Brilliant works of Stalin on linguistics were a valuable contribution to the treasury of Marxist-Leninist science. They found their brilliant resolution of the main, the most important and fundamental questions of linguistics.
Comrade Stalin showed that the main cause of the stagnation in Soviet linguistics was that it was based on unscientific, alien to Marxism «new doctrine» of language Marr. Persistence in Baku yafetidologicheskogo mug frequent visits here Marr and II Meshchaninova and publication of their perverse works in Baku — were the reason that the «doctrine» Marr left deep traces in the Azerbaijan linguistics. Many Azerbaijani linguists guided by these «scientists» in their research and teaching activities, and used in his works vicious installation Marr of language as a superstructure of the class, by stages in the development of language, the emergence of new languages by crossing and so on. Etc. . Azerbaijan linguistics in a state of deep hibernation.
After the publication of the classic works of Stalin on linguistics in the report at a meeting of intellectuals of Baku in July 1950 Secretary of the Central Committee of the CP (B) of Azerbaijan MD Bagirov harshly and rightly criticized the work of the Institute of Language Sciences of Azerbaijan SSR.
In November 1950 at the initiative of the Central Committee of the CP (B) of Azerbaijan held a meeting of linguists of the Republic, to discuss the fundamental issues of Azerbaijan linguistics in the light of the works of Comrade Stalin.
Speaking at the meeting, linguists, who previously shared and promoted «teaching» Marr revealed serious methodological errors of the order made by them in the Azerbaijan linguistics. The meeting identified a number of measures to further improve the work in Azerbaijan linguistics in the light of the brilliant works of Stalin on linguistics.
Before the Institute of literature and language of Azerbaijan SSR and linguistic departments had the following main objectives: the study of the modern Azerbaijani language, the study of the history of the Azerbaijani language, study says the Azerbaijani language, the development of lexicography, comparative study of Russian and Azerbaijani languages.
Classic works of Comrade Stalin on linguistics once and for all put an end to an underestimation of grammar and incredible confusion created by Marr and his followers in this area.
New papers devoted to the study of the Azerbaijani language.
Shortly after that meeting, prepared for printing the first part of the grammar of the Azerbaijani language has been revised, as some of its sections are composed anew on the basis of Stalin’s statements on matters of grammar and in 1951, out of print. The second part of this work — syntax — is also made up, will soon be tabled in the same year will be prepared for publication.
One of the practical problems of Azerbaijani linguistics, demanded urgent resolution was clarifying existing rules of spelling and preparing to print a new edition of the spelling dictionary.
After repeated discussions in 1951 were published a revised and updated «rules spelling of the Azerbaijani language.» Clarifies the rules of punctuation, which will be published later.
One of the urgent tasks of Azerbaijan linguistics is a scientific development issues orthoepy Azerbaijani language. Subject caused by the need to get rid of disparity observed in the pronunciation of certain words and phrases in the speech of lecturers, speakers, actors, announcers. In this regard, the five-year plan of the Institute of literature and language of Azerbaijan SSR is on the theme of «Orthoepy Azerbaijani language.» There will also be investigated phonetic bases orthoepy Azerbaijani language.
The Pedagogical Institute. Lenin’s work will be over, «Lexicon of Modern Azerbaijani language», and at the State University. Kirov — the work of neologisms of the Azerbaijani language.
Institute of Literature and Language Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan SSR together with the Department of General Linguistics of the Azerbaijan University. Kirov included in the 1952/1953 biennium. study on the origin and development of the Azerbaijani language.
The golden age of Azerbaijani literary language is associated with the establishment of Soviet power in Azerbaijan. In connection with the building of socialism, the development of science, literature and art in the vocabulary of Azerbaijani language, new words, has changed the meaning of a number of words and expressions. The development of the Azerbaijani literary language and contributed to the improvement of its grammar. I must say that during the Soviet period in the history of the Azerbaijani language is still not lit properly. In order to address this gap in the five-year plan of the Institute of literature and language of Azerbaijan SSR is on the theme of «History of Azerbaijan literary language of the Soviet period.» In 1951, already made a part of this theme.
Due to the great importance in the history of the Azerbaijani language of the question of its sustainability and tremendous resistance to forced assimilation researcher at the Institute of Literature and Language Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan SSR finalized topics: 1) «The stability and resilience of the Azerbaijani language assimilation attempts by Arab, Turkish and Persian invaders» and 2 ) «Fight Akhundov Azerbaijani language for identity against the Arab, Persian and Turkish influence.» Also, the work ends with «The struggle for identity Dzhalilla Mammadguluzadeh Azerbaijani language against the Arab, Persian and Turkish influence.»
One of the main questions of the history of the Azerbaijani language is the study of the influence of the great Russian language into the Azerbaijani language. In 1951 he was made the theme of «beneficial and progressive influence of the Russian language in Azerbaijan before the establishment of Soviet power in Azerbaijan,» and later was finished the second part of the topic: «The role of the Russian language in the development and enrichment of the Azerbaijani language during the Soviet period.»
