Modern romance philology sets the eastern Romagna Romanesque two types of speech: Western submitted Dalmatian language, disappeared at the end of the XIX century., And east, which could be called conditionally-Balkan Romance. This second type are still alive.
Its inclusion in the group of Romance languages, but not all was enough motivated. Thanks to it a considerable amount of Slavic elements it seemed some people almost Slavic or, at least, mixed. During the reign of our ideas of Academician Marr, who had a tendency to consider almost all languages as «mixed», «crossed», this view of the Balkan-Romance language fairly well entrenched. However, it existed not only here but also abroad, where similar ideas were expressed from the beginning of the XIX and until the beginning of XX century. During the same time period it was opened communication (Balkan-Romanesque with other languages of the Balkan Peninsula, and this led to the creation of so-called «Balkan philology» different theories to explain the «balkanizmy» Romanian. To understand and correct assessment of the Balkan-Romanesque they are so important, that they should stay apart.
Now, we consider it necessary to specify only that the fundamental definition of Stalin specifics of the language and concepts of language greatly facilitates the crossing of the resolution and to this complex problem, and eliminates any doubts about the Romanesque type of Balkan-Romance dialects, and all sorts of unscientific attempt to attribute to them a «mixed «character.
A very important issue is the birthplace of the Balkan-Romance language, in the words of Pushkar, «standing forever open.» Densushyanu considers it «a major issue the Romanian history.» For Bogdan I. «without the slightest shadow of a doubt … the continuous presence of the Romanian element on the left bank of the Danube is the truth for granted.» More about Halkondil 1460, became interested in the similarity of Wallachia and Moldova to the Italian, saying that no one of mortals, he could not find out where were in the area between Transylvania and the Black Sea, between Bogdanov (t. E. Moldova) and the Danube people the Roman language and Roman customs and dwelt in them. At the same language, in his opinion, they say, and Vlachs on the Pindo. Since ethnogenesis Wallachians and Moldavians interested authors chronicles the XVII and XVIII cc .; later the Germans: Thunmann, dedicated to him his Untersuchungen uber die Geschichte der ostlichen europaischen Volker (Leipzig, 1774), followed by Sulzer and Engel, introduce the idea of southern origin of the Romanians. At the end of XVIII and beginning of XIX century. a whole series of works on language, written almost exclusively transilvantsami part of the clergy, to defend the national Romanian and the Catholic point of view, emphasizes the Latin origin of the Romanian people, their continuous stay in Dacia, and, therefore, its pre-emptive right on its territory occupied by the Hungarians, and also the thesis of penetration of Christianity to the ancestors of the Romanians in Rome. Hence the controversy and great political resonance, which had historical works devoted to the question of the origin of the Romanian people and their language, hence the artificial romanization of the latter in the works transilvantsev. A few decades controversy flared up again in connection with the advent of the research historian R. Rezlera Graz, after which, despite the objections and criticism of Jung, Peach, Tomášek, Irechka K. et al., The fact that the later mass resettlement Romantcev due north of the Danube I had to take, and could only be subjected to thorough, not only historical, but also linguistic research Romanian elements south of the Danube, which has been doing Tunmanna.
Do nai no serious grounds to suspect messages historian Flavius Vopisk (Aurelianus, Ch. 39), Eutropius (Breviarium, IX, 15) — both the IV., Sextus Rufus (Breviarium, Chap. VIII, 369 g) with respect to the abandonment of the Emperor Aurelian (271 or 275 g) Trajano province of Dacia-ing and the transfer of military units that were in it, and the «provincials» south of the Danube, in the newly founded province of Dacia, called Avrelianovoy. Trying Iorga considered relevant passages Vopisk as the interpolation does not have any acceptable reason not accepted by the other Romanian historians, and only comments on the term «provincials» there are differences: whether to interpret it in a broader or narrower sense. Possible that some of the Romanized population, especially the poor, did not want to leave the province because after intrusion ready 211- 217, 242, 248 and 249 years. and especially after the actual acquisition of Dacia in 260 do not overestimate their cruelty and barbarism. The more likely it is against the natives, Dacian, or the Goths. Moreover, between 364 and 375 years. Goths embraced Christianity. On the other hand, for the proper assessment of the fate of Roman culture in the desolate province should be borne in mind that the Romanized were last mainly south-western and central part of the so-called Upper Dacia, Lower — only district in the west of Alyuty (Olten ). Finally, it is likely that the remains Romanized population resist the most in the Danube band (in future Banat Temeshskom and Craiova), as they could always count on in case of need for help and shelter from their Transdanubian countrymen.
But the rest of the north of the Danube population of romance might not be numerous, or any significant, as is usually assumed Romanian researchers, and, among other things, a careful scholar, as O. Deneushyanu admitting «preserve [the old Dacia) certainly quite significant Latin element «meant but only the population, but also the language. Characteristically, however, that this is not confirmed by the data of archeology, while those collected a lot of stories to ready between half the III. and the second half of the IV. Much more rights so Philippe de A., talking about a gradual extinction of the Roman culture to the north of the Danube and it is expected that after the gradual transition of the Romanesque of the population to the right bank to the left, it came down «to the small remnant.»
