Belousov Secretary of the Union of Architects of the USSR
Directive XXIII Congress of the CPSU on the Five-Year Economic Development Plan of the USSR in the 1966-70 biennium. opens a new stage in the creation of material and technical base of communism. The new plan embody the fundamental interests of the people, put further tasks of building communism in the Programme Committee.
The Directives clearly defined goal of increasing the pace of construction and industrial facilities, housing and cultural and community building in cities and especially in rural areas and at the same time put forward demands to improve the quality of housing construction and the level of improvement of houses.
Each section, each item Directive is directly linked to the work of our architects. Take, for example, the projected increase in car production by almost 4 times, and the cargo 1.6-1.7 times. It would seem that the total here with the work of architects? But this is just pose new challenges for architects in the creation of new types of automotive industrial buildings; projects planning towns and cities require new solutions concepts of traffic and pedestrians, organization of convenient parking, especially in crowded areas near shopping centers, office buildings, cinemas, theaters, and so on. d. arises as a serious problem of design, location and construction variety of different types of garages.
We see that already one factor increasing the number of cars brings new urban challenges, for which the designer must not only skill, but also a deep comprehensive knowledge.
Grand challenges faced by Soviet architects and builders in the next five years. Seriously increasing role and importance of architecture, they require the mobilization of all the creative forces of architects and pose the problem of a sharp increase in the number of qualified architects in the national economy by enhancing the training of young professionals in the existing universities in the country and mainly in the newly created institutions, departments or offices in the Far East, Siberia, the Urals and Central Asia,
Today we can say with confidence that the quality of the training of young architects in our country is quite high. This was noted at the IV All-Union Congress of Architects and was confirmed at the VIII Congress of the International Union of Architects, held in 1965 in Paris, where he discussed the problem of training highly qualified architects. But this should not reassure us, as the level of teaching in various universities in different and improving the quality of the architects are still on the agenda.
The creative direction to the architectural schools, graduating from professional skills are always in sight of our architectural community. This mainly promote All-Union review diploma works almost without exception architectural schools in the country, which holds an annual board of the Union of Soviet Architects.
This year’s show of graduation works of architects will take place in Kiev and Sverdlovsk and Novosibirsk Branch of the SA USSR, together with the Commission board of the SA USSR for Architectural Education to hold zonal meeting in Sverdlovsk on «Preparing for the architects of the Urals and Siberia.»
The scope of training architects today can not fully meet the needs of the construction, design and research organizations. The State Committee for Civil Engineering and Architecture, and the Union of Architects come numerous requests from various organizations in need of architectural frames. Not satisfied this need in the republics of Central Asia, Belarus, the Russian Far East, in the cities of the Urals and Siberia. For example, in several areas of Urals and Western Siberia from 2832 architectural positions occupied by degreed architects only 175. In Perm region 33 Chief Architect working only five of Chartered Architects, and in Bashkiria 63 positions the main architects of cities and towns are only 2. Tyumen region where discovered rich oil and gas reserves, and is deployed on a large scale design and construction of new towns, industrial centers, residential areas and so on. d., running is just one member of the Union of Architects. According to the Sverdlovsk branch of the SA USSR, only to work in the Urals have to prepare for the next ten years, more than 3,000 architects, and while the Urals Polytechnic Institute produces annually only 19 architects.
The lack of local qualified staff of designers leads to many important sites for various cities are designed in Moscow, Leningrad and other major centers, in isolation from the local environment, often without taking into account the specific characteristics of the climate, opportunities of improvement, landscaping and so on. D.
The small size of many local branches and groups of SA USSR, even in large cities such as Irkutsk, Khabarovsk and others., Leads naturally to the fact that these organizations difficult to solve their problems of great creative design and construction.
It should be noted that in recent years the number of applicants to higher architectural school increases. Architectural department were opened in Ust-Kamenogorsk Construction Institute in Dushanbe, in Rostov-on-Don.
