I-st MEZHDUNARODNYI Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), organized in 1948. His goal — the solution of international problems of preservation and restoration of natural resources and promote development in the world of research, advocacy and practical activities in the field of nature conservation. Currently, the IUCN is 196 member organizations from 62 countries.
The Soviet Union is represented in the IUCN Commission for the Conservation of Nature in the USSR State Planning Committee (since 1956) and the All-Russian Society for Nature Conservation (1960).
Every two or three years, the IUCN General Assembly and carries both technical (scientific) meeting. The representatives of our country have participated in international conferences held in Scotland (1956), Greece (1958) and Poland (1960). The next (eighth) IUCN General Assembly, where the main attention will be given to discussing the problems of nature protection in Africa, scheduled to convene in Kenya in 1963.
In the intervals between the General Assembly directs the activities of the IUCN Executive Board, in which there is a secretariat, located in Morges at Lausanne (Switzerland). President of IUCN since 1958 — Jean Baer — Professor of the University of Lausanne, Staff Secretary General since 1961 — Gerald Votterson. From the Soviet Union to the Executive Board consists of the Chairman of the Commission for the Conservation of Nature in the USSR State Planning Committee, Professor GP Dementiev. The IUCN has four standing committees: environmental (Chairman — E, Graham, United States); for rare and endangered species (Chairman — S. Boyle, United Kingdom); National Parks (chaired by G. Coolidge, USA) and the Commission on Education (chairman LK Shaposhnikov, the USSR), and the Committee on Legislation and Administration Committee (chairman V. Burhene, Germany).
The next meeting of the Executive Board held on November 18-21, 1961 in Morges. It was attended by scientists and experts from Belgium, Britain, the Netherlands, Poland, the USSR, USA, France, Germany and Switzerland, as well as observers from UNESCO and FAO.
Among the issues discussed, considerable interest is the work plan of the environmental commission, which decided to take an active part in the study of natural communities under the International Biological Program. The draft program recently developed by the executive committee of the International Union of Biological Sciences. It is planned, in particular, to find out what kinds of animals and plants sharply reduced in number or are on the verge of extinction, as the impact of human activities on the populations of razyery and structure of biological communities.
In studies by the International Biological Program will bring together specialists from various national institutions, experts from UNESCO, IUCN, FAO and the World Health Organisation.
Much attention is paid commission studying environmental effects on beneficial animals and plants, as well as a man of chemicals used to control pests of agriculture and forestry, and disease vectors. To this end, it organized a special interim committee to study the environmental aspects of the use of pesticides.
Environmental Commission will participate in the organization of the International Symposium on the study and protection of humidity that will be held in France in November 1962.
The symposium is planned to assess the value of moist areas (for water regulation, fishing, hunting, for the protection of specific communities of animals and plants, and so on.), To discuss measures for their conservation and management, as well as an agreement on holding an international scale inventory of wetlands of special scientific and economic value.
Meeting of the Executive Board approved the plan for the first International Conference on the activities of nature reserves, to be held from June 30 to July 7
1962 in the United States.
Having heard the report on the activities and prospects of the next Commission’s work on education, the meeting of the executive board has agreed to our proposal that the Commission was the center, which should focus on the promotion of literature for Conservation of Nature, published in different countries. Receiving such literature, the Commission will summarize the positive techniques in the works to promote, to make a brief summary and distribute them.
The task of the Commission on Education introduces the preparation of proposals for the promotion of environmental issues in schools. Solving this problem, the Commission has prepared a common course program «Protection of Nature» as the basis of this course for high schools of different profiles, taking into account the experience of working with the Commission for the Protection of Nature of the USSR Academy of Sciences and its materials. After reviewing the program, the meeting decided to publish it in the Bulletin of the IUCN and publish a reprint.
The wide publication and distribution of its programs will contribute to the promotion of the basic principles of diverse tasks and methods of nature protection taken in the Soviet Union and providing for the management, conservation and restoration of natural resources for the benefit of man.
At a meeting of the Executive Board of IUCN addressed issues of the individual, of particular interest, natural areas. In particular, attention was paid to the islands of Tristan da Cunha, the fauna which is of exceptional interest to examine the issues of evolution, zoogeography and ecology, and the flood plain of the Guadalquivir River, which accumulates a large number of wintering birds nesting in Europe. It is proposed to establish in the area of the floodplain, the most suitable for wintering birds, nature reserve and biological station.
The Commission on rare and endangered species, to address issues of protection of these species, outlined measures for the recovery of endangered Arabian Oryx. At the beginning of the XIX century, this antelope inhabited the whole of Arabia and was plentiful. With the colonization of the country began to destroy its hunters Europeans and especially after the car appeared in Arabia. Now there are only about 35 oryx, who live in the northeast corner of the Aden Protectorate. The Commission on rare and endangered species, in agreement with the authorities of Kenya decided to conduct an expedition in 1962, whose mission is to capture a few oryx and transport them to the content in a specially adapted pens in Kenya. It is assumed that in pens Oryx will successfully reproduce in the future it will be possible to produce them in natural conditions.
Even in 1960, at the VII General Assembly of IUCN, it was decided on the need to pay particular attention to the protection of nature in Africa. In connection with this decision, the IUCN has developed a special project assistance activities to African countries. In order to implement these measures IUCN organized and conducted with the participation of other organizations in September 1961 in Arusha (Tanganyika) Conference on Nature Conservation of the African continent. The conference was attended by 140 people, including representatives from 21 African States and 6 non-African countries.