One of the most impressive items Ananyino culture, as well as the general culture of the early iron-steppe zone of Eurasia are socketed bronze celts. They are molded to normally more or less elongated tools or weapons. With serried straight sleeves without butt, lowered the blade about 2 / s length Celt attached to the elongated parallel to the blade wooden handle. According to the general plane of the Celts applied various patterns that are typical of certain forms. To the east of the area of the Middle Volga and the Lower Kama region Celts spread flat with lenticular, oval or hexagonal cross-section sleeve type Ananyino, west, up to the area of the Scandinavian countries are well represented Celts with a tubular sleeve elongated proportions and a lateral ear. If you have certain shapes and ornaments in separate groups of monuments of the Celts can be isolated as a cultural indicator.
In the western regions Ananyino dissemination of culture, in particular Mari Volga region and surrounding areas are prevalent both of these forms of the Celts. Total out of the area now known 349 Celts.
Until the 60s of this century, about the Celts with that territory has only fragmentary information, but an attempt to pre-revolutionary researchers give a typology of the Celts often based on individual findings. Later, the Celts considered Ananyino type AV Zbrueva. The first attempt to classify the Celts from Ananyinsky monuments Mari of the Volga-based material made Akozinskogo burial X. A. Khalikov.
From excavations Senior Akhmylovskaya cemetery known 296 Celts. Of these, 229 burials found in complexes, and 64 come from the destroyed burials or are lifting material from the area of the burial ground. In addition, three Celt published Shtukenberg AA and A. X. Khalikov as the findings in the area Ahmylovo — Korotnev. In Akozinskom 38 Celtic burial ground found, 15 of them in burial complexes; 14 Celtic are known from various locations of the Mari of the Volga region and the surrounding areas.
The shape of the Celts divided into two large groups. 141 have akozinsko-melarskuyu (or akozinskuyu) form 208 — Ananyino. Both groups are synchronous. They met in the same cemetery (Senior Akhmylovskaya and Akozinskoy) in graves with a uniform set of items. Characteristically, together in one grave, with rare exceptions, they are not met.
In this paper we will focus only on the characteristics of the Celts akozinsko-melarskogo type. The Celts of this type have socketed elongated torso with rounded or podrombicheskim section; slightly rounded or rarely almost straight blade with a length greater than the diameter of the body. All but deformed to have a lateral tab positioned 2-5 cm from the edge of the sleeve or closely approximate to the latter. From the eye of the body depart around three or four horizontal rollers. According to the general plane of the edge of the sleeve or horizontal rolls in most Celtic omitted longitudinal rib. The side faces give Celts shestigrannost in the lower part of the body.
Type I — 33 copies .; 26 come from older Akhmylovskaya repository (burial 4, 59, 61, 68, 257, 293, 306, 308, 441, 553, 554, 557, 566, 567, 568, 572 (number 1, 2), 587, 595, 603, 628, 685, 720, 730, 748 and finds from the square. M / excavation 4 February 1969). A Celt found at the excavation site in 4/5 1952 Akozinskogo cemetery one known among Malahayskih finds. Five Celts come from the surrounding areas of the various charges in the basin. Sviyaga village Biyabash, Bakyrchi Kuvshinovo and in the river basin. Meshes of the villages and Nyrsy Tashkermen. It Celts with an elongated torso and rhombic cross-section sleeve (only 11 Celtic have more or less circular cross section), and a round or, more rarely, rectangular eye, stood up to 0.5-3 cm from the edge of the sleeve. Their length generally ranges from 10 to 13.3 cm diameter sleeve 2.5-3.2 cm, width of the blade 3,8-4,8 cm. Subtrigonal face of the longitudinal axis of the broad planes, beginning at the edge of the sleeve, the blade ends (except for one of the Celt Malahayskih finds). At the top: it is part of the cuts and flattens the transverse horizontal rollers.
