The viewer is shown the noble oval face with serene expression Stoic philosopher. because Adrian was a supporter of this doctrine. To convey the inner workings of thought, his eyebrows with a careful study of the individual hairs are a little tense with the intended fold. Large locks of hair crowned with majestic wreath. Spinning wheels slightly curly mustache and beard worked thinner and therefore seem to be more lenient. Making beard and lush curls hairstyle sculptor gave the opportunity for additional use in the portrait features of light and shadow. Skin affects smoothness thanks to gentle polishing marble. And overall, despite the damage and the loss of much of the nose, we are presented with a beautiful face, take a worthy place among the ancient images of gods and heroes.
Even more unusual looks stressed Adrian Greek attire. Unlike their predecessors Adrian dressed in a Roman toga not. He is wrapped in Greek style: the right hand pressed to his chest, in the left hand he is holding something. Large folds of his cloak to hide the figure, gently outlining his broad shoulders and roundness slightly protruding belly. This is the first practice of the Roman portrait of an enlightened sovereign, the ruling power of thought — the ideal proclaimed in his time the Greeks. The proposed image was perceived by the Roman Empire and later was treated in various variatsiyah.Mramorny bust of Hadrian from the British Museum has expressed a clear line klassitsizirovannogo portrait. As in the era of Trajan. head given in turn by three quarters. But this rigid straight lines and angular outline of the previous era replaced the game of curves and more natural shape. Instead of ordinary soldiers hairstyles with short straight hair strands, lying flat on the head, we are seeing a new trend with curled rows of curls. The surface of the marble on the face, neck, chest and smoothed, giving youthfulness fiftieth emperor. An important stylistic changes in the portraits of Hadrian was a period in the design of the eye when the ring engraved iris and drilled two small circle in the pupil to show the reflection of light. Such plastic execution eye view gave great naturalness and spirituality. Expression changed depending on the lighting and the cut-off due to the game due to study of hair. Before these items were discharged paint directly on a smooth stone. The portraits Adrianovsky meet both of these manners, as we can see, if you look at the marble head in the oak wreath, to break away from the statue of Hadrian in Crete. But this new practice has been applied in the performance of most sculpted heads until the end of the empire.
It is obvious that under Hadrian Roman art distinguished by a clear Greek influence. This to some extent has become inevitable. Greek culture and the Greek language to adopt the Roman aristocracy, welcome at the Greek teachers and masters. Juvenal unsuccessfully tried to ridicule in his «satire» comfort the heart of the Roman elite «Greek Rome»: rhetorician, grammarian, augur, geometry, artist, barber.
Meanwhile Adrian since childhood was in the range of highly educated people open-minded. Born January 24, 76, Rome family Publius Elia Adrian and Domini Pauline and nine years old orphan, he was under the tutelage of the Emperor Trajan, his great-uncle. When Trajan died in the Mesopotamian campaign, it was announced that the childless Emperor Hadrian made his heir. Although there are still doubts as to whether it really is an invention of Dams, widowed Empress, who raised like a son Adrian. It was in Antioch in August 117, the Hadrian was declared emperor by soldiers. He renounced expansionist policies pursued by his predecessor, devoting himself instead to the protection and improvement of the internal structure of the empire, with whom he became acquainted through frequent visits to the provinces.
Adrian himself was educated in Athens and later built a lot of buildings, including the library. In addition, he served as archon of Athens (head of government) of the city, four years before he became emperor. Adrian even nicknamed graeculos, ie grechonkom. Perhaps it is in this should be to seek the cause of the new interest in classical sculpture. So Adrian engaged in the construction of a huge villa in Tivoli (near Rome), in which individual buildings, monuments and landscapes (natural or artificial) merged into a poetic unity. Most of it he decorated copies of classical masterpieces. On the other hand, we must remember that the interest in classical prototypes was not new under Hadrian, and in fact many buildings and gardens within the previous generations were decorated with sculpture, copied from Greek models. As a builder, Adrian was surpassed only by Augustus: in Rome, the Pantheon was built by the project of Hadrian Temple of Venus and Roma, as many other churches, and finally, the new imperial mausoleum of Adrian Mole (medieval Castel Sant’Angelo). Throughout the Empire, he carried out his projects, especially in Greece, Asia Minor. Syria and Egypt (even here there was a new city Antinopolis in honor of his deceased favorite).
