Creating a MiG-31 — an entire era in aviation late twentieth — early 20th century, first, on the basis of which is designed, tested and adopted for aviation complex intercept the MiG-31-33. Complex, hitherto not excelled in martial abilities.
The development of an aerospace attack potential adversary since the early 60’s to the late 70-ies of the last century focussed on the development of the northern areas of aerospace. It was necessary to build a system of defense of the country with a wide range and large «deep north». Important role is assigned a fighter-interceptor.
And signed by the LI Brezhnev
In performed SRI-2 defense to the end of the 60’s — early 70’s overarching research were due to new approaches to aircraft fourth generation and its systems.
Serious reflection modeling potential enemy attacks from the northern areas also showed the need to implement the concept of a promising new fighter distant act.
According to the initial project developments, the same Air Force professionals and leading research institute (CRI-30 MO) are also designed to develop the aircraft as the modernization of MiG-25P, which is the last municipal joint (ICG) and troop tests in 1971-1972 and established itself as a high-altitude interceptor and efficient defense. But evidence position NII-2 defense and GosNIIAS discussed at high levels of USSR Ministry of Defense and «defense», was adopted by all instances and ultimately has allowed to construct one agreed tactical and technical requirements (PR) for the development of a promising aviation complex interception (ACT ).
ACT Development under the title of the latest generation C-155MP was entrusted MMZ «Zenith» behalf Mikoyan was started in accordance with the government decree on 24 May 1968.
Adoption of this resolution was the great success of military and civilian aviation industry scientists and a real breakthrough in the development of Russian weapons. CPSU General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, heard the report of the Chairman of the Presidential Committee for the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the military-industrial issues (MIC), expressed a desire to personally sign ordinance. Maybe this is the signature helped develop and test complex for 10 years before adopting it.
The original design of the complex, his «exposition», the creation of cooperative organizations subcontractors were conducted in OKB Mikoyan running head designer AL Chumatchenko. He, together with experts EDO, TsAGI, Erato and SRI SRI-2 defense had to deal with one of the tasks of building a fundamentally glider fighter: how to be the wing — variable or fixed geometry?
The requirement was inspired by already formed by the time view based fighter Grumman F-14 Tomcat, adopted in the U.S. in 1974. View entirely justified in accordance with its purpose, basing, volume of tasks, and hence aircraft performance characteristics significantly inferior projected MiG-25MP speed, altitude, range combat deployment, payload and a number of other characteristics.
Studies have proved that the refusal of a variable-geometry wing design eliminates excess weight (approximately 2,000 kg), decreasing its strength and complexity in the area of weapons bays underwing missiles problems also reduce resistance, unnecessary restrictions on the payload and the need for the creation of ground-based diagnostic and repair service .
More than thirty years of operation of the aircraft, including in the northern parts of the country, confirmed the correctness of this solution.
Corrections, danger and revolutionary solution
When developing complex government regulations and decisions MIC significantly complement TTT in ideology of its combat deployment, expansion and combat abilities, etc. It sought making significant adjustments in the design of systems, factory and flight tests and evaluation of combat abilities.
Fundamentally a matter of embedding complex turned into a single air defense system of the country in view of the promising systems — Creation of a distant aircraft interception, air controls and guidance, due to the ground means.
Before the main arms control and proper parts of the Soviet Air Force was a massive task to establish ACT C-155MP. It was necessary to fully implement the latest concept of air defense fighter aircraft in the direction of distant interceptors.
Many perceived innovation in complex industry with a huge resistance, especially in step creation of an experienced reference when had confirmed the concept of creation. Command of the Air Defense Forces, which are intended for complex, also referred to innovate with some caution.
Establishment of experimental reference and test complex, paying great attention from both Glavkomat defense, and by the Ministry of Aviation (MAP) and radio (MCI). Yet the process was difficult, especially with regard to on-board radar (radar) «Barrier» and weapons control system (VCS) «Barrier» in general. In developing beheld risk.
For the first time in the world aircraft industry as a fighter radar antenna was proposed communicating phased array (PAR). It is concealed inside a lot of surprises, problems, technical solution which criteria the aircraft seemed very problematic.
Based on the abilities of a fighter-interceptor (then it was called MiG-25MP), which limited ammunition with 4 long-range missiles with semi-active radar homing, it was necessary to allow simultaneous attack of four goals (two R-40T (D) represented dopvooruzhenie). And because the attack should choose a more insecure, «priority» goals require that the number of detected targets at once exceeded this value. Upper limit — 10 goals — determined by the sum of slots needed for their support, as the duration of the review area.
