Aviation Occurrence was perhaps one of the main achievements and landmark of the world population in the twentieth century. This fully applies to the Air Force, which has become not only an integral part of modern armed forces, and is often considered as a prime means of warfare.
Leap into the world elite and back
By the early twentieth century, after a long period of military test idea was prepared to accept the introduction of flying machines in warfare. Because the emergence of airplanes from the outset caused keen enthusiasm among the military departments of virtually all advanced countries and has led to the rapid growth of the acquisition of aircraft for the armed forces.
First airplane flight of the Wright brothers took place in 1902, and in 1908-1910 all «respectable» armies and navies began to purchase aircraft with carrying out various experiments on its practical application in military affairs. In the Italo-Turkish war of 1911 aircraft went into battle, and October 23, 1911 in Libya Italian army Captain Carlo Piazza made the first ever sortie by plane aerial reconnaissance, and November 1st Lieutenant Giulio Gavotti there performed the first aerial bombardment from an airplane.
The Russian military is also not far behind. Purchase of aircraft for the needs of the Imperial Army and Navy was launched in 1910, and in 1911 was made the first air units. Initially, land aircraft in Russia subordinate engineer troops, but August 12, 1912 was issued by the military departments to establish a special part of the Aeronautic Head of the General Staff. In commemoration of this action on August 12 is now considered the beginning of the creation of military aircraft of the Russian Federation.
But almost the appearance in Russia as a kind of Air Force forces with a single management can be read only since March 1916, when the War Office was created Office of the Military Air Fleet.
Either way, the beginning of the First World War Our homeland possessed the world’s largest fleet of military aircraft, airplane, there were 263 (for comparison: Germany had 232 military airplane, France — 138, England — 56).
Outstanding achievements of the Russian aircraft were Igor Sikorsky creating the world’s first four-engine bombers languid «Ilya Muromets» in Russia and the formation of the world’s first such compound bomber aircraft — Squadron airships.
At the same time, the weakness of the Russian aviation and in particular aviamotorostroitelnoy industry has led to the fact that in World War I dialed our state rate of development in this area could not be sustained, and our homeland began to lag behind the Western powers. RF had to resort to a wide import of aircraft and engines of the allied states. To illumine 1917 Russian military aircraft had about 1,500 aircraft — even less than the other countries involved in the war.
For catching the royal government had conducted an extensive programm construction of new aircraft and aircraft engine plant, but the results it has reaped in «red period» of Russian history.
Russian military theorists and practitioners from the outset paid great attention to the development of the Air Force. This was associated with a common passion of early Russian military thought to «technical means of struggle» (including the same tanks), which are considered not only as a more advanced by themselves for themselves (reflecting the general reverence before the Bolsheviks appliances), and as capable of becoming » perpendicular to the decision «in the case of a collision with the armies of more powerful Western imperialist powers. As a result, perhaps, the first time in Russian military history was an attempt to achieve high-quality advantages over the Western armed forces.
Since the late 20s as part of industrialization in the USSR began the creation of excellent programm strong military aviation, including its real base. In the short term was created by large aircraft and aviamotorostroitelnaya industry (in general, partly relying more on businesses built before 1917, and almost everything to «inotehpomosch» — so, virtually all western motors were licensed copies or modifications thereof), formed design teams , the development of all types of aircraft. While Western countries have relatively small air force «period of peace» in Russian Union since 1930 warplanes carried tyschami. In 1932, Russian Air Force became the countless world. With all this in the spirit of enjoying the popular doctrine Douai was then created an unusual air offensive in the world fleet of nearly 1000 multi-engine bombers of heavy-metal TB-1 and TB-third analogs then carried out in the West almost single copies.
