Municipal waste and sediment DOMESTIC SEWAGE complement each other well. Scientists from the Agricultural Institute of Dnepropetrovsk combine his invention contained therein organic and mineral substances and a good fertilizer. Simultaneously solves the PROBLEM OF DISPOSAL OF WASTE.
Animal Farm king Augeas was in disrepair when Hercules turned up with a proposal to clear the debris in one day. The king accepted the offer without hesitation boastful contractor, promising generous pay if the work is completed in time.
Hercules broke the opposing walls of the barnyard and formed passage directed the waters of two rivers — Alpheus and pinea. In other words, the mythical hero made a real slurry. Advanced technology miracle happened: one day Dzor was cleared (M e d e d in th Yu in a first approximation. M., «Sov. Russia», 1975).
Augeas did not paid the hero. Vindictive Hercules destroyed it with all the children and household, and for slurry, ie,. For water closet and subsequently invented the system of urban sanitation, we are paying the price. Sewage treatment plants are not cheap. In addition, there is a problem — how to deal with fallout from the treatment plant digesters, this liquid, non-transportable, foul-smelling mass. It is estimated that in 1980 the sewer network goes about 72 cubic kilometers of wastewater. About 1% settle in wastewater treatment plants as sludge. It is at least 720 million tons. Oil is extracted per year less. So what now, to build a parallel pipeline iloprovody to send the mud at the field? Or detach for that every year 12 million rail tank car and 140 million?
Though good fertilizer — sludge from sewage treatment plants, there is in him, and nitrogen and phosphorus, and potassium, and trace elements so necessary for the plants (cm. IR, 4, 78. «Watering vitamins»), but it turns out costly, unprofitable. And all because the solids in the sludge is not more than 4%, the rest — the water and carry water tanks on the field, you see, is absolutely senseless. But you can not throw mud. Not only because it millions of tons of nitrogen, phosphorus (P2O5), potassium (K2O), but also because in order to throw must still take somewhere.
Only one way out — Ill need to «squeeze» on the spot and on the field to take out the dry fertilizer. Here also reminded of municipal waste, which builds up during the year, too, up to 30 million tons. And in the garbage, and pernicious disappear ignominiously on landfills or burned in boilers, is not good enough. One ton — 20 kg phosphorus, magnesium, iron, about 30 kilograms of calcium and aluminum, up to 2% nitrogen. Loose debris (one cubic meter weighs about 100 kilograms) is poorly composted, because it is very dry, and sediment sewage sludge composted not because it’s too wet. A mixture they complement each other perfectly. Even chemical «tendencies» have favorable: sludge after dewatering is alkaline, and trash — sour.
So for what it was? Take the garbage every drop out of his trash metal, and paper, rags, scraps and other mix it with mud, punching — and on the field!
Everything that is listed in the preceding sentence to the word «punching», business executives have little difficulty causes. Composting is the same — the biological process of heating the mixture and fermentation — requires expensive equipment and large energy Compost is expensive, and, for example, in Germany, Holland and the USA, where several factories are working on a joint composting of municipal waste and sludge waste water, all- still mostly prefer to burn the garbage and to dump rain.
The peasant farm composting of manure had no energy costs and no enzyme is not required. Midden lay rotting and myself slowly, until it turns into humus, so to speak, due to internal heat. However, there is not one entity from manure and waste? In its capacity for self-warming can be verified without experiment. Just visit the city dump. But you need to trash the very heated and composted manure does not like — for years, but at least a few days. And at the Department of Agricultural Chemistry Dnipropetrovsk Agricultural Institute, based on the work of the Academy of Municipal Economy. KD Pamfilova was an experiment.
Small garbage charged into a laboratory fermenter, wherein continuous rotation of the drum cloth scraps, paper and others. Triturated vigorously with each other. After two days the temperature in the drum is raised to 70 C, which is sufficient for fermentation. The recovered mass was homogeneous, was black, and from the landfill odor was gone.
Chemical analysis showed that the mass obtained is preserved all the nutrients present in the debris prior to processing. However, they are not as much as in sewage sludge, but in fact, as already mentioned, they can be mixed and then get a good fertilizer.
In the new method of producing fertilizer from sewage sludge and household waste, characterized in that the waste prior to being mixed with the residue subjected to self-warming, head of the department of agricultural chemistry, doctor of agricultural sciences, Professor I. Yarchuk and the candidate of agricultural sciences senior researcher LE Aizikovich was granted a copyright certificate number 642279.
The practical significance of the invention lay in the fact that now it was possible through the fermentation plant for biological heating miss not all compostable «raw material», but only a part of the garbage, up to 40% of the total weight. This significantly reduces the size of equipment and reduced the cost of production. Industrial plant (construction of such plants is expected in the city of Krivoy Rog and White Church), capacity 110 thousand tons of waste-sludge fertilizers per year would look like.
Another garbage from the city is discharged directly into a hopper from which a grab crane or dispenser garbage is fed to the conveyor belt, and it received at the end of the way a certain dose of mineral fertilizers (5 kg of superphosphate and 10 kg of potassium chloride per ton of mix — for its enrichment ) is fed into the fermentation drum in a length of 36 meters, where with constant rotation for two days overcomes this distance and comes out the other end of the drum and crushed warmed to 65-70 C. The following are debris towards the device for catching magnetic therefrom ferrous metals ( Bundling presses passed on) and a cylindrical roar. Leaving the din of all copper and aluminum, as well as bone, glass, plastic and film, which is now replete with urban garbage, almost dry compost mass is sent to a crusher, where fray escaped from the screen small unwanted inclusion Then the dry mass is supplied to the mixer, where it is mixed sewage sludge, the amount of debris getting missing nutrients.
Experiments have shown that the resulting compost contains 1.9% nitrogen, 1.3% phosphorus, potassium, and 1% is as effective as rotted manure.
On experimental plots of corn yields have increased by 37-45%, and cabbage — 28%. And once made fertilizer into the soil acted for two years. And in 1978 in Kryvyi Rih district of Dnepropetrovsk region was carried out work experience on the area of 20 ha in the experimental field crop of tomatoes was almost a quarter more than in the control.
State Farm, in which to conduct experiments on the operation earned 13,440 rubles, however, without paying a penny for any rainfall from treatment plants of Krivoy Rog, for no debris from the city dump. Urban organization, inspired by the prospect, even for the delivery of fertilizers on the field did not take anything.
We must assume that in other cities the trash is not worse Krivoy Rog.
While there is no approved method of calculating savings from inventions that give both industrial, agricultural and environmental positive effects, the inventors offer their. The savings from the use of waste-sludge fertilizer should be viewed as the sum of the economic effects of the use of fertilizers themselves in accordance with their two-year action from higher yields, more efficient use of land allocated under the landfill and is now Septic tank, from the prevention of pollution of air and water pollution. Thus the effect of the improvement of the environment are invited to count based on relative reduction of social insurance expenditure.