An urgent problem is the technological development of underground development and implementation of automated process control system (APCS). These include control system: the movement of trains, escalators, power supply and other devices.
The greatest effect is given an automated train control system to improve the accuracy and intensity of the movement, release the driver of the large number of management operations by train, using the optimal modes of trains and reduce operating costs.
Currently, the Leningrad subway operated a complex system of automatic train control (KSAUP), and in Moscow — a complex system of automatic train control (KSAUDP). Each of these systems is functionally divided into the security subsystem, consisting of devices cruise control (A PC), and the automatic train control subsystem (AUP).
Devices A PC enables the movement of trains on the stretch, and stations with acceptable speed and the speed limit, and automatically stop the convoy. Production teams all trains on the line of departure from the stations, depending on the current situation and accuracy timetable and timing of additional traction mode delay in the liquidation of carry device AUP.
Consider the construction, characteristics and main features of the integrated system of automatic train control (KSAUP) In general, the system carries out KSAUP: implementation timetable, regulating the movement of trains on the stretch and the waiting time for trains at stations; an engine traction mode «Status 2» and «3-stroke»; automatic train stop at stations with the necessary accuracy and an open carriage doors; Automatic train departure from the station wagon with the door closed, subject to security for passengers; off engines of traction modes according to the mode of reference and convergence trains; automatic circulation of trains on the line dead ends; control of execution of the schedule of trains at the stations with the issuance of the results on the video display and the printer.
The main controls and monitors the system link KSAUP a central control unit (CPU KSAUP), built on a control computer complex ASVT M-6000. It is designed for the perception of signal arrival and departure of trains from the station, processing the information received by a certain algorithm, development teams sending all trains depending on the prevailing situation and the performance of the train timetable, as well as for issuing commands to the inclusion of additional engines to eliminate the delay.
KSAUP CPU consists of two computer systems BK1 and BK2, linear devices, switching and control — simulator subway lines. One of the computer systems is the major VC and the other — a reserve. Information about the arrival of trains enters the BK1, BK2 and control simulator in parallel, and control signals are issued in a linear arrangement only on the VC, which is currently the primary.
When stopping the main complex and looping control program to switch to a backup set of special switching device automatically or manually by the operator. The simulator allows you to monitor the signals of origin and the inclusion of additional traction motors, as well as to create different situations trainsets for debugging software.
The block diagram of computing system and a communication device with the object shown in Fig. 1. The logical and arithmetic processing 16-bit parallel binary words by the processor. Each random access memory RAM has a capacity of 4,096 words; read or write cycle is 2.5 ms input device from a punched tape is used to enter the working program KSAUP and initial data stored on five vosmidorozhechnoy punched tape. On the basis of perforator PL-150 is built punched output device, which is used for breeding programs KSAUP media workers.
Printing for the performance schedule of trains carried the printing device with a keyboard-based "Consul-260". The device with the object used to connect computers with travel and station devices through linear device CPU.
Information from the sensor station control point of arrival, departure and devices control the position of the arrows on the platform O modules are supplied to the input signals of the action.
Contactless Module code control is designed to receive, store the information from the computer and the control actions for travel and station device via a linear device CPU.
KSAUP train system device installed on each train and provide a receipt, processing and execution of control commands from the CPU and station travel devices.
The functions of the travel and station automatic driving devices are signaling the CPU to the automatic driving of the train formation and transfer to the computer signals the arrival of a train at the station, the departure from the station and its prosledovaniya control points the way to the spans.
Travel signaling devices automatic driving a train made up of a series of travel programs.
The program provides for the collection schemes braking deceleration, positioning rheostat controller and automatic braking, which is achieved by its structural construction. The program is a two-wire loop, the configuration of which changes from the beginning to the end of necessity with a view to the transmission train of the above. Brake software powered frequency 42 kHz.
The first portion of the program is used to transmit the signal «braking collection scheme» and made up of two stacked parallel conductors, the distance between which eliminates their mutual influence.
The second section is designed to select the rheostat controller and presents two parallel conductors stacked next to this part of the program poovodnikov magnetic fields cancel each other out and train griemnoy coil induced emf will not.
The lengths of both sections are chosen for reasons of time, triggering actuators train and its speed. Select the number of positions rheostat controller depends on the desired degree of reduction of train speed before the automatic braking.
The required accuracy of the train stop is provided by a two-stage braking. At the start of braking at each stage is determined on the basis of a comparison of actual and set the speed of the train. To do this, compare the actual and pre-calculated time prosledovaniya between fixed distances. Lots of programs and pre-impact braking in the form of crossed-loop. Designated crossing conductors are fixed waypoints Each point is calculated at a certain deceleration starting velocity and the distance between it and the stop point is equal to the braking path at this rate. Readability arrangement of crossings and the variation of the distances between them are due within the train stops at a predetermined point.
The program inhibition is set to the left or right side of the railway track and is supplied continuously from the power generator located on the cabinet CLUPMA.