Yes, and it is unlikely that the local population survived in large numbers as such when it is constantly changing masters: for the Goths (271-375) followed by the Huns (375-453), with the Huns — Gepidae (453- 566), the Avars (566- 790), with whom — the Slavs, and then — the Magyars and Turks (Pechenegs and Cumans). The oldest inhabited places disappeared, and this is understandable; but disappeared, and the names of the rivers, which are usually stored. A number of them got new names, mostly Slavic; with respect to the remaining names, bearing Slavonic coloring, it is difficult to say whether they transmit Dacian or Roman names.
Thus, the historical references are not opposed to the existence of remnants of the old Dakni population north of the Danube, but also did not give us a strong indication of the degree of their safety, and in any case — leave us in the dark about their language. If traces of the Romance language and persisted somewhere in Troyan Dacia, they were driven out by her fellow who came from the south.
Search his homeland for the Danube encourage language data. We have already had occasion to refer to them up on the so-called «balkaniamov.» How would any critical relate to them — not to reckon with similar characteristics of neighboring languages impossible. A very typical and ancient coincidence with the Albanian, which could be formed only for the Danube. They are characteristic because Romance languages outside the peninsula are almost unknown; They are ancient, because then passed in the Balkan-Romanesque same path phonetic changes that the Latin words: ceafa (neck), corresponding to the Albanian-Tuscan kjafe (neck) (etymology given N. Baric, Albano-ruman. St., I, Sarajevo, 1919, 31). In Gegsky dialect Scutari where kjgt; ts, like gjgt; dz. tsaf (neck), shows the development of the same k before front vowels, as in Latin with sulfur (bulb), the Romanian Ceara.
Explanations of the Romanian-Albanian relations can be different: we have to deal with borrowing, especially when it comes to words related to the characteristic for both economic structures (cattle), such as brinza (sheep’s cheese, disappeared in aromunskom, but there in Greek, in Epirus irpavCa), or tarc (pen for sheep, Albanian thark). It should be noted, however, that phonetically complete or almost complete coincidence, supported semantics veegda not guarantee borrowing. A comparative study of Albanian and Romanian words possible to establish the need to take into account the common source of romance, which is the Illyrian or if they allow the old contact, the Illyrian-Thracian. For example, zara (whey), aromunskoe bala meets Albanian dhalle, and compliance dh-z and ll-r in them are quite logical, but it does not follow another, as in so many words, the list of which is given Rosetti that before us direct borrowing from the Albanian. Romanian words can be as Albanian, remains the language that once lived on the peninsula and which in some way was connected Romanized and its population. This distinguished from the Illyrian elements infiltrated into them Thracian remains impossible, except in extremely rare cases. The criterion of Illyrian movement of the word, more or less reliable, is its extension to the west. So, balta (known aromunskomu and meglenskomu) «lake, swamp,» Albanian balte «mud, swamp,» phonetically coinciding with the Romanian, but not necessarily borrowed from Albanian, familiar with a number of North-Italian dialect (meaning «dirt») . It is known and modern Greek and Slavic languages in which it could be the primordial and is not directly associated with the Illyrian. To the same category belongs to the Romanian gard (= aromatic. = Meglena) to mean «the fence, the fence»; Albanian enables garth with the same meaning; Members of his form — gardh-i; therefore, to talk about borrowing of Albanian is impossible, as the Albanian dh gives the Romanian not d, az: the relationship between the Albanian and Romance words, why not direct. As is known, gard familiar and Slavic languages.
How to develop and to demonstrate these marked points of contact between the Albanian and romance? Matches phonetic explained the unity of the substrate, ie. E. Similar structure of the organs of speech. Phonetic skills are, of course, of great importance, and even put them Filippide the basis of its construction. But such a straightforward generalization of the faithful observation is hardly acceptable, since even the characteristic pronunciation can vary from one group talking to another and from one area to another; it suffers from as everything in speaking environment, the impact of historical conditions and reacts differently on the opponent depending on whether the latter came at a time when the old language was formed or only formed. Finally, the influence of the substrate effect and should affect naturally uneven. One can hardly therefore ascribe a particular pronunciation of the whole nation, while it may characterize only a part of it, and just in time to receive more or less widespread.
The more difficult and unreliable to proceed from the idea of a substrate in explaining the more complex processes in the language, and that in a later period, when the «substrate» (sub-layer) had already dissolved in the general population, and its language to disappear completely in the language-winner of the latter. This is the same role, and so-called «adstrata» and «superstratum». And that is why the Albanian who believed Fried Wagner ancient admixture to the Balkan-Romanesque, did not make it into the language of the mixed type, it does not do so, and Slavic superstratum, which we mentioned above and which will return.
When contact does not work in a third language. There is no confusion, but only a settling of some elements, and, moreover, not in the main language-winning sites. The basis of the process is the systematic communication, whether it is carried out in the form of contact between two distinct communities, or in the form of the introduction of one of them to another. An example of the first is the relationship between Bulgaria and the Daco-Romantsov at the time of the independent existence of Wallachia and Moldavia, an example of a second — a symbiosis of Slavic and Romanesque elements on the dawn of the primary Slavic-Romanic public entities, the members of which are vitally and mixed together.