Date Celts of this type is set by a number of complex things. Early it is obviously narrow Celt with rhombic cross-section and rounded sleeve eyelet of pogrom. 257 Senior Akhmylovskaya burial. Also early is probably the Celts of the pogrom. 553 Senior Akhmylovskaya burial. It was accompanied by a bronze grivna with curved ends. Similar to her hryvnia dated VIII-VII centuries. BC. e. (by EI Krupnova). The pogrom. 554 Senior Akhmylovskaya burial Celt greeted with socketed iron spear having a longitudinal rib along the pen. A similar tip from Akozinskogo burial X. A. Khalikov dated VIII-VII centuries. BC. e. (according to AA Iessenu). Celt of the pogrom. 257 accompanied by a plaque-cylindrical yoke with a convex top. Like them, KF Smirnov dated VIII-VII centuries. BC. e.
VII century. BC. e. can be dated back to the Celts of the following type I Akhmylovskaya cemetery burials Elder: 557 — on the strip headdress similar to that found in the pogrom. 62 Akozinskogo burial; 441 — on the Celt umbonovidnoy accompanying plaque, which has analogies in the cemetery in the complex Akozinskom VII century. BC. e.
Perhaps the Celts type I existed here in the second half VIII- VII centuries. BC. e., since in any case they are not met in the complexes VI. BC. e. On the earlier date of such Celt Akozinskogo burial after O. Montelius points X. A. Khalikov (early I millennium BC. E.). A distinctive feature of the Celt Akozinskogo repository is valikoobrazny projection of the body and around a circular cross-section of the sleeve. Close Celts Type I form of the Celt has Malahayskih. finds, dating the first quarter of the I millennium BC. e. But the Celt is somewhat different from the Celts Senior Akhmylovskaya burial: triangular strip ends at half the height of the Celt on the sidewalls.
Beyond the Volga Mari Celts of this type are known from the Younger Volosovsky cemetery (5 ind.). They also have a rhombic or circular cross-section of the sleeve and a relatively elongated body there. Analysis of the metal reveals Celtic great proximity of their main complex things Akozinskogo burial, including the Celts as «akozinskogo» and Ananyino types. The great similarity with the Celts type I have four of these guns with. Tetyushi Tatar ASSR. Whole areas of the Middle Volga comes 42 Type I Celt. AM Talgren Celts these forms identified as a variant of type A in the general classification of the Celts. In Scandinavia, the researcher points out only one such discovery Celts and mold. Focusing Celtic type I in senior Akhmylovskaya burial suggests their local type. They can be called Akhmylovskaya.
Type II, only 20 copies., 17 of them comes from the older Akhmylovskaya burial (burial 267, 286, 307, 314, 410 (number 2), 421, 450, 613, 624, 652, 657, 660, 704, 733, 734, a separate discovery of the square. B / 11 of the excavation in 1962 and the lifting material 1968), one found in the area F / 7 Akozinskogo burial, the two are known from Malahayskih finds a Celt comes from the former. Cheboksary County.
They are close to the proportion of type I Celts. The length of 9-11 cm, width at the edge of the sleeve 2,8-3,7 cm, blade length 3,4-6 cm. They have podrombicheskoe or rounded cross-section of the sleeve. In the lower part of the body in the majority of Celtic hexagonal cross section. The tab is located at 1-3 cm below the edge of the sleeve. From abalone around the body there are three to five horizontal rolls. According to the general plane of the edge of the sleeve until the middle of the body passes the vertical roller. The lower part of the roller comes to the brink of a truncated cone, ending blade. The latter stands out more clearly in the early Celts and less clearly in the later. Later, they are probably the Celts wider shape at the edge of the sleeve width 3.7 cm with an oval cross section of the sleeve, such as loaders. 657 and 631. The first one is greeted with a massive eye in partial burial of the dead house number 10, complexes which can be dated to the VI. BC. e. Second Celt close the outline of the first, it has no eye, the characteristic type of early Celtic ornament characterized by the presence of a number of bulges on the upper horizontal roller. These details in the design of Celt bring it to the Celts Ananyino type, emphasizing the mixing of Western and Eastern traditions in the manufacture of the Celts.
Several different from the rest of the Celt pogrom. 660. In an accompanying iron spearhead similar spear of Akozinskogo repository, it can be dated to the VI. BC. e. This Celt face on a wide plane begins close to the edge of the body, which brings it to the Celts of type III. Two Celtic vertical roller lowered to 3/4 the length of the Celts. Celt of the pogrom. 421 accompanied podtrapetsievidnoy suspension and suspension with a ring on the end, dated X. A. Khalikov VII-VI centuries. BC. e. Celt of the pogrom. 652, similar to the first proportions and ornament, eyeless, and with almost straight blade.
