Lady’s Slipper (Cypripedium)

Can it be called lady’s slipper beautiful in the classic sense of the word — as the rose, lily, anemones with their perfect flowers? I think no. But with all this shoes extremely interesting and attractive.

The structure of the flower lady’s slipper:

1. The inlet for pollinating insects.

2. Shield (staminode).

3. Sail.

4. The side lobes.

5. The lower petal.

6. Guba.

Life cycle and growth characteristics

Shoes — a perennial herb. In most species, which will be discussed, a short thick rhizome, but there are species with thin, long and branched rhizome. From roots depart numerous long roots. Curtin short-rhizomatous species is dense, compact, «buketnye» at dlinnokornevischnyh — loose, with single stems, which occupies a large area. Rhizome is superficial roots extend far more in hand than the depth. The buds on the rhizome and develop consistently laid underground for 3-4 years before the germ may seem on the surface. Waking up in the middle of spring, with the beginning of June in bloom shoes. Single flower lasts 7-9 days. Planting species and varieties with different flowering dates, you can stretch the festival slippers for a month. Depending on the type and grade of stem height varies from 20 to 50 cm as the number of leaves (2-9) and the degree of pubescent. Flowers are usually solitary, rarely of 2-3. Sleeps plant in late August — September.

Winter-hardy species

Growing in our country

All these shoes are endangered. One of the reasons — a barbaric poaching Digging for the transfer to the gardens. Do not buy such plants with it, so as not to encourage poaching!

B. real (C. calceolus) is found in the middle lane more often than others. The stem (40 cm) shall be 1, 2 rarely graceful mid-sized flowers with yellow lip and long, twisted into a spiral of dark brown lateral petals and sail. In nature, there are variations in the color of the side lobes and sails (shades of brown) and lips (red-brown specks, eyeliner, smear). A rare form of a cream-colored or a white lip.

It is extremely rare in the culture related to him b. shansiysky (S. shanxiense). It is characterized by a smaller size, reddish-brown color of the flower and 2-3 flowers per spike. Both species are confined to the output of limestone. In areas of joint hybrid growth occurs — b. melkoguby (S. x microsaccos).

B. macranthon (S. macranthos) — powerful plant (30-35 cm) with broad leaves and large single flower with wide lip and side lobes. Painting flower in pink and crimson palette, more smooth. There are plants with striped side lobes and sail a few different shade than lip. Very beautiful, but rare albino form.

B. swollen (S. x ventricosum) — one of the most stable in culture, natural hybrid b. present and used. grandiflora. Mid-size single flower shape is closer to b. really, but the side lobes wider and less twisted. Flower color is even, from dark-crimson to pale pink. Occasionally there are instances of one color to the lip and sail and side lobes and another creamy white form.

It is extremely rare hybrid b. with large-b. shansiyskim — b. Catherine (C. x catherinae).

B. spotted (S. guttatum) — the miniature form (15-25 cm) with a slightly hairy leaves and small white with large irregular pink-purple flower specks. Guba is almost round. The sail can be either spotted or pure white.

B. Yatabe (pp yatabeanum) — another miniature, but with a narrow lip and short side lobes. Flower color is yellowish-green, with brown specks largest blurred. Brightness and size of the park may vary.

At the intersection of the ranges used. Spotted and b. Yatabe found b. Alaskan (C. x alaskanum) — a hybrid of nature, echoing the shape of a flower b. Yatabe, and closer to the color used. spotty.

Chinese mountain

B. Tibetan (S. tibeticum) — squat (25-30 cm) orchid with a slightly hairy leaves and large single flowers with purple lip and wide chocolate striped side lobes of the perianth and sail.

B. yellow (C. flavum) — high (50 cm) plant with large single flowers and hairy stems and leaves. Side tepals short and blunt. Flower color can vary from pale yellow to deep-lemon, sometimes with a reddish tinge, and / or red-brown specks on the lip.

