Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
In the nurseries of fruit Ukraine plum grafted primarily in plum, sometimes seedlings resistant varieties of plums. In small amounts it is grown on ternoslive and apricots. Fallopian plum trees in the Ukraine a little, and often difficult to procure seeds. In recent years, fruit nurseries are widely used for the cultivation of plum rootstocks seeds of local varieties and forms, especially Prune ordinary. But it turned out that her bones give a low yield seedlings, and okulyantov survival in arid conditions very bad. Therefore, this discharge as a stock in Ukraine is not recommended. It is better developed seedlings Greengage, and are in the same year performed budding.
In the past, in the southern regions of Ukraine plum seedlings planted mainly on local forms of apricot (zherdelyah). In the thirties, this area accounted for 70% of all plantings of plum. Many of them have survived to the present time and give high yields. Plums grafted on apricot, often drop out (break off) due to weak accretion of the scion with the stock, but are frost-resistant root system. In areas of Kharkiv, Poltava and other areas of the root of a lot of self-local forms of plum and plums grafted on plum, completely lost in the snowless winter 1955-56, and the trees grafted on apricot, preserved.
Apricot seeds germinate well, it often okuliruyut seedlings in the year of sowing in nurseries get a high yield of standard seedlings, trees in the garden almost do not give root seedlings.
To eliminate the breaking off of plums grafted on apricot, it is necessary to drain formed their own roots. In a study of gardens in the Stalin and Mykolaiv regions we found that in many plantations mature trees plums grafted on apricot, with deep landing or siltation trunks at the bottom of the scion formed a strong root system. At the same time the danger of breaking off the scion of the stock is excluded. The root system of the stock is retained, but it is generally less developed and has a generally vertical direction.
The experimental farm of Zaporizhia branch of the All-Union Institute of Electrification of Agriculture (VIESH) and farm «Zaporizka Sich» there are large plantations of plum (1934- 1939 landing.) Grafted on apricot. They are well preserved and give high yields. Where trees are planted so that the graft is place below ground level at 2-10 cm and bottom of the graft formed roots. In 1957 we are working with scientists Melitopol Horticulture Research Station (VN Azarov, V. The monastery and DP Semash) excavated and accounting plum trees of different varieties with their own roots. This took into account only those trees whose graft was below ground level (see table).
Some varieties of plums are not all trees have formed their own roots as the site of inoculation during the survey period were below the level of the soil is only 2-3 cm, and in comparison with other root formation ability to have less pronounced.
To establish the ability to root formation in different varieties of plums grafted on apricot, we put a special experience. In winter, in 1957 they planted 20 varieties of annuals on seedlings of apricot. In the spring, when the grafted cuttings appeared three or four leaf, plants planted in the groove (at the bottom covered with earth) so that the site of inoculation was at 10-12 cm below the soil level. As the plants gradually hill (mound height 20 cm). In the fall of 1958. planting material dug and spent keeping seedlings have formed their own roots. Greengage plum varieties have green, Kirk Stark Greengage, Jefferson, Mol-crush seedlings have formed roots, was 100%; Greengage Ullensa and Hungary’s azhanskaya — 60%; Ant-Imperial — 44%, 43% of Hungary’s Averbaha-; Greengage the farm — 40%, Greengage reform — 28%. Greengage plum varieties Altana, Hungary’s machushskaya, Hungary’s Italian, Hungary’s home, Vengerka oposhnyanskaya Anna Shpet, Peach Michurina Cherkusha black, Victoria’s own roots are not formed.
The ability to form their own roots of seedlings are not identical. Some varieties for two years the roots are not formed. For them, mainly for groups of Hungarians, it required a longer time, or more favorable moisture conditions. At seedling varieties of plums Greengage Altana, Anna Shpet and Hungary’s domestic roots are not formed and mature trees of the same varieties in the garden branch VIESH experimental farm and farm «Zaporizka Sich» had their own roots.
Plum some varieties, such as Victoria, under normal growing conditions does not form its own roots. But based on the available data it can be argued that most varieties of plums grafted on apricot, landing in deep rooting in the bottom of the scion will be relatively easy.
Partial translation of the trees on their own roots deserve attention as well because, as studies have shown Mleevskoy Horticultural Experimental Station named LP Simirenko, non-grafted trees plum most varieties grow well, have high yield and good fruit quality.
To further explore this issue in the Ukrainian Scientific-Research Institute of Horticulture, in the Melitopol Mleevskoy and experimental stations in small areas laid planting several varieties of plums grafted on apricot. Trees planted so that the grafting site is at a depth of 10-20 cm. Plum unlike other crops not suffer from penetration during landing.
Taking into account the findings and past experience, we consider it necessary to organize a bookmark in collective and state farms areas of steppe and southern forest-steppe USSR special production plants of standard varieties of plums grafted on apricot. This place vaccinations bury at 12-15 cm (light soils — deeper, and in heavy — smaller). On the basis of this work experience can quickly solve the problem of how to use apricot plum rootstock in the southern regions of the Ukrainian SSR.