From the above it follows that all variations in proportions and ornament Celtic Type II characteristic of the later period of their existence. The bulk of the Celts of this type should be clearly dated VIII-VII centuries. BC. e. The pogrom. 314 Celt met in conjunction with the combined spear (bronze bushing and an iron pen. This combination of the Caucasus and the Dnieper characteristic transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age (VIII-VII centuries. BC. E.). X. A. Khalikov iron daggers transition with a bronze handle of the older Akhmylovskaya burial dates to the second half VIII or abroad VIII-VII centuries. BC. e.
In a well dating back to a single burial complexes 704 Celt type II was accompanied by a bronze dagger with a flat handle, ornamented with two rows of triangles (the second half of VIII or line VIII-VII cc.); vtulchatym iron spear; openwork spiral buckle with a stylized, obviously, many-headed snake with a dragon’s head; iron stiletto with a round finial; iron knife; belt sets of copper plate pronizey (84 copies.); bronze temple rings and three socketed trihedral arrowheads VII century. BC. e. This can be dated Celt first half of VII century. BC. e.
Celt burial of Akozinskogo X. A. Khalikov dated IX-VIII centuries. with the possible dating of 800-600 years. BC. e. (for AM Talgrenu and KF Meynanderu). Most likely, by analogy with the Celts senior Akhmylovskaya his burial date should be limited to VII-VI centuries. BC. e. Celt from Malahayskih finds X. A. Khalikov dates back to the first quarter of the I millennium BC. e. Among the Celts of this type is slightly different in shape from the former Celt. Cheboksary County: the length of its blade (3 cm) less than the diameter of the sleeve (4 cm). This narrowing of the blade is typical for the Celts Ananyino type.
Outside of this region to the Celtic type II close to the Celts of Biyabash Tetyushskogo district of the Tatar ASSR and Younger Volosovsky burial. Eye of the latter close to the edge of the Celt rounded sleeves. From the middle of the eye of the body passes around the horizontal roller. Longitudinal roller short.
Close analogy Celts type II are known from finds in Minsk (2 copies). Celt length 10,3 cm, width of the edge of the sleeve 2.6 cm and 4.1 cm blade has a massive eyelet (1.7 cm from the edge of the sleeve), which runs three horizontal roller. From the edge of the sleeve to the middle of the Celt passes longitudinal ridges. On either side of the last short rollers at the edge of the sleeve form a pattern in the form of an arrow. Second Celt (dimensions unknown, was published by Random image) unlike the previous eyeless and short patterns in the form of an arrow at the edge of the sleeve Celt from the territory of the Lithuanian SSR (Konstantinovo) in form and ornamentation similar to the Celts from burials 267 and 613 Senior Akhmylovskaya burial. Close Celts are also known from the Lithuanian SSR (Krustpils Klandukalis) and Estonian SSR (Viru, Mummussaach). From Scandinavian countries like the Celts found in Sweden (in the Mälaren Valley and Bornkolme), Finland (Kaukola). Closely related to this type of Celt hoard of bronze items in Somotore, spread on the territory of Hallstatt products. It is characterized by a thickening of the edge of the sleeve.
Thus, the Celts type II know just 35. Of these, 20 Mari Volga, two adjacent areas in western regions 13. Prior research Senior Akhmylovskaya and Akozinskogo burial Scandinavian Celts dominated quantitatively, which gave reason to believe the rest of the Celts Scandinavian import or imitation . However, another VA Gorodtsov noted that melarskie axes in Scandinavia is a purely oriental style. AM Talgren proposed scheme by which the Celts have returned from Western Urals to Scandinavia, having happened on the same Scandinavian prototype.
Widespread Celtic type II in the Middle Volga region testifies to their local development. They typologically linked with the Celts of type I, and should be considered as the most typical of the Mari of the Volga region. The similarity with the Celts in Scandinavia can be attributed to their spread from the Middle Volga through Moore, the Baltic states, which are found like the Celts.