Work Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» raised the importance of exploring the local («territorial») dialects. Stalin indication of the significance of dialects in the process of formation of national languages poses great and important tasks before dialectologists socialist republics.
The study of dialects is of great importance for the development of the history of language, as well as to enrich the vocabulary of the modern literary language. In the current five-year period the employees of the Institute will be engaged in research of the Azerbaijani language dialects Nakhichevan ASSR and prepare a monograph on the subject.
Along with this work forthcoming monograph «Dialects Mugan regions of Azerbaijan SSR», the materials of which were collected in the years 1946-1950.
In addition, to introduce Russian readers to the work done in Azerbaijan dialectology will be prepared in Russian collection of articles entitled «Materials and Research on Azerbaijan dialectology»
In the field of lexicography is currently being prepared big «Russian-Azerbaijani dictionary» (in two volumes). This dictionary is created on the basis of the four-Russian-Azerbaijani dictionary, published in 1940-1946 gg. Dictionnaire last revised in light of the teachings of Joseph Stalin on basic vocabulary and vocabulary of the language, supplemented and released from the elements jargon and dialect. The new edition focuses on the grammatical characteristics of words to all uppercase words are appropriate grammatical labels. In some cases, the headword is provided with a flag which characterizes the word in terms of its stylistic coloring.
The growing cultural needs of the Azerbaijani people led to the need for an explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language. Drafting an explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language is the first experience in this field lexicographical work.
The explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language has the task to collect, organize and record the words used in modern literary (written and spoken) Azeri. He poses as a regulatory task, so special attention is given to grammatical characteristics of words.
With words borrowed from Russian and foreign languages indicate their origin and given transcription. For clarity, the interpretation of the meanings of words and colors accompanied by a corresponding illustrative material chosen from the works of the classics, as well as Azerbaijani Soviet writers of the modern printing and folklore, and so on. D.
The first volume of the dictionary is expected to put into print in 1955.
In order to provide practical assistance to students in the study of the Russian language by the Institute of Language and Literature in 1951 released «The Azerbaijani-Russian Dictionary» and «Russian-Azerbaijani dictionary.»
Terminology development in our country are engaged in a long time. For the main branches of knowledge published more than thirty terminological dictionaries, but they are both in volume and content do not correspond to the current state of science and culture of our country.
In addition, the use of certain terms, there inconsistency. To resolve and leadership in the creation of terminology in the Azerbaijani language, the newly created terminological committee at the Presidium of the Azerbaijan SSR. On behalf of the Committee, without exception, research institutions, Academy of Sciences of the republic are currently engaged in the creation of terminological dictionaries in their specialties.
In 1952, it will be prepared for publication lexicon of language and literature.
One source of enrichment and development of the languages of socialist nations is Russian. Secretary of the CC CP (B) of Azerbaijan MD Vagirov at the XVII Party Congress of Azerbaijan said: «The mastery of the Russian language is one of the main tools for a sharp rise in culture, art and science in all the Union republics. That is why the study of the Russian language, first of all, in our schools and educational institutions should be the focus of the party organizations of the republic. » To help teachers of Russian secondary schools Azerbaijan University in 1952, will be prepared for publication «Comparative grammar of Russian and Azerbaijani languages.»
The enrichment of the modern Azerbaijani language with new terminology and new expressions played an important role, and translations of Russian works of the classics of Marxism-Leninism. In the Azerbaijani language has published Volume I of «Capital» of Marx, twenty-six volumes of the Collected Works of Lenin and thirteen volumes of the Collected Works of Joseph Stalin.
In the Azerbaijani language translated many works of classical Russian literature — Pushkin, Gogol, Lermontov, Tolstoy, etc .; prominent Soviet writers — Gorky, Mayakovsky, Alexei Tolstoy, Sholokhov, Fadeev et al., as well as the works of writers of the fraternal Soviet republics.
Despite these achievements, we can say that to this day remains unresolved number of fundamental issues of translation practice. No generalized wealth of experience in translation work, have not been established theoretical works, which would help the further development of the translation business in the country.
Given this gap, the Institute of Literature and Language Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan SSR is preparing a monograph «Basic Principles for the translation from Russian into Azerbaijani language.»
Achievements and shortcomings of scientific bodies in the Azerbaijan linguistics.
For adjustment of language teaching in secondary schools in the light of the brilliant works of Stalin on linguistics from 3 to January 6, 1951 it was held a joint session of the Institute of Language Sciences of Azerbaijan SSR State University. Kirov and the Pedagogical Institute. Lenin devoted to the works of Stalin on linguistics and the teaching of languages in secondary school. On the basis of a joint session it was reviewed by the Academic Council of the Institute of Literature and Languages. Nizami of Azerbaijan SSR and re-compiled program on Azerbaijani language.
Composed in 1951, the new textbooks of Azerbaijani language were discussed at the Academic Council of the Institute of Language and Literature, and reviewed by the staff.
