Breakthrough technology and impressive — supersonic business jets, ships and unmanned tiltrotor — ready to start to develop the market tomorrow. Market from the same aircraft seem not require more speed and vertical takeoff and first economy, ecology and the greatest safety.
Competitions with sound
With the first flight of the forefather of all jetliners de Havilland Comet in the industry almost everything has changed, but the characteristics of speed almost worsened. «Concord» retired, and the need to rapidly fly left «- they say company representatives Aerion, the only project which developed a supersonic business jet, which remained afloat despite the crisis and the absence of a partner for the production. «It would be better accelerated passage at airports, and that in this sense is no supersonic. While you sit on the plane, will be held two hours. Yes, the road to the airport is the same, «- commented one reason unnamed South American blogger.
But to business aviation this refers to the smallest degree. Separate terminals, schedule and lack of the necessary formalities frisky make airspeed last frontier. It is planned that the maximum speed of Mach 1.6 (1,700 km / h) Aerion business jet will be able proparhat to 7800 km. Cramped interior: almost 3 m shorter and 35 cm is (9×2 m) than the Falcon 7X. In general, the rate of requests of the victims. Also sacrifice will bring $ 80 million This stated price of the aircraft.
But on the way to supersonic movements are not a major barrier means. According to Jeff Miller, to nedavneshnego time former head of corporate communications Gulfstream Aerospace, flying faster sound above ground is prohibited, because the creation of such aircraft loses its meaning. Echoes and Vadim Feldzer, head of communications Dassault Falcon. Eminent manufacturer fighters technological barriers uneasy. But bureaucratic forced to concentrate on the more pragmatic objectives: reduce the weight of the items here, there do better lift devices. While not change the legal climate, a breakthrough in supersonic direction is not expected.
But there is still a concept HyperMach SonicStar. Yankees Richard Lugg assured the British government that the transcendent project sharp as a needle nose, hybrid electric and kerosene engines claimed speeds of up to Mach 4 is not a figment of imagination, and completely real project, which is planned to implement by 2021. And the British government — unlike the native South American — agreed to support his initiative. That, of course, no guarantee of success.
Leading aircraft manufacturers are much more modest in their own expectations, and not many of them who believes that any nine years in aviation almost a paradigm shift. Relatively moderate based on beliefs ambitions Falcon 7X, mentioned above, has gone from the drawing board to the first delivery in seven years with the tremendous experience and financial capacity Dassault. Even inveterate optimist hardly believe that hypersonic business jet has a chance to meet the deadline. But there’s another way.
Richard Branson, founder of the group of companies Virgin, in an interview with the creator of your own article hinted that the ultimate purpose of creation Virgin Galactic — the first tourist «kosmolinii» — Not so much in the popularization of cosmic tourism (although it is, of course, in principle), but in the development of a network of cosmic passenger traffic. It would seem that $ 200 thousand, which require for a small flight at an altitude of 100 km, a priori deter those wishing to rapidly move from Dubai to Sydney or New York to Beijing. But the price of business charters long distances no less, and the ability to save up to 12-15 hours of time, and besides, experience weightlessness and visit space should attract a lot of visitors.
Here, too, the enemy number one would be the bureaucracy. Elon Musk, founder of PayPal, spoke angrily about government regulation, when engaged in project SpaceX, whose goal was to build a cheap comparable booster: «Ever since the Wright brothers’ rules of the game have changed very much. Who must comply with environmental and safety requirements. Be financially responsible for the trouble. In the end, permission to start that greenhouse gas emissions comparable to one takeoff 747 «Boeing» has to wait a whole year. Of course, I’m not saying that this is incorrect, but the price of cosmic innovations in the industry is very increases. «
Burt Rutan, creator of the most unusual aircraft, among which SpaceShip One — ship Virgin Galactic, and not hiding feelings: «Specifically, the government is making space flights unprofitable.»
About the aircraft capable of fly Piglet land develop imposing speed, and then just as elegantly land, many dream. And yet, despite the cool rotorcraft Fairey Rotodyne, British made almost immediately after the war, a successful carrier-based fighter Harrier and convincing, but beyond measure expensive V-22 Osprey U.S. military machine VTOL has not yet emerged on the civilian market.
