Minsk — city on the bones

"To find a document in the attic of the funeral at the cemetery Minsk grandfather did not give school history teacher Novoselskaya rest. Wanted to see, where to find your own peace of endless full Cavalier Cross of St. George, who died of his wounds in hospital Minsk September 24, 1915.
Exactly 50 years later Petrovich, as it was called, and close relatives boarded a train "Sverdlovsk — Brest" and raced to the burial site. But in Minsk on military fraternal grave nobody knew. In Minsk city help, the Academy archives, Minsk City Executive Committee — everywhere in one voice read: first time we hear. Desperately Russian traveler already headed toward the station and met a young man who worked in Minsk restoration workshops. At that said restorer, did not want to believe. These are just can not be! Seli in a taxi, and after a couple of minutes Petrovich personally saw that on the site of the cemetery, on the bones of Russian and Belarusian fighter seething Fair: selling dogs, cats, birds … "

Vyacheslav Rakytskyy: In Minsk studio without barriers we talk with historian Shibeko Zahar.
The legend of the dog or pet market, built on the site of a military cemetery, I have not heard. But not much in the hunt is still believe … Indeed whether under the platform of the former market, currently under modern residential buildings buried victims of World War I?
Zahar Shibeko: Indeed. Storozhevskaya cattle market on the former fraternal military cemeteries operated until 1996. So makarom burial place of Russian and Belarusian fighter not only not maintained by the state, but was desecrated. In 1915 Minsk turned into frontline city where every day in clinics, railway stations and on the streets of Russian soldiers killed hundred square meters and Belarusian refugees. By 1918, they were buried together at Bratsk and St. Bartholomew Cemetery. By the end of 1916 Bartholomew Cemetery, founded in 1915 for the burial of the dead in trains and railways during epidemics, took more than 2,500 killed. In September 1915, the Minsk railway attendants site once a day to bury 100 victims. Calvary Cemetery had to expand, as was once obscure deceased prisoners of the Germans and Austrians. "Rakytskyy:" And where exactly is this cemetery located? "Shibeko:" Fraternal military cemetery of the victims of World War I at the moment occupied city blocks between Starovilensky tract and Chervyakova street, and at the former St. Bartholomew’s cemetery is located between the city’s neighborhoods and streets railway Razinskoe. "Rakytskyy:" In the new post-Soviet time relating to the First World War changed. And to the cemetery where victims of the war — no. What’s the matter? "Shibeko:" Apparently, as it is now does not give any political dividends. On Fraternal cemetery do not remember to This time. In their place is worth to return Orthodox chapel that was built there in 1915 and operational plans which have survived. Especially since, that in the capital there is no 1st monument to victims of the First World War, as if this was not a disaster and in the history of Belarus. Recognizable culture researcher Minsk Vladimir Denisov addressed a proposal to the city authorities for the restoration of the chapel, but no one heard him. "
Rakytskyy: "It’s amazing when you consider that as of the 1st of values segodnyaschy power in Belarus declares its concern about the memory of the victims of the second World War I?"
Shibeko: "And how many soldier second world war still lies in the ground? Well, not only a fighter, but in general the dead people in those years? Crisp account victim was not conducted. Bezotstupno No they did not find. Russian man worth nothing. From his death is not linked right to succession of property, heritage, as it was in the West. so happened that Minsk was in the thick of the second world war. Executions then began immediately after the accession of Western Belarus.
Later in the town occurred military action, and at the coming of the Germans, and their retreat. Dead did not have time to clean up, just quickly buried. The Germans shot the prisoners on the ground today Tolbukhina Boulevard. Bones littered the Minsk ghetto. People died from epidemics, committed suicide. Entire streets after the murder of Cuba (Tsna, Kolasa) were made to the gallows. Then were executed were more than two thousand people, their bodies removed and buried the locals hit and miss. Al’s not only the Nazis shot Belarusian people. It is significant that in the main street (now Independence Avenue) is almost opposite today Tolbukhina Boulevard, where the Nazis shot, the terrain park today CHelyuskincev Russian enkevedysty shot after the war those who resisted the return of Russian authorities here, well, just to fake charges. Place victims of Bolshevik terror is also Loshitsa park. In fact, within the precincts of the town are Kurapaty.
