The spacious halls of the Russian Academy of Arts, the exhibition «Academic drawing XVIII-XX centuries.» She can not help to recall the sweet memories of many artists of the years of training in the art studios, art schools, colleges and higher educational institutions.
The exhibition is timely and instructive for many professionals and art lovers, get a rare opportunity to explore the academic work of outstanding Russian artists of the past and present, as well as students of art institutes in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Artworks for bringing this to the modern viewer the unique information on the methods of formation of professional skills from the earliest stages of education (drawing from plaster casts of ancient) to multifigure productions — with a nude model.
The special charm of the exposure given drawings, sketches and preparatory sketches for future paintings, made by the classics of Russian art masters of the XX century. The exhibition is once again clearly confirmed that the art school at all times is a reliable foundation for visual culture. It was presented to a wide palette of graphic materials and techniques, alas, forgotten today: drawing on colored paper, the Italian pencil (retouching), sanguine, charcoal, ink, chalk, sepia, black watercolor …
The exhibition opens drawing «Standing sitter» PPChistyakov remarkable teacher, brought up the constellation of great Russian artists: Repin, Surikov, Vasnetsov, Valentin Serov, Mikhail Vrubel and others. One of the earliest works — a brave figure who died early AP Losenko «Monument to Peter I», masterfully executed sanguine.
It was hard to get past productions academic geeks XIX century K.Bryullov and F. Bruni. There are different ways to evaluate the work of these artists, but do not recognize the phenomenal figure of thirteen (!) The lad Theodore «Two sitter» can only be blind. And it is not the ability to draw the biceps and triceps, and in-depth knowledge of anatomy, composition, ability to build volume in the plane of the sheet, a mastery of plastic form, light and shade and space.
For centuries, drawing is the basis of the global visual culture, the only reliable basis, which is essential to the construction of true works of art, regardless of time and content. The countdown of the great works of graphic art comes from the stunning cave paintings of the Altamira caves. It continues in the great works of ancient Egypt, China, Greece, the masterpieces of the Renaissance masters Baroque, Classicism, Romanticism, and the art of A. Ivanov Russian national culture of the XIX century. Without school shiny pattern of ownership is inconceivable works of great innovators of the XX century Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali, Kandinsky, Chagall, G.Mura, A.Modilyani …
VASerov Wise said: «Draw you can teach the dog to teach to become an artist — it is tricky.» These words reveal the place of drawing in a long and complex system of formation of the artist. In addition to numerous studies by a plaster and living nature, the organizers have introduced a «creative cuisine» I.Shishkin, Ilya Repin, I.Kramskoy, F.Vasileva, V.Shuhaeva, F.Malyavina, E.Lansere, V.Miklashevskogo, A .Yakovleva … brilliant technique possession of material marked «Russian woman», «Portrait K.Igumnova» Kustodiev, «Mask» B.Grigoreva. In one breath fresh and full of small in size, surprisingly accurate and monumental ink drawings N.Dormidontova «Ukrainian Village», «Backyard,» «On the outskirts of the city.»
The exhibition presents the work of the current study Russian academicians. In school productions you can easily see the individual features and characteristics of the future artist. The design drawings and D.Zhilinskogo A.Uchaeva in tone-paintings of A.Mylnikova already formed their own vision of the world, temperament and style. Russian Academy of Arts is not the only school in the world professes a realistic figure in the training of young professionals. Note to the uninitiated that the same procedure using the Academy of Fine Arts (Lalit Kala Akademi) in India, the highest artistic institutions in Greece, Italy, France, China, Spain and other countries who have made an invaluable contribution to world culture.
Against the background of the major works of the masters is interesting to compare the level of students of Art Institute. Repin (Saint Petersburg) and Surikov (Moscow). It is gratifying that the Moscow and St. Petersburg schools retained the distinctive features: highly trained, serious study of nature, traditions and language of visual artists of the Renaissance and their famous predecessors of the Academy.
I want to mention «nude female model» V.Korobeynikova, «dressed female posing» A.Andreeva «male nude posing» M.Kovetskoy. The pinnacle of academic painting is considered to be a double staging a nude model. For this difficult task perfectly cope S.Kobysheva-Kuzmin A.Gonyukov, A.Bystrov (St. Petersburg). Complex composite-spatial task connection nude model with a winter urban landscape quite convincingly solves D.Musin (Moscow) «naked female nature.»