Gosplan, the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education of the USSR, together with the State Committee for Civil Engineering and Architecture, and the Union of Architects have developed proposals for further increasing the output of architects in the country. Over the five-year reception in architectural institutes and departments should increase dramatically.
An equally important problem — the uniform distribution of the country’s higher educational institutions that train architects. Now, for example, in Siberia and in the Urals, where the need for architects is particularly great, it issued architects almost the same as in the republics of the Caucasus Obviously, it is necessary to open new universities in Siberia and the Urals — in Sverdlovsk, Irkutsk, Khabarovsk and other major centers. But this is no simple matter. Who really can say, for example, the establishment of the Architectural Institute in Sverdlovsk, and the opening of the architectural department of the Irkutsk Civil Engineering Institute.
Training of architects — a process long and complicated. To go to college this year to join the ranks of the Soviet architects only five years in the future. Therefore, lack of staffing degreed architects will be felt for a number of years and will have to continue their training on the job, especially among those already working in the specialty. Obviously, it is necessary to consider the establishment of special courses for the training of architects from among the practitioners who do not have complete higher architectural education. It is necessary to allow such practices to engage on an individual plan and take exams as an external student.
With the increase in the number of students in architecture schools, of course, the problem of teacher training. It is necessary to solve several problems at once; in the first place — to provide a numerical increase of teachers and to raise the quality of teaching. Unfortunately, today, with a small number of students majoring security architecture of most university teachers is not enough staff.
Many teachers, going to work at the university, detached from the practice of design and construction; At the same time, a large number of practitioners able to teach, can not engage with the students because of the great difficulties of combining.
There is no doubt that by working part-time in higher education institutions should be involved in the most experienced professionals of various trades, capable of teaching work. This will strengthen the relationship with the schools of architecture design companies with the practical tasks of the day.
But the combination — not the main thing in dealing with teachers. The main objective is to attract professionals fully to teaching at universities. However, its solution must overcome a number of difficulties, in particular, streamline the ratio of the wage of the designer and teacher. Apparently, it is advisable to resolve the question of maintaining a number of years teachers, who came out of production, salaries they received in the workshops, on construction sites or in research institutions, to create the conditions for the continuation of creative activity in the walls of the university, for in-depth research and defending a thesis.
Selection of teaching staff should be carried out carefully. «The pedagogical case it is necessary to call upon, as a matter of maritime, health, or the like — wrote Mendeleev — not those who seek only to ensure their lives, and those who feel to this case and to the science of conscious call and anticipating in it his satisfaction, realizing a total people’s need. «
Of great importance is the establishment in universities of creative architectural workshops that enable the practice to all the teachers and most capable students. This is confirmed, for example, experience in the design studio of the Moscow Architectural Institute. The institute participated in the international competition for the design of a residential area of Moscow, where the project of the Institute have been awarded. Teachers and students have developed a project planning and development centers in Moscow, Tashkent, Murmansk, Ivanovo, Yaroslavl and other cities. Some of these projects were awarded prizes, and the basis for further work. For projects performed at the institute, turned, for example, building in the city of Murom district with a large multi-storey buildings.
Developed on a high professional level, creative workshops projects show the feasibility of further development of the design work in universities. And the main value of creative workshops in universities is not only that they produce projects for the construction, and teachers are involved in a creative project work. First of all, these workshops are useful for students; they participate in the course of the project as a draftsman and technology, and at the end of training, students are the most capable and experienced co-workers along with designers.
Thus the study of students takes place in a creative environment design studio, where they not only listen to experienced teachers, but see how they work, work with them, learning from their skills and experience.
We must make better use of long-term experience of our teachers to teach complex case teaching in high school of architects who came from project workshops. This is very important as most architects, teachers, unfortunately, does not have the opportunity to receive a special teacher training and should do in teaching master this complex matter.
