Great discoveries and inventions sum up certain stages in the development of science and technology made by many people, past generations and contemporaries. The greatness of individual scientists and inventors, their invaluable service to humanity is that they have the power of his genius and selfless work managed on the basis of previously acquired knowledge to discover new phenomena of nature and apply them for the benefit of society.
The great Russian scientist Alexander Popov — inventor of radio — summed up the work of a huge number of scientists around the world. Even in the middle of the XVIII century, an outstanding Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov, arguing that light propagates vibrational motion like waves, marked the beginning of a number of brilliant research and discovery, proven relationship of the two phenomena of nature — light and electric. Extremely important studies of Faraday, Maxwell, and Hertz led to a complete turnaround in perceptions of electrical phenomena. Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory of light, research Hertz proved the existence of electromagnetic waves, will provide a solid scientific foundation for the hard and persevering work of AS Popov, ending the invention of wireless communication — radio, the first practical application of electromagnetic waves to the needs of humanity.
Over 60 years have passed since the invention of the radio, the area of application of the ego is immeasurably expanded. It is difficult to name an area of the economy, science and technology, which have not been applied to any radio devices. The greatest discovery of our time — the use of nuclear energy, was only possible through the use of electronic methods of research in physics.
The famous Soviet scientist and academician AI Berg justifiably called the century of electronics nowadays. There were obtained and the rapid development of such branches of knowledge as radio astronomy, radio meteorology, radio physics, applied mathematics e. On the achievements of electronics based Automation and Remote Control. Electronics is of great importance for the marine and air fleets thanks to advances in radar and navigation.
I found a variety of applications in the electronics and energy industries. It is widely used in medicine. An important area of electronics is a TV — a powerful new tool to further enhance the political and cultural level of the Soviet people.
«Any area of new technology, — wrote the president of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academy of Nesmeyanov — can develop successfully only based on the latest achievements of electronics and radio, electronically and radio have solved such major tasks as telecommunications, television broadcasting , radar, radio navigation, radio control, and so on. d. «.
Modern electronics got its start and development with the invention of radio. The Soviet people are rightfully proud of the fact that the inventor of radio is a Russian scientist Alexander Popov.
Alexander Stepanovich Popov was born on 4 (16) 1V59 March in the village of Turinskie Mines Verkhoturye County, province of Perm, in the family priest. At an early age he showed extraordinary diligence and interest in technology. Secondary education he received in the Perm Theological Seminary. After five years of seminary Popov, thoroughly prepared, he enrolled in 1877 at St. Petersburg University. During this period, the university taught such prominent scientists as Mendeleev, Chebyshev, Butlerov, Petrushevsky, Chwolson and others. Between classes at the university, however, as throughout his life, Popov experienced considerable financial difficulties.
In 1882, a brilliant thesis on the topic «On the principles of magnetic and dynamo-electric machines of direct current,» Popov graduated St. Petersburg University, from which he was released with a degree candidate. A year later, Popov arrived in Physics teacher Mine officer class in Kronstadt.
In Kronstadt, Popov, besides teaching in classes of mine, often served as a lecturer in electrical engineering at the various meetings of the officers of the fleet. Large stock of knowledge, the ability to apply them in practice, the constant pursuit of new Popov made popular in naval circles. No major question comes in contact with the area of physics and electrical engineering in particular, did not dare in the maritime ministry without Popov.
The 1V89 year, speaking at the Kronstadt Naval Assembly on the theme «On the relation between light and electrical phenomena,» Popov said in conclusion: «The human body has no more of the senses to notice that the electromagnetic waves in the air; had to invent a device that would replace our electromagnetic sense, it could be applied to the transmission of signals over a distance. «
Six years later, Popov expressed this daring dreams, the power of his genius and the persistent difficulty dobileya its implementation. It was May 7 1V95 year. In physics auditorium of the St. Petersburg University of the great Russian scientist Alexander Popov made his famous report «On the relation of metal powders to electrical vibrations» and showed them invented and built the world’s first radio.
Popov genius is that he correctly assessed the first great practical importance to humanity of electromagnetic waves and managed to put them at the service of man. March 24, 1896 at a meeting of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society Popov carried out the world’s first transmission of radio messages. The transmitter and receiver are at the same time in different buildings of St. Petersburg University at a distance of 250 m from each other.