However, Adrian differed famous self-confidence. He is credited with unsightly dispute with the architect Apollodorus of Damascus, famed author of the Pantheon. Apollodorus was unable to Adrian and eclectic solutions habit publicly pointed out the error. The result of this was the death of the great master.
Portraits of time Adrian is a very special concept. Trojanowski portrait was impregnated with the sobriety and objectivity. In the portraits of Hadrian’s time there is an internal emotion, a kind of expectation, which at times could even turn into a depression. The human image is decided in accordance with the canons of beauty. Often used allegory Adrian passed the attributes of Zeus-Jupiter, and his wife Sabina Gigeyi in the image, the goddess of health.
Adrian himself, according to his biography, had high growth and good looks. This, as we see, sculptors captured quite reliably, providing the person filing the hope for a prosperous future. Some points of portraits of Hadrian are comparable with portraits of Trajan for a relaxing formal perfection. This era was influenced not so much a man of action like Trajan as speculative spirit, methodical and persistent, whose field of action was the sphere of culture. The goal was to get through the possibility of ancient culture to a permanent form of empire and consolidate its internal capacity. Love the Greek emperor himself organized the general mood and aspirations of the era, which appealed to the true beauty. This enthusiasm was somewhat at odds with the Roman way of life, and the Senate that jarred, and connoisseurs of Roman traditions as Juvenal:
Seeing the altar of Venus, anxious mother pray
On the beauty of their children: the sons they whisper about her daughter
Louder stipulate reaching funny vows …
Chad beautiful parents miserable: forever tremble.
Knowing how rare beauty with modesty live together.
Not only that the emperor himself had a beautiful appearance, everything around him was his relationship with beauty. But that was the beauty that is not pulsing rhythms of life. Masters tried to find a way of true beauty, which is not given to perishable matter in the temporal world.
The main idol of that era was the handsome youth Antinous. He is often depicted with the attributes of the gods Hermes-Mercury, the Roman god Dionysus or forests Silvana. Among save a lot of portraits of Antinous one of the most remarkable is considered a bust of the Vatican Museum Pio Klimentina. One of the foremost sculptors of the period immortalized his amazing beauty and charm in marble: softly rounded and interpreted by the «classic» features lime, eyebrows vrazlet, glamorous curls, turning the head in three quarters. In Munich, the portrait of Antinous, you can mark more emotional expressiveness. Master conveys a sense of fracture and loss of emergency. Widely spaced large almond-shaped eyes fixed on his face devoid of any facial expressions, express a strange melancholy. Head slightly tilted as if under the weight of the secret misgivings. Damaged nose does not interfere with the overall impression of perfection, on the contrary, rough cleaved surface underscores the delicate smoothness of the polished marble.
Experts are still arguing how these idealized portraits, but in their actual features of Antinous, whose beauty has become synonymous epithet perfection. Adrian met him in Bithynia in 121 g (perhaps in 123 g or 124 g) during one of his travels, and took him into his entourage. In October 130, when the Emperor and his escort were in Egypt, a young man drowned in the Nile. Egyptian priests, whose mystery, as in the other sacraments of initiation cults was the Emperor Hadrian awakened in the hope that through the sacred water of the Nile every year the awakening dead land to a new life. Antipas found his way to the gods, and he became one of them. Adrian welcomed the birth of a new god, announced throughout the empire, the news for which the world is eagerly seize. yearning for the promise of deliverance and salvation. It is clear that a desire of the emperor would not be enough to spread the cult of the new god so rapidly throughout the empire and cause the creation of a new and very convincing divine image.
This success was required primarily the beauty of the young man: his serious yet gentle face, his eyes tragically passionate. his poetic curls. It was the perfect way to excite and seduce in times like those. Sensual beauty sad young god was captured in marble, hook carefully polished, the stone seems almost weightless. ethereal. Not so surprising. adoration that instituted the new idol, as if caused by this unearthly, even in excess of ethereal beauty, which can not be found in the Greek prototypes, as they still had a direct imitation of nature.
On the Arch of Constantine, built after more than half a century after the reign of Hadrian, it is possible to note a large collection of medallions (2 m in diameter) that were removed from the monument to Hadrian. Their original location and function of the monument Hadrian’s not clear, but the main topic was the emperor of reliefs on the hunt. Three of the eight medallions show the real scenes of hunting for wild boar, a bear and a lion. We can see how on offer to your attention the stage Emperor. followed by Antinous and Titus Tsezerinism Statianom pursues bristling boar on a narrow horizontal base line. The tree on the left is the spectacular abroad, in the style of the Hellenistic prototypes. In addition, the scene of departure and bringing sacrifices to the gods: above the altar is placed a statue of the deified Antinous.