The exposition ends with a big picture «Nude male model ‘(sepia) H.Savkueva. It is, in my opinion, most accurately expressed the attitude of the present generation of young artists to the traditions of the great artists of the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. And not only in the formal adherence Technology (toning paper, in-depth knowledge of plastic anatomy, fluent line, tone, and space). The main thing — in the pursuit of the curious young people insight into the drawing and nature, «see the invisible», to create not sluggish, passive copy from nature, and convincing artistic image, without which at all times was unthinkable real artistic creativity.
In conclusion I want to say about the situation with a picture MVHPU them. Stroganov having different administrative subordination, rather than academic universities. Unfortunately, the economic situation has affected the work of the department of academic drawing: liquidated compensation fund sitters, the basis of art education — working with nude models — was in direct proportion to the state of the wallets of students barely making ends meet on a beggarly stipend.
The department, headed by Professor A.V.Vrubelem, making heroic efforts to maintain a normal learning process, increasing the clock on the drawing antique casts.
It has long been pinnacle of academic training was drawing nude models, the most perfect and no plaster sculptures of ancient spear-throwers and discus throwers can not compensate for the direct drawing live nude model, reveals to the young artist design and deep secrets of organic plastics.
«Necessity is the mother of invention» — Russian proverb says. Despite the confusion of our times, at the department for several years, a competition for the best picture with a good incentive prize — a trip abroad. This time personally amazed irrepressible thirst of youth and love for drawing current «strogacha.» All the walls of the exhibition hall hung with literally hundreds of student drawings. Much more important is that the active drawing from life continues beyond the walls of the university, and it certainly gives us hope that no computerization, fortunately, does not kill the true creative act, pleasure, passion and intelligence, the lack of which gives a stillborn fetuses art. The exhibition at the Academy enjoyed great success especially in students of art schools and institutes. There were several interesting meetings with leading artists. Nobody denies the necessity of academic drawing — plastic comprehension of laws and secrets of realistic shape. But what is this mystery, as they reveal that the key figure in what the plastic idea how to teach — it was a lot said in the debate and controversy.
The word «academy» — the Greek, it is — school. Many schools academies existed in ancient Greece. Were mostly philosophical academy, engaged in the comprehension of truth, the meaning of life, nature and society. But as the Greek artists learned the secrets of harmony and beauty in sculpture, painting and architecture as learned — almost unknown, but certainly it was a lot of stress the mind and the great work. For centuries, accumulated knowledge and carefully handed down from century to century, reaching a V-IV centuries BC perfection above which in history has been.
The greatest achievements of Byzantine art, Gothic, Renaissance and our Russian art largely owe to the ancient Greeks as the Greek art has absorbed Egypt, East and Etruscans.
The story we all know more or less, but the essence of harmony and beauty, is the secret of how to grasp how to learn it and teach — the problem of our schools and institutions. The main thing that you need when drawing from nature — is able to see the whole, to make our eyes at the same time cover the entire object, not moving his eyes, feel the unity of the corner of his eye.
Seeing and understanding the nature, form a whole in space (this is the plastic idea), you have sketched the beginning as if the scheme is not to retreat further, ending, and always remember the whole, so that each item is not destroyed, and strengthened conscious concept.
In the process, of course, it may open a different meaning, a clearer understanding complicate or simplify the presentation of plastic ideas. And, of course, requires knowledge, especially when drawing nude models, knowledge of anatomy, patterns of device of the human body. Very preliminary outline or sketch, an event where there is a plastic form — has value and scrupulous work without a complete naturalistic ideas will delight except the profane.
Drawing nudes example, I helped when I drew the Greek sculptures, and I saw the Venus de Milo in this harmony. Maybe it will help others to see and solve the present in the works of that elusive quality of art, for which we honor this great product. Seeing this, and want to express something similar in independent work. I believe that understanding the harmony of form and color is not given to each artist is not given, and listen to music — is heard by many, but to understand and appreciate, not all can.
The trouble is our teaching, our school is that some teachers, little work creatively, do not see themselves in the sense of the object, which draw or write, not seeing, not achieving success, how do you teach? In the best case, regurgitate words and thoughts of the great masters and teachers.
I can not in this short article to tell you how to achieve harmony and perfection, he aspire to it all my life, but I can say -only daily work and help limit stress thought to do something. In these difficult times, when proclaimed art that has nothing to do with him, when in articles and broadcasts on television «famous» art and the so-called «great» artists say about the uselessness of academic education — need to preserve and continue the school of realistic art. Another problem — a naturalistic, tasteless pseudo-naturalism, imitation now, profanation of realism, the so-called commercial realism. The great danger threatens the art from the technological progress of computerization, when artists and many «experts» predict the uselessness of realist art in the XXI century. I hope that thanks to our joint efforts to continue and preserve the traditions of the great art will always be happy.