1950s. Re going on the air defense forces of global new favorites SAM and adoption of supersonic fighter aircraft capable of rising to a height of 20 km. So, once becoming obsolete Russian strategic bombers Tu-95, M-4/6. Urgently needed supersonic bombers, capable of overcoming the resistance of new SAM air defense and air force fighters opponent.
Experimental Design Bureau V.Myasischeva running, according to the decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1954, which provided for the creation of a releasable distant bombers, consisting of percussion and medium bomber with four turbojets, begins to develop a supersonic strategic bomber intercontinental entitled M-50. It was intended for frisky substitution armed jet bomber M-6 (3M).
According to the acquired task, the new strategic bomber required:
— develop the highest rate of more than 1.5 M;
— have a cruising speed of 1500 ± 100 km / h;
— rise to a height of 14 km;
— deliver the bomb load at a distance 13 thousand kilometers.
By 1955 he was ready to sketch design «carrier + bomber.» But in the midst of a job change in 1955 — is now required from the developers make the standard intercontinental bomber, flying at supersonic speed. Received 4 new aircraft turbojet bypass engine NK-6 or HP-9. In 1956, designers are given the task to establish a plane turbojet engines M16 — 17. Designers hard at this time are seeking better aerodynamics of the aircraft. It was checked to four 10-ka different models. Ultimately models made on a «duck» was recognized as the best. To create an aerodynamic structure constructors takes about a year. Engines positioned properly followed — two engines suspended on pylons under the wings, two engines mounted on the trailer of the wing.
Because supersonic bomber — a brand new, has not yet been made by aircraft from designers sought impracticable — to provide speed more than 1.5 M and range of more than 10 000 km and it is at the highest fuel consumption turbojet engines.
To start reducing crew, M-50 gets only navigator and pilot. They have a string (tandem scheme). Control of the aircraft and equipment very automate, providing those opportunities to reduce the crew to one hundred percent control the plane. Backup management — hydromechanical. Switching to manual mode is likely anywhere on the flight.
Management of engines — by-wire with 3-fold redundancy. For automatic control was given the task of Russian developers accelerated electronics miniaturization available elemental base (otherwise dignity automation boiled down to «no» weight traits electronics). With the decrease in weight due to the use of alternators offer 3-phase current.
On board the M-50 mounted equipment navigating complex. It includes: radio communication «Planet», VHF radio fighter RSIU-3M and emergency radio «Cedars-C.» In addition, on-board equipment includes a device for negotiations SPU-6, altimeter RV-5/25 station request-response, the station alerts on irradiation «Sirena-2», etc.
Flight growing properties:
— velocity spectrum — 270-2000 km / h;
— altitude up to 16 km;
— maximum takeoff weight of up to 250 tons (170 of which fuel);
— possibility of in-flight refueling (two refueling en route maximum range).
— the plane was tail tselnopovorotnoe plumage.
To ensure the transition to supersonic benign provided floating center of mass, which is used to adjust the distilled fuel in a suitable direction. Avtosistema management board «AFCS-50» — a traditional implementation. For training pilots piloting new aircraft made a special analog simulator.
But the center of mass did not work out all the «smoothly.» To reduce the increasing instability is almost twice the horizontal tail. Fixed all-moving keel has promoted its designers to reduce the total size, weight and aerodynamic drag, which contributed to resistance airplane during takeoff / landing, especially in crosswinds. Airframe but still remained fairly weighty and not invested in these characteristics. Some structural parts: preparation was carried out in the USSR for the first time, as an example — one of the pieces, weighing 4 tons was created from a blank vesivshey more than 40 tons.
To reduce weight, fuel tanks were pressurized compartment of the wing and fuselage. To accelerate the take-off nose landing gear wheels turning carts raised her front part of the aircraft. To reduce the landing run brake used skis. The design of the aircraft extensively used machinery and installations of jet bombers M-4/6 (3M). Intercontinental supersonic bomber designed as a strategic means of delivering bombs on enemy terrain, but in 1958 it was proposed to set him planning ballistic missiles of «45B». By late spring 1956 designers built a mockup standard commission and presented the customer. In the month of the committee came to a disappointing conclusion:
— achievement of this range at cruising speed without refueling aircraft designers is not ensured;
— maximum range (two refueling) provided but refueling is carried out at low speeds and altitudes, which is unacceptable (likely to intercept enemy aircraft or liquidation);
— The takeoff run (3 km) without additional accelerators is not maintained;
— requirements for self-defense aircraft not a hundred percent satisfied;
— Conclusion: The conceptual design and layout may not be approved.
Constructors, after a series of meetings with experts from some research institutes, are turning to the customer, in the face of Air Force Commander, requesting the revision of some of the technical project requirements:
— of mandatory extra accelerators plane;
— small number of weapons for the defense of the aircraft;
— lowering range without refueling.
To illumine 1956 model airplane say, but the engines to be installed on board the plane so long and were not ready. Experienced on a standard set turbojet engines VD-7. Sweep engines and systems on earth began in 1959, after this mock M-50A was sent to the base OKB for finishing.
In 1958, the bureau running V.Myasischeva release from conducting official tests on the plane M-50. Two built aircraft with engines mounted M16 — 17 and VD-7 scamper test aircraft modification M-50 — improved M-52.
Designers have proposed several development projects aircraft M-50:
— refueling tanker aircraft to refuel bullet in the air at tremendous speeds and altitudes;
— M-50LL — flying laboratory for research propulsion;
— M-51 — Unmanned aircraft carrying nuclear weapons.
In 1959 began the layout tests. 10.27.1959 M-50A, the first time rises into the sky. TRD installed HP-7. To achieve the desired thrust underwing engines got afterburners. Layout failed to overcome the speed 1M (0.99 M). Total layout made two 10-ka departures, then in 1960 work on the M-50 terminated in favor of the M-52 — improved version of the M-50.
In 1961 he decided to show the M-50 military parade in Tushino. Plane soared 4 more times for training purposes, then, the last time took off into the sky at the parade in Tushino. After the aircraft was transferred to the Air Force Museum (Monino), where he is to this day.
— M-50A — layout. The only flying from all aircraft made. Board number 023, after the parade was given the number 12;
— M-50 — a basic version of the strategic bombers:
— M-52 — an improved version of the M-50. Some aircraft built, but in the sky, he was not up;
— M-53 — aircraft project. Features — placing all engines in underwing gondolas;
— M-54 — aircraft project. Features — low wing sweep on the trailing edge;
— M-56 — the upcoming version of the M-50 development. Tekhproekt started in 1959. Features — 6 engines are located in 2 batches. Fixing the horizontal tail and the rejection of the fuel pump to align the center of mass. The estimated maximum speed of up to 3.2 M;
— M-55 — a civilian version of the M-56. There were sub-options M-55 A / B / C. Differences — the number of engines installed and passenger seats;
— M-70 — changed in favor of the Navy. Features — for takeoff / landing used gidrolyzha, swept wing type.
The main characteristics of the flying M-50A:
— wing — 27.3 meters;
— Length — 58.4 meters;
— height — 8.3 m;
— Weight empty / fuel / max — 78.8/66/118 thousand pounds;
— used engines — two Turbojet VD-7M and two THD VD-7B;
— speed — 0.99 M;
— range — 3.1 thousand km (without refueling);
— altitude ceiling — 5 km;
— crew — pilot and navigator;
— desired load — 5000 kg of bombs.
Created by Roman Dzhereleyko