The magnitude of the field of view was to provide viewing space on the horizon at 200 km. In this case, the link of 4 interceptors could cover the front width of up to 800 km. Required detection range with an effective surface scattering (ESR) of 19 square meters (corresponding to the high-rise scout SR-71 — more difficult targets for air defense) — 180-200 km — was a few times greater than that of at least some other Russian fighter-interceptor since.
After analyzing all the available capacity, management of Instrument Research Institute named after VV Tikhomirov (NIIP) in 1969 took a very bold, revolutionary for its time decision — making power aerial scanning.
Full success PAR-adventure
To implement the revolutionary idea to introduce a system of «Barrier» electric scanning technologies required PAR — a fundamentally new class of antennas. Requirements for such PAR not allow any compromises between its parameters all the highest possible. At low weight and power consumption of PAR should ensure the highest utilization rate of the surface, have a low level of background radiation and the highest performance.
Thought with the headlamps on the fighter seemed to many an adventure. Then Marshal E. J. Savitsky, responsible of the Main Command Defense Forces for the development and tests, while Deputy Commander VPVO goes to unprecedented step. He makes an independent expert commission based development organization involving huge country professionals in the field of radar, antenna devices, weapons, element base, communications, etc. The objective — to evaluate the possibility of creating a fundamentally weapons systems with data on the TTT complex and applicable for a fighter features.
The positive decision of the commission gave way to the development of the upcoming SUV «Barrier» and the system as a whole.
For the first time an electric beam control carried out on a full-scale mock-PAR (AR-2) in March 1970, then followed by the development of documentation for standard PAR experienced. In 1975, began flight tests radar «Barrier» with a sample of headlamps mounted on a flying laboratory, and in 1976 the first MiG-31, filled SUV «Barrier» with phased B1.01 oriented test center in the Air Force for playing Akhtubinsk flight tests.
In December 1979, ICG completed C-155MP, which were conducted in the Air Force GNIKI Chkalov. Chairman of the Commission for testing became Marshal E. J. Sawicki, his deputy — minister of aviation industry Silaev (future president of the USSR Council of Ministers).
WOS system «Barrier» in the complex entered service May 6, 1981, the same day successfully completed tests of the R-33 — ACT main armament of the MiG-31-33, to develop along with radar and SUV «Barrier».
Pulse-Doppler airborne radar with a phased antenna array passive, part of the SUV «Barrier», and to this day has a number of unique features. In the SUV «Barrier» for the first time in the world in relation to aviation radar distant act implemented a three-channel (radar channel, illumination and detection system gosprinadlezhnosti) antenna system in the form of a monoblock with FAR frisky electric adjustment of the beam in space and digital device with narrowband Doppler filtering. Also for the first time aboard a Russian fighter in the composition of the WOS implemented pulse-Doppler signal processing, discrete-continuous illumination, LED tactical situation and a computer system with onboard digital computer (OBC) A-15A.
In the basis of the most promising developments
Development of radar homing MFBU-410 R-33, part of the armament of the new fighter, was charged with NIO-3 NIIP.
Not yet over ICG complex interception as started developing MFBU CSG-520 (modernization MFBU CSG-410) for more effective long-range missiles. It was held in the NIO-3 NIIP role sectoral divisions co-developers. In 1991 GosNIIAS issued a positive opinion on the results of simulation and testing of the rocket took mass production, rather than waiting until the ICG modernized complex, which successfully completed in 1992.
Series D MFBU-410/520 put promising developments functional base management systems missiles «air» long-range as part of fighter armament control system that is entrusted with tasks of information exchange with SUV fighter from launch to hitting the target, autonomous homing divert traffic on the line, improving the functioning of military equipment, etc.
Development of the R-33 was assigned to the GosMKB «Vympel». Originally designed for the destruction of the missile targets with overload up to three to four units. While this explains the need for liquidation of the main goals as a strategic bomber, and tactical means of carrier-based aircraft, strategic cruise missiles, in other words malomanevrennyh purposes. Naturally, this requirement has led to a decrease in the available overload rocket and its maximum range and altitude of defeats the purpose, effectiveness.
«Unsubstantiated» was corrected in the subsequent development of long-range missiles (ed. 520, 620 and following modifications, etc.) means balancing configuration of their features, increase energy and thrust-weight ratio, the growth time of power, leading to a substantial increase in their combat abilities.