But if contact with the Albanians, or rather, their ancestors, refers to the ancient history of the Balkan Romantcev pore, it is important to establish where it could occur.
Mention of Albanians starting from the XI century .; by 1079 their settlement is between Ohrid and Thessaloniki and in Epirus. In this circumstance, as in fact they have no terms of fisheries, based the assumption that the Albanians did not live in their current places of settlement, and came from the areas of the peninsula lying to the east. Skok puts the name of the Albanian people — shkipetary in connection with the capital Darda-NII — Skupis (Alb. Shkip), it is possible. Dardania was attached directly to the Avrelianovoy Dacia fall into two units: Dacia coastal, t. E. Along the Danube (approximately between Viminatsiem and p. Isker, with center Ratiarii — current Archer near Vidin) and lies to the south of it Dacia Mediterranean, the center in Serdica — Sofia present. The new composition of the Province of the parts of the old Mezy (Upper and Lower) and its southern regions through Dirdaniyu adjoining Macedonia and southwest, through the same Dirdaniyu to Dal-tion, more precisely to the Prevalis and New Epirus, the current corresponds to approximately Albania. In the northwest of New Dacia beat adjacent to the Upper Meziey that bordered directly from Pannonia: however, with its tied Lower Pannonia and the Danube. The central parts of the Romance area is in the basins of the Timok, Morava and part of Vardar, t. E, in the areas through which most Roman road connecting the Adriatic Coast (Dyrrachium) to the valley of the Danube through Skodru — Nice (Nis) — the mouth of the Morava with a branch Nice — Ratiariya crossing the coastal Dacia. Western border of New Dacia was (about) basin. Drina.
It is enough to see the boundaries of these regions on a map to understand the possibility of dialogue and communication with the Albanians (whoever they were), and with the Thracian-illpriytsami who sat between the Danube, the lower Tisza and sparks. These areas are the central part of the vast territory, which were distributed to the Latin language and culture. From the border between Lower Meziey and Coastal Dacia to the west this area is significantly expanded; in the east (ie. e. Lower Moesia), it is quite a narrow strip that ran along the Danube to its mouth. At the end of the IV. This central part of the Eastern novels, if accedes to Macedonia, was Dacian diocese. Its western border is at the same time, the political border between the Eastern and Western empires.
Here in the northern and central parts of dioceses should look for «cradle» of the Romance language, which is a type lies at the base of its later versions, continues to exist in the south and north of the Danube, carriers it spread from here on the east and west . In Serbia-Croatian, we still come across traces of the Romanesque place names, especially the names of mountains and highlands. Typical of the last names such as Durmitor (Dormitor, in the basin of the Upper Drina), Cipitor (atipitor «dormant»), Visitor (visator «dreamer»), all related to the idea of sleep, rest for cattle grazing in the mountain pastures; Planina Kopacnik, on the upper Ibar by KO rasi «tree»; Wed. there Borovnyak top. In the old letters from Serbs and Croats can be found such names as Barbat (actually a bearded), Berbos (barbos «bearded»), Fecor (= fecior «boy») Micul (= micul «small»), Sarapa (= sare Macaw » jumping through water «) as Sarebiere (= Sare bine« jumps well «), with rhotacism as in Zmantana (smantana« sour »). The Romanian population of Istria, once much more numerous and now oslavyanivayuscheesya, the composition of Romantcev, once lived in the Serbo-Croat territory. The same origin and the Moro-Vlachs.
In the east Romantsov-Romanians moved to the lands occupied by the Bulgarians, where they eventually also assimilated, leaving, however, the memory of himself in the local toponymy and onomastics: Krnul (carnul «snub») Krechul (cretul «Curly»), Vakarel (local name, diminutive of vacar «cow herder») and so on. n .; but here in the east of the tracks it is much less than in the west. It should be noted influence on the Bulgarian Romanian dictionary, because it concerns a very ancient layer. Such, for example, Christian terms Romanesque origin, like an altar, Craciun (calatione, with rotatsirovannym l), Rusal, kamkanie (communicatio, communion), and so on. N., Referring to the time of communication of the Romanians to Western Christianity, preceded connection with the Greek-Bulgarian .
Since irradiation of Romanism proceeded from its main center. Another important issue is the question of rumynistike causes, ways, timing and consequences of this «spreading» the Romance speech to the south and north of the Danube.
In his work on Slavic elements in Romanian (in Denkschriften the Vienna Academy of Sciences, XII, 1862) Fr. Mikloshich, timing contact between Romanians and Slavs at the end of V and VI., Argued that the population of the peninsula romance has been supplanted by the Slavs from the area it occupies, and then part of it moved south (Aromanians), the other part — the Danube.
R. Rezler, who saw their homeland Romania for the Danube, claimed that the «Me-Zia and Illyricum, north west of the peninsula n were Romanized much more than thought until now. The Balkan Peninsula has been the starting point of the Romanian people, who gradually moved into the empty and sparsely populated northern territories, and finally took the southeast of Europe. » It dates back to the end of this resettlement XII and XIII century. and associates it with the struggle of Vlachs in Moesia for independence against Byzantium (the second Bulgarian Kingdom). The reason for his failure to mention the situation served as Vlachs in reliable historical sources (anonymous Bela was suspected them).