But with the advent of new materials and technologies in a new century, the situation may change. Three manufacturer, AgustaWestland, Eurocopter and Sikorsky, bet on his own version. At first — tiltrotor AW609, the development of which began with the Yankees from Bell. According to its own essence it is similar to the military Osprey: gondola engines rotate together with screws depending on your flight mode. According to the plan AW609 must carry up to nine passengers, reach speeds of 509 km / h and fly almost 1,400 km. One «but»: the price of around $ 20 million, which is comparable with the price tag of a business jet middle class.
Eurocopter X3 with its concept tried to get all the advantages of tiltrotor configurations for small initial design. On serial EC155 installed two pinch screws that coupled with rotor driven two standard turboshaft engine. The resulting rotorcraft accelerates to 410 km / h
The most exciting version was at Sikorsky. Taking offbeat Western manufacturers coaxial circuit (horse Kamov) and adding a push propeller, Americans got X2, futuristic and agile concept that flies swiftly and far — 474 km / h with a range of 1,300 km. On the basis of these technologies is already preparing Sikorsky helicopter gunship S-97 Raider, the first flight is planned for 2014. And there to civilian models for long.
With the latest internals
If it is not clear how exactly will look corporate jets and helicopters outside, the internal configuration easier to predict. In the cockpit of increasing importance will have different electrical systems directly to what pilots canceled altogether. According to the views of many professionals, unmanned commercial transportation can profitably influence on safety.
As another trend 1st NASA researchers are exploring the possibility of creation of the cockpit, in which there would be no windshields, and instead of them the world around us would be displayed through the so called system of synthetic and enhanced vision. Modern avionics systems installed on advanced business jets — Falcon 7X, Gulfstream G650, Global 6000, already allow to land the plane in zero visibility, or using an image on monitors or use the indicator on the windshield. The very same idea — get rid of the cockpit glazing — appeared in the design of ultra-fast cars. Nose becomes so acute that windshields put just silly.
If the passenger seat liners are becoming thinner, the business jets this issue is resolved differently. In Gulfstream G650 for the first time will power seats, and limited world of aviation this breakthrough is more important than being able to make a marble floor (such option is offered by almost all the centers equip salons).
Other innovations that Gulfstream showed at the 2010 NBAA, have already moved to the salons of other manufacturers. Many have touch screens to control lighting, ventilation and other options, and in some machines can be found devices and applications for Apple, allowing to control the cabin directly from the phone via Wi-Fi.
But, for example, Embraer went even further and, in collaboration with the Brazilian design studios introduced concept LIFE: Salon distant future. Virtually weightless chairs, unusual lights and a large interactive sphere, replacing the entertainment system, together make futuristic picture worthy works of fiction. But lately, revolutions and then we can not expect all elements of the interior should be certified, comply with the weight and safety, also be standardized for maximum ease of manufacturing. If you want to make the board «by itself» — Welcome to the studio built salons.
General aviation rather timidly affects the atmosphere: it accounts for only 2% of all global greenhouse gas emissions. Shred business aviation and too slight. Yet «green» trend can be traced not only in marketing layouts, and in the actual production. «Greening» is usually characterized by fuel efficiency and performance is achieved by increasing the engines and systems that facilitate the design and optimization of space flight.
In lowering the weight main role went to composite materials. In this regard, of particular interest is its all-composite Bombardier Learjet with 85, who was about to make the first flight. In general, the least innovatorsky way, consisting in the use of experimental composites where they really let you reduce weight and simplify the design, too, can lead to success, that in practice justify the Gulfstream, Embraer and Dassault.
In general, make the most daring and unprecedented based on the belief traits planes could have long — just like you can make an awesome concept car. But how difficult the path to the assembly venue instance flow just as hard «supersamoletu» overcome the barriers of bureaucracy. In general, all Home Security. And do not want to fly slowly — follow the example Lugg or Branson: make your own plane.