But intervention «imperialist predators» in the thirties did not take place, made in the USSR fleet began to rapidly become obsolete, and the Russian aviation industry is faced with severe difficulties when trying to make a subsequent generation of aircraft and engines by the end of the decade. On the other hand, a negative trend was zeal Russian management approach to the construction of the Air Force based on the principles of mass army, which led to the replacement of the properties with a total amount inevitably low in this case, the level of training of the military aviation. As a result, the Soviet Air Force bolshennye seriously inferior to the level of training and preparedness cad ditch Western Force. In conjunction with the lag in the development of new types of combat aircraft, in fact, running a series exclusively in 1940-1941, it is intended languid defeat Russian military aircraft from the Luftwaffe during the baseline period majestically Russian war. Although the aviation industry following the Soviet Air Force was able to provide a sufficient number of aircraft, many of them superbly kept the German yield, and for all that the industry did not give enough modern bombers. As a result, the USSR created the first long-range bombers, had virtually no such efficient aircraft in the war. Lack bombers forced compensated conventional mass production and a cheap single-engine Il-2. Eagerness to take the number with a total lack of resources ultimately led to the fact that, although the Russian military aircraft brought it a significant contribution to the victory, but had military capability and combat effectiveness, not appropriate those funds and rivals as the German and Anglo-American aviation.
The golden era
After the war, Stalin had taken vigorous steps to eliminate the backlog in the aviation industry in the West, which became critical in light of the emergence of nuclear weapons, the main means of delivery which were initially aviation. Within a short time the Soviet Air Force made the jump in jet age, getting good and the latest MiG-15 frontline bomber and IL-28. By copying the South American B-29 (as the Tu-4) was reconstituted powerful long-range bombers, which to give service with the 1953 production of atomic bombs acquired strategic importance, and then received and modern distant jet and turboprop bombers. Pleasant evidence achievements was worthy role Russian aviation in the Korean War of 1950-1953.
Formed and developed in the postwar years has permitted the Soviet Union to fulfill the potential breakthrough in space, also begin to equip the Armed Forces of missile weapons of all classes. Although «universal raketizatsiyu» in the Khrushchev period often regard beliefs based on bad development actually the Air Force, but particularly at this time of Russian military aircraft made another jump in quality — from subsonic jet aircraft with a relatively conventional weapons and equipment to complex supersonic combat aircraft, equipment controlled missile weapon with extended weatherproof and virtually all growth traits.
Since the 60s Russian military aircraft, remaining more countless world in general, which is delayed with respect to high-parity in most positions with the U.S. Air Force and NATO countries. In the Russian Union was created by a number of landmark military aircraft: light frontline fighter, the MiG-21 fighter-interceptor trehmahovy scout and MiG-25, far bomber Tu-22M, languid transport aircraft An-22 and An-124. In a brand new development of aviation technology sector were made famous Mi-8 and Mi-24. Russian machine successfully passed combat use in the Vietnam War, a number of other local wars and conflicts, and later in the war in Afghanistan.
Proof of the highest levels of the Russian aviation industry and science was the creation to the early 80-ies Russian fighter fourth generation — the MiG-29, MiG-31 and Su-27 — with outstanding features, a number of characteristics superior South American standards. In the last decade of the Soviet Union conducted the establishment combat aircraft of the future generations.
At the same time the position of the Soviet Air Force was relatively controversial. Russian military aircraft as before was swollen in numbers. In the conditions of a sharp rise in prices and the difficulties of the last generation aircraft resources of the country began to miss as to maintain this population at the present level, and the timely development of new aircraft. It is significant that the flow of serial Russian fighter fourth generation MiG-29 and Su-27 combat units began only in 1985 — at a time when the U.S. Air Force had actually finished purchasing F-15 fighters and has almost a decade in full swing on the rearming F-16. Even at the time of the collapse of the USSR Air Force major fighter and air defense forces remained MiG-23, the third generation aircraft was armed with the bulk of combat aircraft and air defense. Obviously behind the USSR in the introduction of precision guided weapons aviation class «air-surface» in the development of aviation reconnaissance and target designation, combating enemy air defenses and in many other areas.
Disintegration of the USSR and the accompanying political and economic crises, painful economic reform of the 90s led to a sharp reduction in military spending and a collapse in the former state of the Russian armed forces subjected to the same section and between the former Soviet republics.
The share of the Air Force as a 1st of sverhtehnologichny and more sensitive to the economic situation of the armed forces fell in these criteria in particular languid tests. Also unchanged repeated permanent quantitative reductions of Russian Air Force since 1993 for almost fifteen years did not actually get the latest aviation technology and even been produced in sufficient quantities repair and upgrade the rest. Air Force almost frozen at the level of 1991, besides having fallen sharply in the quantitative composition and level of readiness.
Revival of Russian military aviation began only in recent years as a result of restoration of adequate funding …