Rezleru objected Jung and Peach, then the Romanians — and historians Ksenopol Onchul. We will not dwell on these objections, because who wants to briefly get to know them may apply to the MV St. Sergius, as all positive in their criticism was for a long time accepted and used O. Densushyanu, the conclusions of the Romanians from Illyria (in his Histoire de la langue roumaine, I), and all who have written on this subject later. The main point of Ksenopola and on-Chula is the thesis about the safety of Romanized population in Dacia. Appearances followed Vlachs north of the Danube Ksenopol explains the emergence of the south of it Wallachia-Bulgarian state, where the inflow was accomplished then; Vlachs north. Onchul limits Romanesque element in the area between the old Dacia pp. Temeshem and Alyutoy and western parts of Transylvania and allows further Romantcev permanent relocation of the areas of the peninsula to the north of the Danube. On the idea of »continuity» and he insisted the Romanian Slavic I. Berbulesku relates contact with the Slavs to the XI-XII centuries, (srednebolgarsky period). The greatest clarity and validity of different answer to the question of where would focus primarily Romanesque population in the IV and the subsequent centuries, the A. Filippide. After a detailed analysis of the material, the author comes to the conclusion that once Shaya the empire to the north and south of the Danube (Orig., I, p. 854 et seq., II, 569 ff) gradually declined as the empire itself, beginning tion with the first half of the IV., consistently leaves a large part of it: lying on the left bank of the Danube Lower Moesia — do between 235 and 238 years., Dacia, Oltenia, Transylvania and Banat — in 268, at the Lower Pannonia (Sirmium) It was captured by the Huns in 377, the later, in 582, during the evacuation of Lower Pannonia, its Roman population was translated for the district. Sava. Roman and Romanized population in these areas move out of the southern bank of the Danube, and that was on the north, or a solution among the alien, or preserved in some measure in place until there were not their counterparts from across the Danube. In the same III-IV centuries. new Romanized crack crossed the peninsula: Dalmatia under Diocletian was separated from the eastern half; in 398 it became part of the empire zapadnorimskoy, a Me-Zia — in the east. Relations between the western and eastern regions weakened, and the development of the Latin language in each of them went his own way. Therefore Filippide after a detailed analysis of historical data goes to the same detailed analysis of the data language eastern Balkan-Romanesque half.
The space occupied by this eastern half was sufficiently extensive to allow the presence of early differences in the Latin language, which is spoken by its population, but at the same time, and quite solid, internally connected through administrative structure, cultural tradition, constant contact individual regions among themselves and whether the specified tone of the major centers that, in spite of the diversity of the population (opening Filippide), his tongue was represented by a unity of the system, the uniformity of the basic vocabulary and grammatical structure of the fund. Otherwise, its further differentiation, due to historical conditions, would not have allowed Macedo-Romanian, istro- and Daco-Rumanian, for all their differences, to preserve the unity of type.
Despite its proximity to the lively Latin empire-wide (koyne) it began to be detected, as in all other Romance languages, some specific new features that separate it from its Romanesque counterparts and especially from the Dalmatian.
Separation can occur only after the termination of relations with the West. Most of Illyria in 395 moved to the western half of the empire, and p. Drina soon became to some extent the language abroad. Furnishings for further withdrawal was to be more favorable after the fall of the domination of the Empire (602), especially after replacing Latin and Greek in the State of the Church (605). On the fate of the language this circumstance was to affect more than the invading Slavs, especially at first. The impact of the Slavs became a significant force only in the growth of the state and church relations with the Slavs.
When and under what conditions, deepened divisions within the Balkan-Romance speech, t. E. When and under what conditions began to take shape aromunskaya, meglenskaya, istro- and Daco-Romanian varieties — are still issues not permitted permanently. The relatively small amount in the Albanian and drevnebolgar aromunskom-optical elements, and a complete lack of Magyar srednebolgarskih traits as evidence in favor of the view that the transfer of apo-moon should be dated no later than X century. But it does not give the date of the beginning of movement, so as to establish contact time with an Albanian — is extremely difficult and has not yet permitted the task: the date of movement of researchers from various oscillate between ancient era, III-IV, IV-VI centuries. and. t. e. to the Xth. But since the departure of one or another part of the Balkan-Romance can be a lengthy, complicated the issue even more. Either way, the separation of Aromanians was going to happen to the X century. Since in XI. they lived in the southern regions of the peninsula already so significant amount, in 1065 Nikulitsa could lift the whole of Thessaly in their uprising against Byzantium. From the XII century. references to them are becoming more frequent. Analysis of the data does not allow the language to clarify the chronology of separation. In the south Filippide went on the interpretation of the Latin. a, g + e, i, are given in aromunskom ts, dz, in the Daco-Romanian c, g (caelum gt; cer, ter, gelu gt; ger, dzer). This palatalization it relates to the first half of the VI. In Latin assibilation to be assigned to the V century. (g — a little earlier). But it has developed in the novel for a long time and uneven. Devoto said preservation c = a characteristic of the East. Indeed, we have it not only in Dalmatia and Illyria (Albanian kjel lt; caelu, velotskoe kaina lt; cena), but also in Sardinia (kenare lt; sepage). Before the Balkan-Romanesque came probably only palatal k, even before i (in Albanian kjimk lt; cimice, kjine lt; centum and consequently — gjint lt; gente). Further natural development and with a g c, g and ts in dz could occur independently in the different groups Balkan-Roman, but this time was needed. Consequently, it can not be dated to the VI., As well as the above-mentioned group of departure to the south. Dako- and Istria-Romanian treats with Latin and g before e and i are the same (at ISTRA-Romanian reflexes them later acquired a special form).