North American

Queen B. (S. reginae) — tall (60 cm) with a view silnoopushennymi stem and leaves and fairly large single (rarely 2-3) flower. Sail and lateral petals are white, the color of the lips varies from white with occasional pink-stained crimson to deep pink. One of the late-.

Promising for the middle band types

The experience of growing the following species have very small. But relying on the conditions of their life in nature and the experience of their European counterparts, most likely, it is possible the successful cultivation of these slippers in our gardens.

North American

B. melkotsvetkovy (S. parviflorutn var. Parviflorum) — graceful plant (30-40 cm) with two (sometimes one) small flowers, color and shape similar to b. real.

B. pubescent (C. parviflorum var. Pubescens) — close b. melkotsvetkovomu, but with a larger, more single flower.

B. Kentucky (S. kentuckiense) — Orchid tall (60 cm), one of the most large-. Guba oval, from pale yellow to creamy, sail and long twisted side lobes are covered with brown stripes and strokes.

Chinese mountain views

B. Yunnan (S. yunnanense) — related b. grandiflora species with pink flowers and strongly pubescent leaves-mi. Often it grows with the Tibetan shoes. With an overall similarity with b. large-plants in general smaller.

B. Frosch (C.froschii) — a natural hybrid between b. Tibetan and b. Yunnan. Very close to b. Yunnan, but has a much larger flower.

B. Smith (S. calcicola, syn. C. smithii) — stocky plants with large purple-purple flower.

B. Franchet (S. franchetti) — low with a large orchid flower. Lip pink with darker veins, light sail, and the side lobes are covered with dark-pink stripes.

Grades

Cultivation of horticultural hybrids has significant advantages: stability, predictability, high slew rate. Hybridization and selection of resistant forms of engaged Frosh kennel in Germany. Michael Weinert, a leading specialist nursery Frosh, so characterizes the behavior of the varieties in the garden: an indicator of good health plant is an annual doubling of the number of stems. Add to this great diversity in size, the timing of flowering, flower color and size — and a matter of choice resolved itself in favor of varieties, but species.

The program involves hybridization and Euro-Asian and North American species. Today we know more than a hundred varieties.

Melkotsvetkovye

‘Gisela’ (S. macranthos x C. parviflorum) — one of the most vigorous and hardy varieties (30-35 cm). Lip light pink with darker veins, sail and side lobes crimson. ‘Gisela Pastel’ — a lighter color.

‘Paul’ (C. parviflorum x C. franchetii) — height of 40-45 cm, with yellowish lip and crimson-brown sail and side lobes.

With a giant flower

‘Sabine’ (S. fasciolatum x S. macranthos) — height of 20-30 cm, with pale pink lip and a bright striped sail and side lobes. We ‘Sabine Pastel’ creamy white flower.

‘Philipp’ (S. macranthos x S. kentuckiense) — late-variety (30-40 cm) with pink lip and crimson sail and side lobes. Different instances can have different pattern on the lip — from the park to the small crimson crimson broad strokes and stains.

Large- and medium-flowered

Aki (S. macranthos x S. pubescens) — elegant sortoseriya (40 cm), including ‘Aki’ — pale yellow with crimson veins lip and Maroon Sailing and side lobes, a little lighter ‘Aki Hell’ and ‘Aki Pastel’ with bright crimson striped sail and side lobes and creamy lip.

‘Birgit’ (S. macranthos x S. cordigerum) — low (25 cm) cultivar with pink lip and dark sail and side lobes. Very nice ‘Birgit Pastel’ — with the sail and petals ivory snow-white lip.

‘Inge’ (C. parviflorum x C. fasciolatum) — tall (40-50 cm), a variety with creamy-yellow glossy lip and brown sail and side lobes.

‘Vila Silkens’ (S. reginae x C. flavum) — late-variety (35-45 cm) with white sail and side lobes. Painting lips varies from pure white to deep crimson with different intermediate forms. Side provocatively short recurved petals.