The database management system missiles (MFBU-410/520) put semi-active radar homing head (CSG), which provides guidance to multi-board fighter radar with phased curb. With all of this target illumination is carried out in a discrete mode. In CSG indicator used girostabilizatsionnaya system with the greatest band of angular speed of sight up to 20 deg / sec and high accuracy of its estimation (up to 0.01-0.03 deg / s).
Capture target range Tu-16 homing (GOS) is 85-90 km, which is due to the implementation of the inertial missile guidance to the target lock on the line provides the greatest range of motion run up to 120 km.
Fundamentally for the introduction of long-range missiles is allowed to define a zone run. It can be defined as an analytical method, and the method of accelerated (proactive) simulation on board fighter special methods in digital computer with the issue of finding the pilot disk imaging target relative to the permitted zone run as implemented in weapons control system «Barrier».
To ensure the rocket launch of a guaranteed zone in weapons control system provides for measures to decrease the range of permitted no one to run, which is typical of small attacks and maneuvering targets.
To avoid lag
Flight tests ACT S-155 MP, represented as a set of fourth generation began in 1976. In this kind of complex had to pass tests CIO and army, which at various steps involved major organizations — developers of complex systems, test pilots of the 8th Air Force GNIKI crews of the 148 PPI PLC (p. Savasleyka), army air defense pilots, representatives NIU USSR Ministry of Defense, and the main commands VPVO Air Force test base of the 8th Air Force and GNIKI landfill Balkhash, full-scale and semi-realistic modeling complexes GosNIIAS.
According to the views of customers, main commands the Air Force, Air Defense and National Research Defense, development of the MiG-31 ACT-33 as of 1980 was somewhat delayed. Given the expected future trials, that the troops in the right amounts, it will be supplied only in 1984-1985.
During the decade (1975-1985) was characterized by the development of the air enemy proactive pace as in the field of military equipment and technology, and the development of ways of confrontation. Faced with the need significant upgrading ACT C-155MP to avoid the risk of lagging behind the level achieved zabugornom countries.
Thought modernization meant a significant expansion of combat abilities in complex ways:
increase the range and duration of the airplane due to improved motor features;
expansion detection zones on the corners and capture range goals radar «Barrier-M» to 250-280 km;
ensure dignity in distant rocket battles with the F-14 Tomcat upgrade missiles with extended range up to 300 km run, equipping its semi-active-active CSG, increase immunity and effectiveness of military equipment;
increase the degree of automation of algorithms and tactical goals to help the crew.
Quite large and difficult programm sought from industry meaningful effort, especially from organizations MAP and MCI.
Step development of the USA and NATO countries north of aerospace as a strategic direction in the direction of impact Sukhoi General Designer MP Simonov is suggested the use of military transport aircraft «Mriya» as aircraft uterus for 2-Su-27 in order to bring them limit strategic interception of the enemy closer to the North Pole. At that time, a tempting idea, but requires some elaborations by the military, which were performed and reported VPVO commander in chief.
This as one of the episodes of the case to the idea of distant interception recalls Air Defense Commander Colonel-General NI Moskvitelev: «After listening to our report, together with the Chief Aviation Administration SRI-2 Major General Aviation BM Dolzenko, A. I. Warlocks praised the idea, but not supported, and again we aims to improve the MiG-31M, which is on the far frontiers over the Arctic Ocean must destroy not only carriers, and cruise missiles themselves after their start at all heights in the forward hemisphere » .
Commanders Air Defense Colonel-General NI Moskvitelev and Colonel-General VI Andreev, understanding the importance and necessity of the creation of the system and thus far interception fighter distant acts showed every once unusual assertiveness in the discussion of this difficulty at all levels of implementation in all its steps and conducting large-scale exercises in the Arctic criteria involving modern aircraft (MiG-31B, Su-27, A-50 tankers Il-78T) and perfecting their combat issues in the implementation of the aviation system distant interception.
Great attention to this subject from the main commands VPVO and Air Force, MAP, MRP, the Ministry of Defense Industry (MOS), the Governing leading organizations — developers aircraft helped to create a very modernized MiG-31M.
Government Decree on the Development of a prototype fighter distant act (DID) C-255 was signed in 1984. Two years later, in the 8th GNIKI (Akhtubinsk) put one standard for flight tests with live firing.