Type III -59 ind., 47 of them comes from the older Akhmylovskaya burial (burial 148, 165, 168, 169, 176 (number 1 and 2), 359, 367, 372, 379, 385, 386, 402, 408, 410 , 433, 447, 489, 528, 555, 648, 650, 667, 698 (№ 1), 714, finds areas with V / 5, D / 10 and E / 06 K / 26 excavation 1962 .; and / 34 W / 42 K / 2, L / 41 excavation 1968 .; E / 4, C / 01 of the excavation in 1966 .; / 3 excavation in January 1968 g .; and / excavation 2 January 1969 and the lifting material different years with burial areas). Celt found in the cemetery in 1969, published by A. X. Khalikov. 13 Celtic burial of Akozinskogo marked X. A. Khalikov 4-6 th forms of Celtic akozinskogo type (burial 15, 22, 29, 44, 53, and portions of the H / 8, T / 9, F / 7, F / 9, U / 11, E / 9); One comes from a Celt. Kriushi and two from the village. Almenevo Kozlovsky District, Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; one s. Yuranta Urzhum district of the Kirov region. AM Talgren indicates similar findings from the Celts and Tsivilsk Cheboksary. The easternmost point of the spread of this type is a Celtic village. Mendiarovo in the basin. Sviyaga (1 copy).
In contrast to the previous type of Celts, they are less elongated body there and predominantly rounded cross section of the sleeve. The length of the body 8-11,5 cm, width at the edge of the sleeve 2.7-3.2 cm, width of the blade 4-4.5 cm. The blade is slightly convex, one Celt almost direct. Lateral ear massive, usually located in the 0.5-1 cm from the edge of the sleeve or, more rarely, begins directly from him. Most Celts have a hexagonal cross section at the bottom of the sleeve by the side faces.
Ornamentation Celtic type III the previous close from abalone depart two to four horizontal roll over them in the middle of the edge of the sleeve, about 1/3 of the height Celt passes longitudinal ridges. In contrast to the Celtic type II the last in the lower part is bordered by two crescent-grooves. As proportions, the cross section of the sleeve and ornaments among the Celts of this type are allocated separate species.
a. Celt of the pogrom. 667 Senior Akhmylovskaya repository for highly elongated body there and hexagonal at the top of the Celts is close to type II. The length of the body of his 10.7 cm, width at the edge of the sleeve 2.8 cm, the blade — 4.6 cm. The eye is 2.4 cm from the edge of the sleeve. Longitudinal ridges on the broad plane of the upper edge extends to half the height of the Celts. Crescent-shaped recesses are decorated in an arc. Close proportion Celts have a rhombic cross-section of the sleeve pogrom. 438 and 555 of this repository. The first of them by the presence of broad sub-triangular plane facets, as well as the proportions finds analogy in Celt of loaders. 257 (see. Above, I type).
b. The most numerous group (41 ind.). Celts with a round cross-section sleeve of the body length of 8-9.5 cm, width at the edge of the sleeve 2.7-3 cm, blade -4-4,5 see. Massive ear with a small hole located in the 0.5-1 cm from edge of the sleeve, or begins directly from him (8 ind.). From abalone around the body there are three or four narrow bead along the wide Celt crossed the plane of the longitudinal edge of the same width.
at. At 17, Elder Akhmylovskaya Celtic burial (burial 165, 176 (number 1), 385, 386, 372, 402, 408, 698 (number 1), the individual findings) ear goes into wide horizontal rollers, between the opening of the ear are one- two narrower roll. Eyelet unlike the rest of the Celts of this type more massive and has a large aperture. Most Celts it is located 0.5-1 cm away from the edge of the sleeve; from three (burial. 176 (number 1), 386, 698 (number 1)) starts from a wide bead along the edge of the sleeve.