Because our interests are focused on the Daco-Romanian, we can not dwell on the details of the process of separation. Causes of displacement are usually seen in the pressure of the Slavs, who already in the VI., Breaking the resistance of the Emperor Maurice (582-602), began to cross the Danube and the masses spread across the peninsula, especially in its eastern regions, lying closer to the center of the Byzantine Empire, attracted the barbarians as in the west of Rome. On the liberated territory of Roman settlers were pulled out of the Danube. This movement should be, of course, long and going in the opposite direction of movement of the Slavs. The open question is how to respond quickly to romance the population of New Dacia in the Slavic invasion, because in fact in this early era of the eastern half of the peninsula had more charisma than the West, which has long been Romantsov feel more secure. That is why the date is 600, from which the ancestors of the Romanians began moving north, according Filpppide perhaps require reservations. The central point of his research is to establish the paths of movement. Neither before nor after him, no one gave us a detailed picture of the movement in the north, with which to be reckoned.
The movement seems Filippide — and, we believe, is correct — in the form of waves, and therefore a long process, covering the period from VII to the beginning of the XIII century. When it was over. The relocation occurred in two unrelated threads. One, «Balkan-transkarpatsky» moved because of Danube in Banat and Transylvania (except for its southeast) and then — in Moldavia, Bukovina and Bessarabia; the other, «muntyanskaya branch» — with the right bank of the Danube River (hence, of the Coastal Dacia and the eastern part of Lower Moesia) directly in Muntenia (Great Wallachia), then in Transylvania (its south-east, the center of which was subsequently Brasov, and the valley of the upper Alyuty — Fagaras). In Olten (Wallachia Minor) infiltrated portions of both streams. Thus, «Moldova and Muntenia have a genetic (different branches) and historical ties,» Resettlement caused by Fillipide, cleansing the territory north of the Danube Slavs in the VI-VII centuries., And freed from Romantcev space between Suit-set and Drina moved to the XIII century. Serbs. In the XI century. these places has largely lost its population since the Byzantine government resettled them subjugated Pechenegs (1048-1049 gg .; cedar, II, 587, 14).
But if Moldova is not linked genetically to Muntenia, how it establishes Philippe de, it is associated with Transylvania, and this is supported by the data communication language common to both regions. This corresponds to the population of Bukovina, and then Moldavia from Transylvania, and finally — from Bessarabia, Bukovina. This corresponds to the data and language in Bessarabia, which features the archaic (dz, dz) are interwoven with the innovations (such as softening of tooth before e, i, go palatalized c (= k) in palatalized t, and to mitigate the labial yotom).
If the first flow Fillipide no objection, the motion from south to north in Muntenia of Lower Moesia, as a base between VII and XII centuries., Can hardly be presented as such. Romanesque elements on the right bank of the Danube could still somehow remain in the cities, but they were destroyed by the beginning of VII century. Tracks Vlachs on the left bank of the Lower Danube is not available to the XIV century. Mention of Nikita Ako-Minatom for 1198 in the north of the Danube, together with the Scythians, attacked the southern coast (cohors Blachorum), has in mind the individual group, made up of stray elements. About anologich-term as they say under the 1164 and Kinnam. During the VII-X centuries. Byzantine sources of the Vlachs and on the other side of the river silent. They mention only the Slavs. One of the Byzantine historians of the IX. He speaks of the «Bulgaria on the ONU side of the river. Istra «. Transdanubian lands were part of the Bulgarian state from Krum to Peter (died in 969). In 899 the left bank employed the Pechenegs, and in 1091 — Kumans. Mutafov-Chiev finds it impossible to west from Alyuty preserved Romanesque population. According to Romanian historian Onchula first Romanian settlements to the east of Alyuty (and the Carpathians) became possible only in the XII century. Conditions favored the colonization of the elements that came down from the mountains, came only in the XI century. After the fall of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (1018) on the lower Danube was formed Paristrion theme, with the Byzantine administration and the Bulgarian population. The uprising in 1186 and the formation of the Second Bulgarian Empire, where Vlachs played maybe a certain role does not mean that the composition of its population includes a large number of Vlachs, which does not exclude, of course, as part of his Wallachian element. In any case, it is revealing that since the beginning of the XIII century. of Wallachia in connection with the new state, and there is no question it is already included simply as Bulgarian. In our opinion, highly characteristic term Muntenia, denotes Wallachia. It coincides with an old legend that Vlachs led by Radu Negru or Tikhomirov, Ivanko came down from the mountain (after leaving the Pechenegs and Cumans) and captured the Danube lowland. Not on the same points, and whether the succession of points: Campulung, Targoviste, Bucharest? How to justify in the name of respect Vlachs Munteanu, if they were from time immemorial Wallachian Plain?