Travel speed and avtooborota program designed to transmit signals to the train for an engine mode of «Progress-2» 20 kHz, «Progress-3» 32 kHz and 25 kHz avtooborota. They are designed as two-wire cables. Loop length is determined by the operation of train equipment and train acceleration time to speed 15-20 km / h from the moment of pick-up. The beginning of the program when power to the traction mode to be in the area of train stop.
The program is running normally turned off and connected to the cabinet CLUPMA to block generator for transmitting a signal on the train for an engine thrust mode when sending a train from the station.
Track program of doors is used to transmit the signal to the train left and right opening doors. Normally the program is connected to the cabinet CLUPMA to block the generator on and off the transmission signal train doors closing.
Track the program off engine transmits the signal off the train engine thrust mode in advance due to point the way, and the regulation of the total time of the train on the stretch of introducing an additional mode of traction. In the latter case, the program consists of two parts. The first part of the program is installed in the area of regulation time traffic, and the second — at the point of compulsory motor off under the terms of the maximum permissible speed.
The first part of the program normally turned off and connected to the generator unit, installed in a cabinet automatic driving (LUA) when sending a signal off the train engines. The second part of the program is constantly connected.
The travel control device of the train arrived at the station and sending it to the station, and the train control devices prosledovaniya checkpoints way intended to transmit information to a central control station. Each of these devices contains two travel sensor (DIP), the amplifier unit (SU) and the output relay. Sensors mounted under the sole of one of the rails in the control zone prosledovaniya train.
In automatic mode the train station should, as a rule, with the appropriate reference speed mode. In this case, energized by the program inhibition (see. Fig. 2) are output such signals: collecting circuit 8 train braking mode, selecting the desired number of positions rheostatic controller and at a certain point of the path depending on the speed of the two-stage auto-braking.
After stopping the train with the required accuracy for signal control program, a command opening doors door structure while turning informant notifies the arrival of passengers at the station. In addition, following the entry of the first wheel set between the inductive sensor signal is generated actual arrival, which starts counting of time and computers in the control room is calculated departure time of the train from the station.
Parking continues to train central station generation signal of departure. At this signal turns on the program and train door control hardware and produced the following commands: included e-informant notifies passengers on departure from the station; The signal notifies the driver of the need to go from the station; closing doors wagon composition.
Along with the program off the train door control normally energized programs are turned off when power is applied to the traction mode, which is executed only after closing the door wagon. If a train stood at the station more time parking, the team at the departure of the train is generated regardless of the signal of the control room on the signal unit maximum parking. The command to switch the motor in the traction mode perceived and remembered the train equipment prior to receipt of the trip command engine. This is done to reduce the length of the track program for an engine.
Departure of the train station by a fixed reference point and transmitted to a central control station. If the train is late, the computer calculates the additional traction mode and transmits its value to block off the engines of traction mode. After the implementation of extra time train movements under power from the generator is powered off engine program and this signal is produced at train equipment off command of the traction motor mode. Then the train moves to a stop. If necessary, restart the engines set a short program running, and turn off the engines in place of the traction mode — the program off engines
Experience in operating system KSAUP showed that it successfully carries out its functions on the automatic train control and construction of the CPU-based machine control is the right technical solution. The computer performs logical processing extensive information about the process of movement of trains, allows you to quickly change the timetable and monitors the progress of its implementation.
Maintenance of central control devices, as well as the development and maintenance of software for computer complexes ASVT M-6000 performed by employees of department of computer technology CC. Dual redundant control systems and communication devices with objects allowed to provide virtually uninterrupted operation of central control in the management of train traffic.
Maintenance station devices automatic driving and travel, and cruise control is assigned to the signaling and communication. On all devices, a special service technology, which provides the terms and the procedure for verification, inspection and replacement of equipment. Most of the work on the content and the rapid elimination of violations rests with the bell staff distance signaling. Inspection and repair of the equipment manufactured service workshops. Application redundancy of the basic units of the station equipment possible to ensure uptime of equipment in the amount of about 2000 hours.
Maintenance of all the devices operate train service workers of rolling stock. For this purpose, selected and trained special workers who repair and replace blocks of auto-reference and A PC, the device is controlled trainsets, prepare and give the compositions on the line.
The system allows KSAUP ensure compliance with the schedule and to efficiently manage the movement of trains. However, in the course of its operation revealed some shortcomings. These include the lack of information from the central office on the issue of the route and train, no direct connection to the controller
Computers, management of traction motors only at certain points, but not across the stretch, insufficient equipment control computers and others.
Continuously increasing passenger traffic and expansion of the network of subways have additional requirements for the automation system train control. In the future, remote train dispatcher is scheduled to be included in the control loop automatic driving system, and performing certain functions of the controller to transmit electronic computers. Apart from the main purpose of traffic control, the automation system must be collected and the formation of information to other subsystems of ACS-Met-ro based on allowing a run of the rolling stock, control the execution of the train schedule and ensure the vitality of the system in real time failures and traffic disruption .