Celts this type of burial Akozinskogo X. A. Khalikov dated to the end of VII-VI centuries. BC. e. Senior Materials Akhmylovskaya burial are not contrary to this date. Thus, the Celts of pogrom. 555 met with an iron spear, the same spear of Akozinskogo burial (VII-VI centuries. BC. E.). Kelt in the pogrom. 667 was accompanied by Celtic Ananyino type ornamentation characteristic of Celtic with a lenticular cross section of the sleeve, but having a hexagonal cross section. In the complex houses 10 dead Celt number of burials. 667 dated VI. BC. e. Celt of the pogrom. 408 dated by trapezoidal suspension similar to the suspension of Akozinskogo cemetery, VII-VI century. BC. e. This is very close Celt Celt type II of pogrom. 660 and differs only in the presence of semilunar recesses and can probably be dated to the VI. BC. e., as well as the whole complex of burials. 660. Celt of the pogrom. 359 dates back to VII-VI centuries. BC. e. He was accompanied by a socketed triangular bronze arrowhead, dated KF Smirnov VII century. BC. e., and bronze arrowheads with lateral spine, known in the VI century BC. e. Celts type III obviously typologically linked with the Celts previous types. In support of this, in addition to the similarity of forms, proportions and ornament, we can point to the above-mentioned transitional forms (first kind of type III Celtic). At the same time considered more than guns similarities with the Celts type II, we dated the end VIII-VI centuries. BC. e. Thus, these types of dating of the Celts is not contrary to their typological connection, although it is possible also the possibility of some form of co-existence. The origin of the Celtic type III from previous forms of evidence of their local development. As with previous types, they are the most characteristic of the Mari of the Volga region.
The Celts, similar to our type III, are widespread in the Nordic countries. AM Talgren include them in the type A. Unlike most Middle-Volga, they have a pronounced rhombic cross-section of the edge of the sleeve. A total of 43 takes place in Scandinavia Celt A (for AM Talgrenu), 24 of them found in Sweden, 7 in Denmark, one of the Celts known from Finland and Norway. According to published materials difficult to judge the mutual influence of the Scandinavian and Middle Volga Celts. However, taking into account local development and quantitative prevalence of the latter, it can be assumed that in the west similar Celts took shape under the influence of Eastern.
Type IV is represented by 17 Celts, of which 14 come from the Senior Akhmylovskaya burial (burial 29, 524, 569, 655, 2 of the Celt sq. M / 45, one quarter of the Celts. I / 33 of the excavation of 1968, P / 7 X / excavation 7, 1966, E / 3 of the excavation in 1967 and 4 Celt, one of which was published by A. X. Khalikov are lifting material from the area of the burial ground, 3 — Akozinskogo of burial (burial. 54, 62) and section D / 10 excavation in 1958).
These Celts less elongated shape (length of the body 7-9,3 cm wide at the edge of the sleeve 2,7-4,3 cm and the blade 3.7-4.7 cm) with a round cross-section of the sleeve. The side faces of the body only in isolated parts of the Celts, its section at the bottom close to the oval. Small ear in 10 Celts located close to the edge of the sleeve; Seven of the Celts with uneven upper edges, with no trace of the late deformation, eyeless (probably foundry marriage). Celts ornamented schematic horizontal rolls and a pair of short grooves beneath the semilunar (6 ind.), Or only the latest. The pogrom. 524 Celt with extended convex blade and one horizontal roller is almost at the edge of the sleeve met jointly with the bit stremechkovidnymi bronze, dated VII- first half of the VI. BC. e. The pogrom. 569 Celt accompanied petiolate leaf-shaped arrowheads of iron, Ananyinsky characteristic monuments in the VI. BC. e. and bronze UAH acuminate ends ornamented twisted cuts. Similar hryvnia without ornamentation X. A. Khalikov dating VI-V centuries. BC. e. But the cuts are typical for hryvnia VII-VI centuries. BC. e. Therefore, the Celts, like the hryvnia, dated back to the VI. BC. e.
Celts from Akozinskogo burial dated VII-VI centuries. BC. e. Thus, this type of Celts these burials can be dated back to VII-VI centuries. BC. e. X. A. Khalikov said that like the Celts some depart from the general line of the Celts akozinsko-melarskogo type. While agreeing in general with X. A. Khalikov, you need to specify the type of third among the Celts Celts possible prototypes of type IV (of the pogrom. 489, 186 (number 2), 410) and two separate finds differing rounded section sleeve, a small opening tab and mild vertical roller, crescent grooves and two or three rolls of the body around. It is also possible that it could have been the prototype of the Celts are close to finding Ananyino dunes, dated AV Zbrueva XI-IX, perhaps, VIII centuries. BC. e.