MV Sergius took Philippe de hypothesis, as not bound flow allowed him to emphasize the independence of Moldova and considered it a distinct language. But Fillippide still connects with the Moldavian and Transylvanian speaks of them as Daco-nskom Roma language. Yes, and Sergius wording not always clear enough: the Moldavian and Wallachian dialects he calls the Daco-Roman, but that prevents it, however, four pages on to talk about the Romanian and Moldavian. Any «territorial dialect» can become under certain conditions, in the language of the nation. One can imagine that such a transformation will survive two close one to one dialect in parallel; but they have not thus receive no special basic word stock, no special grammatical structure of each. It is hardly possible to prove that, for all their differences, the languages of America and England, two different languages.
Slavic influence on the romance it is dated differently: some (Duzhglya in Dacoromania, III, 605; Densushyanu, Hist., I, 241; Pope-Hajj Grai si suflet, 1, 211; III, 94; Skok in Slavia, VI, 127 ; XI, 614) refer it to the time before the IX. (already a VI-VII), others (Gamilsheg in Zschr. f. rom. Philol.) — not earlier than to X. Berbulesku argued that contact with the Slavs (Bulgarians) could happen only in the X-XI centuries. on the territory of Dacia, where the Romanians were from time immemorial. His argument — srednebolgarskaya phonetics borrowing against which objections have Sandfeld. Climax Slavic influence I. Bogdan refers to XI, Kapidan — to the XII century. The bulk of borrowed words make Bulgarian; the other Slavic languages are represented much weaker.
Home loans and, therefore, the contact belongs to a very distant pore, as a number of borrowed words belong to a very deep layer of vocabulary and is common to all the varieties of Balkan-Romance language, in which they ousted the corresponding Latin elements. Such, for example, baba (Baba), eliminating the Latin anus or vetula (saved as an adjective in the veche), coasa (Istro-Romanian cosa) — Spit instead falx (Romanian falce — 1,2 acres of land); colac, culac, Wed. Russian loaf instead Kolach (by Kolo) -pechene round shape; verb darui — give (from darovati — grant) instead of Latin donare, nevasta (bride) -zhena; gol (naked, empty) instead nudus IPT vacuus); slab (weak), rana (wound), and others. It is very interesting reinterpretation of some Latin words; by type Slavic play = play and dance, this last value received and the Latin verb jocare, joca, dzoca, zoca; the type of color — floare was labeling and flower color; the type of light — Latin lumen gt; lume came to mean the world (and, moreover, in all dialects); the value of light left him alone somewhere in the Daco-Romanian, and, moreover, only in terms Iumea ochilor.
Assimilating Slavic words, the ancestors of the Romanians treated them according to the requirements of his speech. So, the big jus (-nosovoe open on) was treated on a par with Latin + n: scump (stingy) — both munte, lung, cumpar. The same shape as mandru (wise) meet later srednebolgarskomu pronunciation large Yusa like dH, t. E. Romanian an, where then an. All these processes should take place before the XI century., When the nose in yusah ceased to sound.
In antiquity borrowing and transfer points as the b u, for example, in the suta, or -b as the diphthong ea in nevasta, where eagt; and before the next well.
Thus, the oldest layer of borrowing can be dated even end VII-VIII c., To the time when there has been a degree aromunskoy group and began its retreat to the south. The assimilation of the Slavic words embraced a certain period, as some of them even more long-standing, have already entered the language after a number of old phonetic processes completed. Thus, in the gana and hrana (food) and before n preserved (Latin Ianagt; lana, manusgt; mana), and n is not turned back in z, t. E. Rhotacism that Rosetti said the phenomenon later, came after the collapse of the Balkan-Romance on dialects (Rhotacism., 53).
Slavic (Bulgarian) the effect of significantly increased, especially when the territory of the Bulgarian state began to expand to the west and to the north, from the beginning of IX century. An important event was the adoption of Bulgarians Christianity under Boris I, in 864, which facilitate communication with former pagans, but particularly important was the subordination of the Greco-Roman population of the Bulgarian Church under King Simeon (893-927).
Not at this time, neither earlier communication with the Slavs did not lead to a radical restructuring of the language. Weigand says Romanian as the language of the Slavic-Roman. Later Densushyanu argued that the «Balkan-Romance Romanian … became only since the invasion of the Slavs.» And most recently, Mutafchiev said that he considered it possible to call the Romanian Romanian only at the stage when he absorbed the Slavic elements. But then the Spanish and Spanish should be called only after he learned Arabic elements. Balkan-Romance is separated from other Romance languages do not Slavonicisms, and those traits that have evolved in the successor of empire-wide-koyne after its separation from the western half of the empire, the features of its basic lexical fund and the grammatical structure. In English, the French element is not less than the Slavic element in Romanian, but it has not made its Franco-German language.
