and justification of the main characteristics of the aircraft carrier and systems. Worked 10’s Project Options «135» with the implementation of the set of aerodynamic layout solutions for different types of engines. During the design creatively reworked and studied design experience distant supersonic strategic aircraft that were developed in the design office, as materials for projects KB Myasishcheva VM transferred to the Tupolev AN Apart from this closely studied the progress in strategic media «Valkyrie» (B-70, USA) who had since moved far enough. AN Tupolev planned to entrust the general management of the project «135» on Selyakov LL 1st ideologue M-50/52/56 aircraft, which was transferred to the Design Bureau in 1962.

In the course of research on the creation of shock programmke strategic intelligence systems and aircraft «135» OKB, TsAGI, aggregate and engine design bureau estimates were made of the system configuration, the path of development and likely effectiveness, considered scheme carrier aircraft, power plants, systems and equipment weapons.

For aircraft «135» saw the following types of engines:
— NC-6 (specific fuel consumption at cruising supersonic — 1.5-1.7 kg / kg.h; highest takeoff thrust — 23.5 thousand kg);
— NK-6B (1,5-1,5-1,75 kg / kg.h; 22480 kg);
— NK-6B (1.7-1.9 kg / kg.h, 18.7 thousand kg);
— NC-6C (1.6-1.7 kg / kg.h; 22.5 thousand kg);
— NC-10 (1.4-1.6 kg / kg.h; 24 thousand kg);
— R15B-300 (1.8 kg / kg.h; 15 thousand kg);
— P23-300 (1.6-1.75 kg / kg.h; 21 thousand kg);
— VD-19R (2.0-2.5 kg / kg.h, 13.5 thousand kg);
— P17-117 (1,7-1,1,8 kg / kg.h; 17 thousand kg).

Also an option for equipping aircraft «135» nuclear power plant (Yasu).

Depending on the magnitude of traction engines, their number varied from 4 to 6. During work on choosing a good aerodynamic design was fourteen aircraft models «135», which in the TsAGI checked 6 different schemes wing. 10 variants of engines. Best wing profile was determined on 5 variants. 6 variants — common properties at subsonic speeds and landing characteristics. Models selected properties maneuverability and stability, controls. Fulfills placement and shape of the engine nacelles, nozzles, vozduhopoglotiteli form channels to supply engines to air, investigated the mutual impact of the fuselage, wing and motor gondolas. According to the results of this work for the aircraft chosen scheme «duck» floating canards, one keel, delta wing having a variable sweep on the front edge and twin pods, spaced along the wing span. Elected assembly given the opportunity to obtain the values ​​of the aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft (rather highest) in various flight modes, which were confirmed during the research in TsAGI (for M = 0.9 K was 10.5, M = 1.2 — 8.3, M -2.5 — 6.5, M = 3 — 6.0).
Separately examined the question of creation of missile. As the base were selected ballistic missiles and air-launched cruise missiles for various purposes. Much attention is paid to the formation of the impact and navigation-piloting systems, on-board equipment REP made on the basis of the latest achievements of Russian electronic industry.

When designing shock-intelligence system Tu-135 design bureau developed the concept of the creation of the main provisions of strategic aircraft carrier, as systems based on it.

The highest speed of the limited 3,000 km / h (M = 2.82), and cruising — 2500-2650 km / h (2.35-2.5). This gave the opportunity to apply design aluminum alloys, with the introduction of only certain elements loaded heat-resistant materials and alloys, which made it possible to use recycled and conventional technology and industrial base serial aircraft plants without significant alterations, reducing design time and production at least 2 times.

Aircraft propulsion had to be double-circuit (turbofan) engines NK-6. This powerplant provided a huge range of 10-20 percent at supersonic flight conditions and 30-40 percent at subsonic and mixed modes, compared with other proposed engines. Also enables long flights at low altitudes. Also, the introduction DTRD NK-6 gave the opportunity to have a power plant with a monotype Tu-22 (plane «106»), provides an additional effect of using modifications of NK-6 or main propulsion units for civilian aircraft and aircraft vertical takeoff / landing ( NC-8, -36, -38, -144).

Based on analysis of the options and the huge amount of research for an upcoming design aircraft «135» have opted for a subsequent dimensions: takeoff weight — 160-200 thousand kg, wing area — 400-450 m2. Elected dimensions provides:
— a hands-normal range of flight at supersonic cruising (2650 km / h) — 8 sq m, the greatest practical range — 10 thousand km, with a range of in-flight refueling — 12 thousand km;
— obtaining practical maximum range subsonic mode (speed of 920 km / h) — 12-13 thousand km, with refueling in flight — 14-15 thousand km, obtaining practical maximum range low-altitude flight — 6 thousand miles.

If on the basis of shock «135» will be created his passenger version («135P»), a similar machine will be able to provide practical supersonic flight range — 6.5 sq km (non-stop flight from the USSR to the United States).

Based on the requirements of the Air Force for operation ability languid aircraft from airfields with rather weak concrete coating or primer, the plane «135» had to be equipped with ski-wheel or multiwheel chassis. It is possible to use the aircraft at takeoff weight of 160 kg thousand airfields first class and unpaved airfields advanced type. In accelerated version (take-off weight of 200 thousand kg) — with reinforced airfields first class and extracurricular airfields.

Work on the aircraft «135» on the delivery of highly shock carrier is not closed, it was conducted on the development of multi-purpose system that can decide on the basis of the 1st aircraft a wide range of operational and strategic objectives.