At a certain similarity with the Celts type III should be mentioned at the guns examined some degradation of traditional manufacturing akozinsko-melarskih Celts. This manifests itself in a simplified form and ornamentation, in the presence of a significant number of foundry marriage or substandard products. These traits are manifested even more clearly in the next Celts, V type.
Beyond the Volga Mari close Celt known from the scope of the Lusatian culture (sat. Medvedevka). He is almost complete analogy with the Celts of the pogrom. 54 Akozinskogo repository (see. Above). However, it is difficult to agree with J. Dombrowski, in the Middle Volga region they came from Volhynia and Podolia. EN Chernykh, who conducted the analysis of metal akozinskih products indicates that the Celts akozinskogo predominant type and quantity of things of bronze, including the Celts Ananyino type impurity contents belong to the same group.
Type V — 12 copies. 11 is derived from the Celtic Senior Akhmylovskaya burial (burial 400, 406, 407, 448, 535, 549, 698 (number 2), 712, finds the areas F / 7 excavation of 1966 W / 2 of the excavation I 1967 D / 1 of the excavation I 1969), one of Akozinskogo burial (burial. 44).
Celts of this type of small size. The length of the body of 6,5-8,7 cm, width at the edge of the sleeve 2.8-3.2 cm and 3.4-4.2 cm blade. They have a circular cross section at the edge of the sleeve and is generally oval in the lower part of the body (with the exception of Celtic burials 406 and 585 Senior Akhmylovskaya burial). Only six of the Celts at the edge of the sleeve eyelet weakly expressed; two of them — without openings. Several different Celt from the pogrom. 549, which ear is 2.5 cm from the edge of the sleeve. Schematic ornament in the form of two — four rolls around the edge of the sleeve of the body are only six of the Celts.
Three Celt eyeless and ornamentation are probably casting marriage (burials 400, 448, 698 — № 2 senior Akhmylovskaya burial). Obviously, there is also the Celts akozinsko-melarskogo type eyeless. For example, the Celts from the area W / 2 of the excavation I 1967 Senior Akhmylovskaya burial ground with a smooth upper edge of the ear and has no ornamentation. Celt of the pogrom. 407 of socketed iron spear point can be dated VII-VI centuries. BC. e. Celt of the pogrom. 448 pair of plaques is dated VI-V centuries. BC. e .; of the pogrom. 712 on an iron spear point, close the tip of Akozinskogo burial (VI c.) Can be dated to the VI. BC. e. At a later date the Celts of this type points and simplification of parts in the design of the Celts. The Celts of this type, obviously should be dated to the VI. BC. e., perhaps the second half, given that this group is younger than the previous type Celts.
The Celts of this type are also unique to the Mari of the Volga region. Beyond that one can point to a similar shape of the Celts eyeless portion W / 2 of the excavation I 1967 Senior Akhmylovskaya Celt burial image on the mold of the settlement Vatajko. It also eyeless, but unlike the top of the first decorated with four horizontal rollers. These rollers, as noted above, typical for the Celts Mari of the Volga region. Some similarities in the form design tab and the Celtic ornament of this type can be traced to one-eared Celts with a round cross-section of the sleeve fees BI and VI Khanenko Kanevskaya County Kiev province, and even from a Western assimilated Hallstatt period (from a . Bezhanov of Rudnik and Serbia). Their similarity is obviously purely formal, and suggests some connection between them is difficult. Western Celts probably on a local basis, by the end of their existence also experience some degradation and simpler in design.
Akozinsko melarskie-form Celtic are close analogy to the west, are rare east of the Volga region of Mari. In addition to the above-mentioned findings on the river. Sviyaga in Tetyushi Ananyino dune and the proportions are similar to our Celtic Celt of the findings on Taneiev cemetery (right bank of Mesha), and even in the East — from the Orenburg region. The first of these elongated outline (10.3 cm length of the body, the sleeve width and 2.9 cm blade 3.2 cm), with rounded cross section bushings eyeless. The side edges are marked by passing the thickened edge of the sleeve to the blade edge. By the general plane of the edge of the sleeve by 2.5 cm omitted vertical roller. This Celt has no complete analogy with any of the types we have considered the Celts. The proportions and the presence of longitudinal ribs, he is closest to the Celts type II. Do not contradict this and dating (VI cent. BC. E. — Found on the cage with him to harness VI- start Vc. And cast dagger abroad VII-VI centuries. BC. E.).