Most of the Bulgarian word is borrowed srednebol-garsky character, and on the other hand, in the oldest of them common to all the varieties of Balkan-Romanesque, there are features of vostochnobol-garskogo adverbs (eg, reflexes like b ea b as). Features of these could be acquired at the time of communication with the Second Bulgarian Empire (late XII — half of the XIII century.). But they could be assimilated and in Transylvania, where the Slav elements settled long ago, where they then went down to the Danube, and where they also flowed later when for the Danube organized the first Bulgarian kingdom. In the far north of the Slavs attracted deposits of salt in Maramures and Saris. Hungarian sources say that when the Magyars broke into Transylvania (X-XI cc.), They found there Slavo-Roman province with the Slavic governors like Menumoruta. It may be that the language of the Bulgarians in Eastern Transylvania belonged to the Bulgarian type.
Only thus early contact with the Slavs can be explained by penetration of romance among the Slavic liturgy and the corresponding Slavic terminology, displacing the old Latin. Not the same whether by penetrating in the X century. in Magyar words like kereszt «Cross», szombat «Saturday» and so on. n.
The question of the time, which can be attributed to the presence of Roman and Magyar population north of the Danube and Sava, was busy N. Dreganu. They scrutinized onomastics and toponymy Slavic character of these areas. According to the author, it is a big part of their Old Bulgarian imprint, although among them there are also media-nebolgarskie (later) form. Material letters relating to Transylvania in 1200, giving very little. Dreganu believes that Hungarians have got into this «area behind a large forest», Erdoelu (the later Erdely gt; Romanian Ardeal) no earlier than 1074 letters, mentioning the Vlachs, starting only in 1222, but this does not prevent, of course, prevent them earlier cash in. In any case, it is material evidence of a significant number of seats occupied by settlers Romanians. Indications historians are very few in number and not always reliable. The latter category includes the anonymous author of «Acts of Hungarians», a Notary of King Bela IV (?), Allotted Res-troller. But whatever the origin of this chronicle, something that it is supported by the open later Descriptio Europae Orien-talis 1308, reflecting, however, in some places the tradition-Catching Ascending to the XII century. And «Description» refers to the «pastures Romanians» in the era of the appearance of the Magyars. Related to this is the available evidence on the Primary Chronicle ugrah, followed by Kiev to the west (in the 898). Author and says Ugric peoples who came from the east, pausing briefly in Russia, moved through the high mountains (the Carpathians), and are faced with a polo Hami and Slovenia, which subjugated Volohov. Ugra Volohov expelled, took their land, and that settled with Slovenia. The term «Volokhova» is not entirely clear, chess saw them Romanians. But they are mentioned next to the Franks, the Germans, the Carolingians, and so on. D., And it is possible that the record and source mean francs, t. E. The population of the former Roman Empire, and that we are talking about the north Bengrii where Magyars down from the mountains, beginning his state. For this early period is difficult to imagine that Volohov kept subordinate to the Slavs, while to the contrary according to the data of the Slavic-Roman provinces in Transylvania. But the testimony of the Annals of the same with the other two, the above and indicate the presence in northern Hungary Slavic population remaining there, and after the arrival of the Magyars.
As a non-owners, and ordinary inhabitants genuine Volohov, t. E. The ancestors of the Romanians «Nord Stream or branches» Filippide could, however, in a number of (probably Magyars something headed in that direction, because it was sparsely populated ) to be here together with the Slavs. E. Petrovich believes that these were the ancestors of the Slavs the Slovaks as dental palatalization characteristic of the west and northwest of the Daco-Romanian region (frache instead frate, gincolo instead dincolo), of all the Slavs is known only to the Slovaks. However, the Romanian phenomenon is attested only from the XV century., But it is, according to Petrovic, certainly older, and we are willing to accept. However, we met him in East Bulgarian (Gian instead of day kebe instead of you, and so on. N.). If you see him as a very old line, then this would not contradict our assumption that the Slavic element in Transylvania, which found there came from the south of the novel-tzu, was a Bulgarian, which have evolved traits that found itself then a fuller expression in the East Bulgarian .
Distribution of the first branch of the Balkan-transkarpatskoy Filippide north led to contact with the eastern Slavs. Mikloshich and Kaluzhnyatsky identified culmination of penetration in the northern Romanian Carpathians XV and XVI centuries. Materials collected N. Dreganu say about the progress of the Romanians in this area not only at the end of XII — early XIII c., But in the XI century. Was it single or a more or less small group, it is difficult to say. Among the many local Romanian names collected I. Jordan and G. Kirsch’em, there are many Ukrainian, indicating the movement of the population: Ciorneiul (Roman neighborhood), Dubrova, Dubrovita, Dubrovatul (Vaslui), and so on. P. Indicates that in some places we have to deal with the names given by the older inhabitants, which then formed the new, sometimes preserving South Slavic form; so Solotina and Slatina, Caretaker, Storozhinets (Bukovina) and Guardian. In Moldova there are several Ukrainian lexical borrowing, but not uncommon, and the reverse phenomenon. The 14th card at the Pushkar gives a visual representation of the widespread Romanesque on the territory of the Ukrainian word, like a dove. In the form of hulub it covers the entire Bucovina and Moldova; Latin word for dove distributed between Wallachia (porumbel), Transylvania (porumb); Banat, Istria and Meglena have the Old Slavic golumb. Romance elements penetrated not only in Pokut’a (center Coloma), but in the hem. Here they have been assimilated, and only has local names indicate their old population.