These scenes are not only to show the favorite entertainment of Hadrian, but also express the artistic tastes of the emperor, because they manifest a struggle for life, and with it the physical strength, courage and energy. The same multi-faceted interpretation of the scene, there are victims: the memory of the loss of hope of an immortal soul and a more spiritual approach to life, finally, a symbol of piety.
The reliefs of Hadrian’s time all efforts were directed to the celebration chanting beauty of the human body, and artistic forms and solutions are focused on classical Greek prototypes. Meanwhile, they have inner tension, alien to any true classicism. Smoothly polished, combined integrally constructed composition of images and the people and animals emerge from the ground like a relief from the wall or other surface. These brilliant figure at first glance, have much in common with the classicism of the Augustan age. But in the study of the reliefs show some separation between the ratio (thought) and anima (soul), which has been part of for crops later period of II century.
His wife Adriana, Vibia Sabina, judging by the portraits, had a quiet beauty and dignity that seemed. It fits nicely and pensive face of her husband. Vatican portrait is it even more aloof than Adrian, revealing a kind of abstract ideal that is suitable for the Empress. Married at 15 at the urging of the dam. Sabina has not found happiness in marriage. On her husband, who was older than her years at the II, it had no influence. Their marriage remained childless, was more political now. According to the biographer, Adrian himself once commented that if he were a private citizen, «would have divorced her because of her gloom and obstinate character.» This is then followed by Adrian, to Sabina, his wife and grandniece Trajan, to show due honor and respect.
In 127, the Sabine received the title of August, and a few years later was accompanied by Adriana in his Egyptian journey. Sabine supported fashion, introduced her husband. She declined from the high-bay hairstyles.
Her portraits we see that Sabine prefer to wear the Greek haircut the IV. BC.
Now portraits wavy strands are separated by parting, pulled back into a soft knot and pulled the diadem. This hairstyle returns attention to the classic proportions of the face, just shading his austere oval. And does not meet the Greek classics aquiline nose give way Sabina special charm: together with a knot of hair on his head gently highlights the high neck, giving the appearance of the whole aura of exquisite fragility. Sabine Head tilted slightly, and the eyelids and Semi-underslung according to the ideal that one can see women’s image of late Greek vase painting. It should also be noted, and some of the technical features of the example of the sculptural portrait of Sabine from the Vatican. Pay attention to the smoothness of the surface of the transfer of the skin, reached careful polishing marble.
This soft smooth skin especially impressively underlines the lovely fluffy eyebrows, smooth arcs sets off a mysterious look big beautiful eyes Sabina. It is dominated by the eyes in the portrait.
Here, the master was especially attentive to detail: as carefully as he noted light strokes individual hairs of eyebrows, as if he had passed and all the details with the eye tactful study of their corners, proteins, finally. the iris and the pupil. Easy game of light and shade, reinforced etoloy (veil) in a portrait from the National Museum of Rome, give distraction and melancholic reverie that restrained lime with tight lips, which seems the strict aloof, coldly calculating, then a shy insecure. In general, we presented an idealized portrait, full of allusions and mysteries.
In the relief, carved shortly after her death, Sabina shown rising from his funeral pyre in the heavens on the shoulders of a semi-nude winged female figure. Adrian, who nerezhil it only for a year, is depicted sitting on the relief side. He accompanies her ascension, as a male figure on the left represents the Campus Martius, where the funeral took place. Scene like this is called an apotheosis that is the deification of the deceased person.
Frivolous, yet strangely hurt the verses Adrian about his own death can not close the grim nature of the despair of his last days.
Energy Adriana, his mobility and a tendency to interfere in provincial way and in other aspects of public and private life will consolidate motley and restless society of the empire. The understanding of the civilizing mission of Rome, who could now look back on the whole cultural foundation created over the centuries after it was inherited from Greece. Many biographers were convinced that in the near Emperor esthete, considering that it gave too much attention to appearance. But Adrian in a circle of family and friends has always been love. Sometimes, his jealous, most feared of losing his sympathy. Finally, it is without much effort managed to extend long established Trajan era of prosperity of the empire. In announcing his successor Antoninus Pius and picked up his successors Marcus Aurelius, Adrian to ensure the welfare of the state for many decades after his own death.