Celt from the Orenburg region is closer to the execution of western Siberia. However, it has some similarities with the Celts zapadnovolzhskimi latest styles. This Celt-elongated rectangular shape with a side eye, starting from the thickened edge of the sleeve. From all around the eye of the body are rollers, between the oblique lines are plotted. KV Salnikov, along with close to Ananyino Celts carries it to the brink of II and I millennium BC. e. and points out that the Celts of the South Urals show interlacing effects of the Kama region, the Lower Volga, the North Caucasus and Western Siberia.
Finishing the description of the Celts akozinsko melarskogo-type, it should be emphasized that the proper forms have only melarskuyu Celts type III, associated with type II typology. Therefore, there is reason to talk about the origin and development of the local data of the Celts. VA Gorodtsov and X. A. Khalikov also point to the possibility of their origin from the eastern prototypes.
On local development akozinsko-melarskih Celts indicate two important factors. Firstly, as can be seen from the above, all types Celts interconnected. The most early Celts (I type) to the west known to only a few. Second, all types of the Celts, including «self-melarskie» (III type, according to our classification) quantitatively significantly prevail over the western.
Thus, from the Middle Volga region (including the mouth of the Oka) takes only 162 Celt akozinsko melarskogo-type, 141 of them — from the Mari-Chuvash Volga to the surrounding areas. In the west, known like the Celts 58 of them in the Nordic countries — 49. It is interesting to note that the first two types are absolutely dominated in the Middle Volga. Several findings in the estuary. Oka (6 ind.), The Baltics (5 copies.) How would outline the path of the Celts these types further to the west, to Scandinavia, where they are known to 6 specimens. Based on the eastern forms obviously we make tools in place, as evidenced by, as mentioned above, find mold in Finland. The form for this type is known as the Celts of the Middle Volga.
The Celts are the most numerous type III Mari in the Volga region and in Scandinavia. Interestingly, they do not exist elsewhere in the Middle Volga and the Baltic States. Obviously, Scandinavian and Mari-Volga Celts this type evolved independently. By design, as noted above, they are somewhat different: the West — with rhombic cross-section, the Volga — mainly with a round cross section of the sleeve (except for the three earlier). Celts IV and V types known in Scandinavia.
Thus, the effect Ananyino population westward spread at an earlier time during the period of existence of the Celts I-II type and the earliest type III (second half VIII- beginning of VII century. BC. E.). This is confirmed by findings Ananyino ceramics, richly ornamented impressions cord comb in combination with pits in the Volga-Oka interfluve (Kondrakovskoe settlement) in Kostroma (Vatajko, borane, Shunga, machine) and Ivanovo Volga and further to the west on the coast of the White seas. As you know, a rich and complex ornamentation characteristic of the early time.
Bader and EI Goryunov, talking about relations with a population ananintsev «Dyakovo culture» to indicate that they were in the nature of «business» of trade relations. «Basis, the incentive of these relations … are metals — copper, which is in the form of finished products and bars, t. E. Raw materials imported from the Ural forest tribes of the north of Europe.» It was such a character, judging by the spread of the Celts akozinsko melarskogo-type wear, obviously, and links with Scandinavia. It is interesting to note that in the Middle Volga River below. Sviyaga known mainly only to the Celts of the first two types. In the Lower Kama, Vyatka on Vetluga and they are not known. Use the Celts akozinsko-melarskogo Ananyino type along with one of the most distinctive features of the culture of the Mari Ananyino Volga.
On the basis of woody debris ax handles VS Patrushev attempt was made to handle the reconstruction of the Celts and the definition of their functionality. Ax were made up of two parts — a liner inserted into the sleeve and the handle itself. More elongated handle akozinsko-melarskih Celts (50-60 cm) compared with Ananyino (36-45 cm) makes them easier to use as a melee weapon. In favor of their use as a battle-axes and finding suggests these Celts mainly with other weapons — tipped spears and arrows, daggers.