In 1960, the farm has received funds and immediately began building the first stage of the irrigation network, designed for the irrigation of 450 acres of gardens. In autumn 1962, we conducted the first vlagozaryadkovy watering the garden on an area of 200 hectares. Now irrigate almost all perennials.
Pour furrow depth of 15-20 centimeters of water in the plant tree trunks of trees.
The furrows cut into cultivators KRN-4.2, adapted for this purpose. The distance between the grooves of 0.7 meters. On the fourth or fifth day after the irrigation furrows are closed and the loose soil harrows «Zigzag».
The determining factor of a regular watering are not separate phases of development of fruit trees, and soil moisture, which is set in the state farm agrochemical laboratory. On the basis of the laboratory determine the timing and rates of irrigation water per hectare.
Study of irrigation regime and the summer of 1963 has allowed to establish the dynamics of soil moisture, which is an important condition for the normal development of fetuses.
Summer 1963 was exceptionally dry and hot in the second half of summer in non-irrigated orchards soil moisture is 55-60% field capacity in the gardens irrigated soil moisture was normal, so the trees are well developed.
Recharge irrigation is held in October-November, 800- 1000 cubic meters of water per hectare, vegetation as needed — of 600-800 cubic meters.
Taking into account the developed irrigation system and fertilizer perennial plants. The whole area of the garden was divided into 5 portions of 110 120 hectares and all. Every three years, planting fertilizing humus 10-12 tons per hectare. Mineral fertilizers are applied annually per hectare: superphosphate — 2.5 quintals, potassium salt — 1, ammonium nitrate — 2.5 quintals. Every three years, grown in between rows of green manure crops for green manure.
Irrigation is much easier and cheaper feeding. Ammonium nitrate to make small meals during irrigation sprinklers at the rate of 1-1.5 quintals per hectare. Liquid feeding effective as fertilizer, dissolved in water, easily absorbed by plants, which is very important for the development and growth of the fruit trees.
Due to the irrigation of the garden there was a danger of disease scab some varieties of trees. Therefore, the solution of chemicals to combat pests and plant diseases, we add a 1% Bordeaux mixture. In addition, to add a top dressing in the early summer of 0.3% ammonium nitrate and at the end of the summer — the same amount of superphosphate. It gives positive results.
We still have little experience in irrigation of gardens, but we can confidently say that where irrigation is there and the harvest. These are the results of economic activity of the farm for 1963, the second year after the start of irrigation.
In 1963, the farm has collected pome fruit crops 164.1 quintals per hectare in the area of 344 hectares, stone — by 125.7 15.5 quintals per hectare. Cost of pome fruit crops quintal was 3 rubles 92 kopecks at the plan of 7 rubles 58 kopecks, stone — 5 rubles 30 kopecks at the plan of 9 rubles 31 kopecks. The cost of labor is not the production of pome fruit quintals were 3.6 person-hours of the planned 8.5 man-hours, stone — 11.06 man-hours of the planned 13.3 man-hours. From gardening received 861,000 rubles of net profit.
It should be noted that the frequency of fruiting is still to some extent observed in our gardens, but in a complex irrigation system, ie fertilizers and proper treatment will allow the next 2-3 years to eliminate it completely.
Observing experienced varieties of apple trees Calville snow showed that in 1963 the average harvest per hectare of irrigated garden was 40% more than non-irrigated. The average weight of the fruit on the trees were irrigated 86 grams versus 79 grams without irrigation. The average area of a single sheet under irrigation was 25.11 square centimeter versus 21.8 square centimeter without irrigation.
Irrigation hectare garden vlagozaryadkovy one and two irrigations) spend an average of 20-25 rubles, and the increase in the yield of 40 quintals.
According to our calculations, the conditional annual profit from the use of irrigation in 1963 amounted to 220 thousand rubles. Thus, all of the costs for the construction of the irrigation network in the amount of 80 thousand rubles paid off in one year.
Good crop growers raised the farm this year.