Because indeed it turns out that Minsk littered with bones and that Minsk after the war rebuilt on the bones. Cleaning debris from the dead was carried out. Everything was under the bulldozer and went upstairs bones or asphalt treated foundation building. "
Rakytskyy: "It is clear that the victims of dictatorial regimes did not always find their own peace at last civilian cemeteries. Minsk has at least 940-year history. Minskers born and died. Cemetery and civilians, as in all the towns, were inseparable ‘ ’emnay part of urban landscapes. Where previously buried urban residents? Where can I find if not a burial place, at least some of their signs? "
Shibeko: "One gets the impression that Minsk was built on a cemetery. Palace of Sports is on the first cemetery of old Minsk, Palace of Arts, which is golden hill, located at the former Catholic cemetery in force in 1790-1925, respectively. Youth Theatre (formerly — cinema" Spartacus ") lies on the former Orthodox cemetery, had the title Storozhevsk (appeared in 1797 and operated until 1928.) On 3 former Jewish cemetery lie the train-station housing BSU," Dinamo "stadium also houses the streets collector (formerly Jewish) , Dry and adjacent square.
On the former Protestant cemetery live minchane Street Volokh. A street dwellers Timiriazev coexist with former Mongolian cemetery. Trolleybus depot outside the Red — a place of a former cemetery military hospital opened in 1848. Former village cemetery occupies Minsk Observatory, near the bus station "East". Adjacent to davneshnih Military Cemetery Street is laid on the outskirts of the cemetery. They — in the heart of town. Even Capital cemetery laid on the outskirts of the town, were in the midst of urban sprawl. Because hunt and say gently, townspeople — you buduetsesya and live on human bones and spirits flying around Protz. "Rakytskyy:" But such a fraction of urban residents. When expanding urban area, the burial places inevitably end up in the town limits. And its inhabitants are obliged to live next to a cemetery. "
Shibeko: "But not necessarily in the cemetery. Prague Jewish cemetery there since the 14th century. And now they are open-air museum. As for us on the location of the former, private cemeteries do not even know." Rakytskyy: "How can you explain this?"
Shibeko "abolition of private ownership of land by the Bolsheviks. In pre-Soviet time, the land under Jewish cemeteries that were in the area of modern BSU, belonged to the Jewish burial society. And no this land could not touch. Those Jewish cemetery not built up the other day and the First World War, although there were closed in 1873, because they were in 50 fathoms from station Libavo-Romenskaya the railroad. They just empty, and wasteland guarded guard. Same guard was and still other dismantled in the 1840s, the Jewish cemetery in the area of today’s stadium " Dynamo. "However, in the summer the cemetery served as a haven for criminal and bloodless parts.
Another reason. Old-timers Minsk times "vychyshchalisya" The war, repression links. For visiting cemeteries same problem was not. Them their could destroy and trample. Earlier burial places generally valued more than presently. According to current legislation cemetery do not belong to the monuments of history and culture, and therefore are not taken into extraordinary protection of the country. "
Rakytskyy: "What is the way out? How civilized living near the cemetery?"
Shibeko: "With a similar problem faced by the ancient inhabitants of each town. And it imposes on them a moral duty — pochetat memory of the victims. All the places where there were city cemeteries are required to have some signs, signs, plaques."
"In the evening May 30, 1999 the sky over Minsk suddenly turned black, lightning flashed, thunder banged, and, as if with a waterfall at the center of the town collapsed water. Hundreds of young people who danced in the beer prazdnichkom at the Sports Palace, fled. 59 people have found their death in a stampede in a pedestrian underpass at the metro station "Nyamiha."
Beer prazdnichka happened in the former cemetery of the old Minsk. Metro laid on historical "bloody shores Nemiga".

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