Continuing his work, Popov paid much attention to the improvement of the antenna. Initially they invented antenna is a small piece of wire, one end of which is joined to the sensor element priemiika — coherer. Later Popov increased the height of its antenna, picking up the wire with a small balloon. In the spring of the year 1V97 Popov came out of the walls of the laboratory and carried out the transfer of signals from the ship to the shore at a distance of 640 m. Then the range of the radio began to grow rapidly as a result of subsequent tests increased to 35 km. During these works employees Popov PN Rybkin and the DS Trinity was opened a wonderful opportunity to receive a wireless telegraphy signals from your phone directly to the ear. Based on this discovery, Popov has developed the world’s first radio telephone receiver. This receiver professor Shatelen on porucheiiyu Popov read in the 1900 report of the IA meeting of the International Electrotechnical Congress in Paris.
The first practical application of radio, served as a strong impetus for the development of wireless in Russia, took place in February 1900. In November 1899 the battleship «General-Admiral Apraksin» sat down on the stones near. Hogland, 44 km from the nearest telegraph wire located in Kotka. To establish a fast connection with Kronstadt ship, which was necessary to speed up the rescue, navy decided to use wireless telegraphy. For this purpose was created the world’s first radio link length of 44 kilometers. It operated from February to April 1900. During this time, it was transferred to 440 radiographs.
February 6, 1900 Popov transferred from Kotka to Hogland first official radio message, which reported that about Lavansaari blown off the ice floe with the fishermen. To rescue the fishermen was sent icebreaker «Ermak». Thus, the world’s first practical application of radio communication was made by the Russian people for peaceful purposes, to save lives.
Popov also belongs to the championship and in the use of radio communications in the Army. AS Popov, together with PN Rybkin and Captain DS Trinity has built two lightweight portable stations to operate successfully during maneuvers 148 th Caspian shelf summer of 1900.
Strenuous activities Popov on the practical development of wireless telegraphy was combined with a deep scientific and theoretical work. Several theoretical statements Popov pointed the way to new discoveries and inventions in the field of radio engineering. These include reference to the possibility of directional antennas, an indication of the mechanism of action of the radiating antenna vertical and influence the Earth’s surface. Of exceptional importance are statements Popov about the impact on foreign radio ship crossing the line of communication between the two ships. On the basis of this Popov discovered the phenomenon of reflection of radio waves from objects. With his characteristic perspicacity Popov at the dawn of radio predicted the feasibility of this phenomenon, laid the basis for modern radars.
In 1901, Popov was approved by a professor of physics Elektrotehiicheskogo Institute. At the institute, he continued his scientific work, the nature of which demonstrates once again its extremely wide range of scientific.
Foreign firms have repeatedly offered Popov to sell them his invention and go abroad. These proposals Alexander Stepanovich replied firm refusal.
«I am a Russian, — he said — and all his knowledge, all his work, all the achievements I have the right to pay only my homeland … I am proud to have been born Russian. And if not his contemporaries, then maybe our descendants will understand … how happy I am that s abroad, and in Russia opened a new means of communication. «
In 1905, Popov was elected director Electrotechnical Institute. Chaired Popov 15 October 1905 the Council of the Institute shall decide:
«Any violent invasion of the authorities in the life of the Institute can not provide solace, but only worsen the situation of the case. Calming education can only be achieved through major political changes to satisfy public opinion in the country. These transformations, according to the undersigned, are: the immediate and unconditional guarantee of the freedom of assembly, freedom of expression and inviolability of the person, the immediate convocation of a constituent assembly, the abolition of the death penalty and an amnesty for political offenders. «
Fighting Popov with government repression against the students finally undermined his already poor health.
January 13, 1906 Popov died from a brain haemorrhage. Death
Popov was a great loss for the advanced Russian and world iauki.
Merit Popov, who with his ingenious invention marked the beginning of a new era in the development of science and technology — the era of radio and vlektroniki, really were evaluated only by the socialist state. By decision of the Soviet government established the gold medal Popov, awarded for outstanding scientific works and inventions in the field of radio, set the Day of Radio -7 May annually celebrated as a national holiday.
All Soviet people honoring the memory of the great Russian scientist Alexander Popov — a worthy son of his great country.