It was also re-compiled program for high schools on linguistic disciplines: the Modern Azerbaijani language, the history of the Azerbaijani language and Azerbaijani dialectology. Compiled programs were hocks, Lena discussed and approved at a joint meeting of employees of the Institute of literature and language of Azerbaijan SSR, Department of General Linguistics State University. Kirov and the Department of Linguistics of the Azerbaijan Pedagogical Institute. Lenin.
One of the urgent tasks facing the Azerbaijani linguists, is to provide university textbooks and manuals of Azerbaijani linguistics.
Solving this problem, the Azerbaijan State University. SM Kirov in 1952, ready to print the 1st part of the training manual for the modern Azerbaijani language, covering vocabulary, phonetics and morphology of modern Azerbaijani language. In 1952 it has been prepared for publication «Fundamentals of Azerbaijani dialectology». In 1953, it will be prepared for publication textbook «Essays on historical grammar of Azerbaijani language».
For the purposes of the drawbacks in the language of the Azerbaijani literature from 10 to 13 May 1951 the Soviet Writers’ Union of Azerbaijan and the Institute of Literature and Languages. Nizami of Azerbaijan SSR was held a meeting devoted to the works of Comrade Stalin on linguistics and language works of art of the Azerbaijani Soviet literature.
In order to popularize and promote the ideas of the brilliant work of JV Stalin, «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics’ Institute of Literature and Language Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan SSR State University. SM Kirov Pedagogical Institute. Lenin held a number of events: public lectures, presentations in Baku and regions of Azerbaijan and broad meeting.
In addition, in connection with the anniversary of the publication of the works of Stalin on Linguistics Institute of literature and language was prepared and was published a collection of articles entitled «Proceedings of Comrade Stalin on linguistics and issues of Azerbaijan linguistics.»
However, it should be noted that along with these achievements in the work of the Institute of Literature and Languages. Nizami of Azerbaijan SSR, linguistic departments of Azerbaijan University of Kirov and Azerbaijani Pedagogical Institute. Lenin has significant drawbacks.
Some Azerbaijani linguists have not yet recognized their mistakes and do not appear in print with their analysis and criticism. For example, Professor Demirchizade in his article «Stalinist doctrine of the grammatical structure of language,» says not a word about the errors they committed in the Azerbaijani grammar. Moreover, what they created confusion in the Azeri grammar, expressed in denial as the subject of the sentence and the inclusion of unions in a number of the sentence. In addition, the article titled professor Demirchizade, ranked as the product of «Dede Korkut» to the Azerbaijani monuments, trying to prove the connection between language, «Dede Korkut» with the modern Azerbaijani language.
The author of this article in his paper «The work of Comrade Stalin,» Marxism and Problems of Linguistics «and the problem of Azerbaijani Linguistics» written in 1950, speaking about the stability of the grammatical structure of the Azerbaijani language, the product of anti-national «Dede Korkut» ranked as the monuments of Azerbaijani language.
Exposing the anti-national character of the book, that is. Bagirov said: «» Dede Korkut «is not a folk epic, this book is devoted from the beginning to the end of the praise of the ruling elite Oguz nomadic tribes who came to the Azerbaijani land as robbers and murderers. The book is imbued with the poison of nationalism, it is directed against non-Muslims, infidels, mainly against the brotherly Georgian and Armenian peoples. «
Under the influence of anti-Marxist «theory» Marr of stages of language some linguists at the heart of modern Azerbaijan the Azerbaijani language have seen alien Oguz-Kipchak language and therefore declared the reaction the book «Dede Korkut» monument of Azerbaijani language the XI century. Meanwhile, «Dede Korkut» has no relation to the Azerbaijani people.
A major shortcoming in the work of the Institute of Language and Literature, Department of General Linguistics of the University and the department of Azerbaijan linguistics Pedagogical Institute should be considered the fact that these scientific bodies have not been able to raise and develop general questions of linguistic nature, as well as a number of issues related to the origin and development of the Azerbaijani language .
The departments of the Institute and the Department of Linguistics University and the Pedagogical Institute is still not deployed a truly Bolshevik criticism and self-criticism to help improve scientific research and theoretical level, finished work are not discussed systematically. One of the shortcomings is also a poor training of highly qualified scientists in linguistics. This is confirmed by the fact that after the publication of the works of genius Stalin defended only one thesis in linguistics. Among the disadvantages it is also what linguists republic did not come out with theoretical linguistic articles in the central press organs.
To improve work in the field of linguistics, linguists republic must resolve a number of important issues. In implementing the guidance XVIII Congress of the CP (B) of Azerbaijan on the development of the origin and development of the Azerbaijani language, the Institute of Language and Literature and the Institute of History and Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan SSR planned to hold a joint session dedicated to the issues of the origin of the Azerbaijani people, and language.
It is necessary to pay special attention to the training of highly qualified personnel seconded by linguists to doctoral candidates of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Brilliant works of Stalin on linguistics have identified the development of Soviet linguistics and Soviet linguists inspired a bold research in various fields of science.
Linguists Azerbaijan will make every effort to give our people complete the works in the Azerbaijan linguistics — works worthy of the Stalin era.