Plane «135» lozhili following tasks:
— search and liquidation carrier battle compounds convoys and transport vessels. In these cases, the aircraft had to be armed with 2 to 4 ballistic or cruise missiles with a range of acts of 500-600 km radius acts aircraft missile system without refueling in the air had to be 5 thousand km, with refueling — 6 thousand km ;
— search and destruction of carrier ships guided missile weapons, as well as nuclear submarines with ballistic missiles at distances that exceed the range of launch their missiles. Aircraft carrier with all this had to provide time loitering at a distance of two thousand miles — 8:00, three thousand miles — 5.3 hours, 4 thousand km — 2.7 hours, also equipped with search and anti-shock and anti-systems based ballistic and cruise missiles, anti-submarine torpedoes and bombs;
— failure or violation of military transport air transport. With all of this plane «135» is equipped with radar interception and guided missiles are also armed with 4-6 «air-to-air.» In this embodiment, the time loitering away 2tys. km was to be 8:00, three thousand miles — 5.3 hours, 4 thousand km — 2.7 hours. Data about the departure of military transport aircraft enemy had come from satellite intelligence system;
— conducting aerial photographic, radio, radar and specials. Intelligence at supersonic speeds without refueling in the air within five thousand miles, with refueling — 6 thousand km, at subsonic speeds — 6-6.5 thousand km and 7-7.5 thousand km, respectively, at altitudes of 20 -24 thousand miles. To increase the effectiveness of the intelligence system and the expansion of its radius acts as resistance to air defense, intended to use aircraft dorazvedchik which was suspended under the spy plane;
— defeat pinpoint strategic objectives which are protected by a strong system of missile defense and air defense with flying at low altitudes in the areas of their deeds. Radius system acts should be 3 thousand km. Armament «135» — two ballistic or cruise missiles with a range of acts from 150 to 350 km, and nuclear bombs.

As auxiliary tasks for the aircraft «135» considered a defeat strategic objectives at a distance of 7.5 thousand kilometers. With all of this plane had to arm ballistic missiles with a range of four thousand miles.

This shows that the system of Tu-135, in the form in which it was offered in the midst of the 1960s, was an air-missile system, which was supposed to solve the main operational and operational-strategic tasks. Strategic tasks entrusted to the system as a strategic system 2nd blow for strikes on small targets perfectly protected (underground mines intercontinental ballistic missiles, underground supply centers and management). This versatility allows to reduce the costs of deployment.

But NS Khrushchev relies on a complete rejection in favor of intercontinental ballistic missiles from manned strategic bombers. He did not dare to directly oppose the patriarch of the Russian Tupolev aircraft AN and suspend the theme of «135.» Tupolev offered to explore the possibility to increment a cruising speed of the Tu-135 to 3 thousand km / h, as in the South American XB-70. At the same time, as opposed to Tupolev, the task of designing single-mode for aircraft carrier battle groups liquidation issued «fighter» AS Yakovlev Design Bureau (Yak-35) and PO Sukhoi (T-4). In July 1962 a scientific and technical advice during which totaled competition. In discussing the draft proposals of the Tu-135 was criticized in part pererazmernosti (takeoff weight of 190 tons) and a cruising speed of this mismatch (2.5 thousand instead of three thousand km / h). Reasons Tupolev Design Bureau representatives were very competent and impartial — from the perspective of saving state. means advisable to build only one type of aircraft Tu-135, is able to solve not only the strategic tasks (with blows to the South American country), and puzzles distant aircraft for which the radius acts 3-3.5 thousand km sufficient. With this mode, the flight time at a speed of 2.5 thousand km / h increases only by 12 minutes (72 instead of 60 minutes). With all of this plane, Tupolev proposed, could carry from 4 to 6 missiles against 2 missile projects Yakovlev and Sukhoi. In September, it was planned to summarize. AN Tupolev realized that the Tu-135 project will be removed from the contest and therefore ordered his own KB cook under conditions of competition developed by the TU-125, intended for the substitution of the Tu-22.

During the second Scientific and Technical Council was discussed projects and military aviation institutions. Submitted draft Tu-125 failed due to competition own neprorabotannosti (significant «help» in this had Yakovlev AS)

Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR in December 1963, the development of the Tu-135 was closed in favor of shock Intelligence T-4. By the mid-1960s, work on the design Tu-135 were stopped altogether. The main prerequisites for this were: failure of the Air Force from the concept of single-mode supersonic strategic aircraft carrier with the transition to the idea of ​​developing the multi-purpose vehicle based on the languid aircraft having swept wing (same configuration occurred in the United States — the rejection of the B-70 , the launch of the B-1); design and technological difficulties encountered in the development of the system, especially related to modern avionics and sighting system, within its structure; highest price deployment. Although work on the Tu-135 ended many developing conceptual character, acquired in the design, used in the later development of the design bureau, namely, in the Tu-160 and Tu-22M.

Aircraft performance properties:
Modification — Tu-135;
Wingspan — 34.8 m;
Length — 50.7 m;
Height — 10.7 m
Wing area — 417 m2;
Normal take-off weight — 175 thousand kg;
Most take-off weight — 205 thousand kg;
Engine type — 4 DTRDF SC-6;
Link 1st motor unforced — 23.5 thousand kg;
The highest rate — three thousand km / h;
Cruising speed — 2650 km / h;
Practical range at supersonic speed — 7,8-8 thousand miles;
Greatest practical range (M 1) — 10 thousand km;
Practical range with one refueling (M 1) — 12 thousand km;
Practical range at subsonic speeds (920 km / h) — 12-13 thousand km;
Practical range with one refueling (M 1) — 14-15 thousand km;
Practical range at low altitudes — 6 thousand km;
Service ceiling — 19-22 thousand km;
— 4-6 cruise missiles X-22
— 2-4 cruise missiles X-45,
— 2-4 ballistic missiles
— 4-6 guided missiles «air-air»
— bomb.

source topwar.ru

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