Reproduction

In nature, seed germination due to symbiosis with soil fungi, underground development period lasts seed 2-3 (or more) years. At the age of flowering plants included in the 10-11-year. Seed propagation is possible only in the culture in a sterile laboratory conditions on special media.

Overgrown clumps are divided after the end of the growing season in late summer — early autumn, entirely removing and brushing / washing away the ground. The rate depends on the proliferation of varieties / species and growing conditions. As a rule, the final curtain to divide the rhizome at a number of thinner and breaks easily without the use of the knife. Delenki planted immediately to the prepared location.

Partners

Shoes are not able to compete with the more active neighbors for moisture and food, so the partners they are suitable only plants with «friendly» root system: short-rhizomatous fern, miniature hosts Gorjanki, Trillium.

Possible problems

Fungal defeat: during the regrowth of the leaves appear brown strokes sprout deformed and dies. At the first sign of defeat — fungicide («ER,» «Topaz» — according to the instructions, avoiding contact with the ground). This hinders the development of the disease and allows the plant to finish the growing season is almost on time.

«Falling asleep»: for no apparent reason in the previous season, a healthy plant does not wake up in the spring. With careful digging revealed healthy kidneys and rhizomes, and «slept» season, the plant is again fully vegetates. Class «falling asleep» is not inclined, of the types most often happens to b. real. Considerable damage to ground parts may cause the slugs and snails.

Planting

The rhizome is placed horizontally, the roots straightened. Kidney should be recessed no more than 1-1.5 cm. With greater depth of planting the plant does not die, but will not fully develop, leaving all the power in the growing new roots at the right level. To wait for flowering in such a situation will take years.

Planting material

1. Sleeping rhizomes obtained in the early spring or late autumn should be a clear light the roots and one or more large white kidney. Exception — popular variety Vila Silkens’, whose roots are brown and hairy brown buds.

2. In recent years, appeared in the garden hypermarkets selling of growing plants in pots. The soil in these pots — only the transport and the plants are planted there directly before sending. Long stay in a substrate does not benefit the plant. These shoes is best planted in the ground at once, without waiting for the end of the growing season.

3. Plants propagated by tissue culture (meristem), appeared in the domestic market recently. It is very small and extremely vulnerable plants and bring them up to the age of flowering — the process time-consuming. Rearing takes place in greenhouses in containers filled with soil containing no organic material (crushed lava, limestone, expanded clay, coal) for 2-3 years. In winter containers digged into the ground, and sheltering. At the 3-4th year in the planting mixture of peat fiber is added to 1/3 volume and gradually accustom the plants to conditions of the garden. Before flowering takes at least 4-5 years.

Calendar of care

APRIL

Removing the cover with pozdneosennih landings.

Fertilizing Plant Variety complete mineral fertilizer. Species is not fed enough not to remove leaf litter, if the shoes are growing under deciduous trees, or a thin layer of mulch in the autumn fallen leaves or light garden compost. Planting rhizomes obtained.

MAY

Fertilizing Plant Variety complete mineral fertilizer, if you do not have time in April. Foliar feeding weakened plants, planted last season, variety of plants (1-2 times): 1 ch. L. «Kemira-Lux» plus 1 vial of Alpin 5 liters of water. An indicator of health is the dark green color of leaves. Pale green or yellowish leaves say anything about the lack of food or too much of the sun exposure. Pale leaves may be svezheposadochnyh have not yet adapted to the new conditions of the plants.

JUNE

Foliar feeding weakened plants, planted last season, variety of plants. Preparation seats for fall considering that the root system is not mature plant leaves 30 cm deep, but the area can hold a 2X. The landing place — moving in the shadows with a number of direct sun in the morning or evening hours. Shoes do not like to soil compaction and can not tolerate stagnant moisture. Particularly sensitive to excess moisture mountain views. In the cheese section with heavy dense soils can lead shoes as the potting or abandon them in favor of other orchids that such conditions comfortable (orchids).

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