Universities have the right to prepare teachers from among the most talented architects graduated from the Institute. However, the majority of architectural departments at universities does not use the possibility of training teachers in graduate school, and by a one-year internship, does not send graduates to the largest universities of the country for teaching practice.
At the XXIII Congress of the CPSU it was subjected to a deep critical analysis of the process of teaching in higher education. With special attention addressed the issues of improving the creative activity of students and teachers, more economical use of working time of students and teachers. The congress discussed the need to improve the curricula of universities so that they more fully meet the objectives of the further development of science and technology, the requirements of our lives.
A serious problem in architecture schools is to improve the methods of teaching. The development of building practices, improvement of architecture often ahead of the learning process in schools. This is not only a rapid pace of development of our practice, science and technology, but also less sophisticated forms of teaching.
We are witnessing an intensive differentiation of labor. Previously, all designed by the architect himself, he hoped and designed; Now in the design we see not only a narrow specialization in selected areas of urban planning and architecture, but also for certain types of facilities. Architect working in collaboration with related professionals, and nobody today requires him universal knowledge. At the same time, educating future architects, we still believe that he should know and be able to do everything himself. Clearly, the time has come to examine and accurately determine the level and scope of knowledge required by modern architects design — the foundation that a specialist will develop and improve in the course of work in production.
Life itself is made separately to train specialists in the field of urban planning, residential and public buildings, industrial architecture, agricultural architecture.
Today, it is a question of specialization in the field of landscape architecture, interior, and tomorrow be a need for new professions. At the same time, and in a more narrow specialization, students should be given more and more knowledge on a whole range of new specialized disciplines. This requires increasing the number of lectures, workshops, seminars.
To avoid increasing the working time of the student, it is necessary to revise the methodology of teaching, to develop new methods for the most intelligible feed materials. Now more than ever faced with the task of teaching students primarily creative method, spatial reasoning, to give future architects a broad outlook. No wonder AK Burov, in his book «On Architecture» wrote: «… forgotten knowledge, understanding — never. e. the culture in general. «
Clearly it is time to carefully review the «unshakable» program, to think seriously about a new method of teaching a number of subjects, so that in a short time the student could master the subject being studied. It is no secret that the architects who have graduated from high school, usually have inadequate training in higher mathematics, foreign languages. Mathematics and a foreign language could always do a good service to the architect, but without them, many treated. Now the picture has changed dramatically in the practice. Cybernetics is on the verge of design workshops, and without the knowledge of higher mathematics architect is powerless before the challenges of the future. But it is necessary to know not all but only the most important — is what gives the architect the opportunity to think mathematically, understand the principles of operation of computers, and so on. D. Probably, it will have to reconsider much in the program and methods of teaching architects higher mathematics.
The same problem is in the study of foreign languages. Today the architect must rpadet freely at least one foreign language. This is necessary for its overall development, the use of foreign literature, communicating with foreign colleagues. And if today graduated from high school do not know enough foreign language, then to blame first and foremost educators responsible for the methodology of teaching foreign languages in schools.
We can not now go to the increase in the time to practice, as we see that, on the one hand, it is necessary to introduce new items, and on the other — to reduce the number of teaching hours per week in order to give the student an opportunity to meditate, exercise, t . e. to give him more time.
Therefore, it is necessary for a new, more lucidly present the material, using modern means of teaching — learning machine, educational films, tape recordings, to acquaint students with the exhibition of new works of architecture, structures and materials, greater use of fact-finding trips to construction, house building factories, new residential areas and private buildings, including in other cities. Finally, we need to seriously start preparing for the programmed teaching methods.
The training of qualified personnel architects requires constant attention from the architectural community and especially the Union of Architects of the USSR. The Union must help to ensure that all new development and production of scientific and technological progress associated with the architecture and building became property of our architecture school, to promote the continuous improvement of curricula, programs and teaching methods.
The problem of improving the training of architectural personnel are now particularly relevant from its solution depends largely on the success of the ambitious program of our construction and ultimately the future of our architecture.