The Galician charters Romanians are mentioned only in 1334, but written documents, as usual, late. The earliest written evidence of Wallachia at the turn of Galicia belongs to the Byzantine historian Nikita Choniates and refers to 1164.
A similar process of promotion, denationalization and leaving the memory of his toponymy and dictionary took place on Polish territory as well as in the Romanian Polonism. The question of Romania in Poland devoted to the work Vendkevicha; of Vlachs in Pokut’a article Nistor and a part in his «History of Bessarabia.» Transitions in Galicia were made, obviously, at a time when there was movement in Moldavia and Bukovina, and due to the same cause, the pressure of the Hungarians, develop the northern part of Transylvania. Investigation revealed Vendkevicha bond borrowing in the Polish dialect of the Transylvanian (rhotacism).
The above data allow us to establish quite early presence in northern Transylvania Roman population, although we are unable to more accurately determine the time of its appearance here. If we find it in Galicia in the XII century., And this expansion is a fact, if we know that the end of the XI century. Hungarians have started to spread in Transylvania, it is with the strengthening of this process is necessary to put the movement in bond Romanesque and Roman-Slavic population to new locations. Implementation of these movements facilitated by the presence of organizations that binds the individual moving parts, called provinces, which are caught here Magyars. Legends about the foundation of the Moldovan State Wallachian l basically reproduce the actual facts. Promotion of the northern branch of the Balkan Romantcev, estimated Filippide quite acceptable both historically and taking into account the linguistic bonds Moldavia and Bukovina in the north of Transylvania. We think that the second stream Filippide first penetrated to the south of the Carpathians, and from there down to the future Wallachia.
The main reason — to increase pressure Magyars — began to be felt, apparently stronger in the XIII century., When Hungary, as an outpost of Catholic orthodoxy and Western interests, especially the strengthening of evoih took the northern and eastern borders, PA which it contacts the Slavic world. Legends about the foundation of the Moldavian principality and its founder Dragos include these events in time for the end of XIII — beginning of XIV century. and link them with the desire of the Hungarians to subdue Maramures, which is engaged in the Romance and Slavic settlers. Perhaps this is the same and the origin of the principality of Wallachia, whose founder tradition does Radu Negru (1290-1310), who had, apparently, some precursors, whose names are not quite accurate. The formation of principalities expressed in the gradual unification of small feudal provinces-cells, which are said to claim Hungarian and Byzantine historians. In the XIV century. and in Moldavia and Wallachia are beginning to stand out more clearly the figures of individual rulers, which ushered in a stronger organization principalities and their state territory. In Moldova, it was Bogdan (1343-1365) in Wallachia — Bessarabia. In the end XIV. Wallachia took almost all the land with the flow pp. Jiu, Alyuty, Arges, Dambovita and Ialomita (only land east of Alyuty and closer to the Danube for a long time remained «wild forest», Teleorman and Baraganskaya steppe was mastered only in the XIX c.). Moldova, moving from north to south, as evidenced by the movement of its centers (Suceava, still lying on the edge of Bukovina, Roman, Yasa) gradually took possession of upper and middle reaches of the Prut and Siret; lower them for the end of the XIV century. It not yet included in its composition. Abroad have long been Focsani. Ethnic substrate in Bucovina and Moldavia is the eastern Slavs, as evidenced toponymy data. In the old local names like Solotina, Caretaker, Storozhinets and so on. N. Went to South Slavic brought from Transylvania as the Slatina, the Guardian, and so on. N. Lying not far from Focsani city Rymnik called originally Slam-Rymnik, t. E. The actual plateau-like area-Rymnik and this plateau-like area (Solon), it was only later replaced by the Romanian form with the same meaning: Sarat (t. e. salatus «salty»). We’re not talking about a populated mainly from Bukovina, Bessarabia, toponymy which MV Sergius devoted a special study.
The concentration of small fiefdoms in the large state union created conditions for the development of both branches of the Daco-Roman new phonetic features and appearance in them a number of new elements in the dictionary, often as a result of contact with the new neighbors of the Danube — with the Bulgarians and the Serbs in the north — Ukrainians and Poles in the East (later) — a Russian. Transylvania found itself under the rule of Hungary, which has strengthened its eastern outskirts of the colonists-Magyars (especially Seckler) and German-Saxons. In the XV century. here it is formed «the principality of three nations» (1437), which included romance population not taken into account and converted into oppressed minority.
With the transformation of Moldavia and Wallachia in the independent principality is a gradual elimination of bilingualism, which, according to some researchers, continued to hold even outside of the XV century. (P. Skok), for which the general public has disappeared, certainly much earlier. K. Irechek suggested that the Bulgarian remained in the principalities artificially through the Office of the scribes, but the language of letters, written in Moldavia and Wallachia, his incorrectness, non-literary, replacing Romanesque Bulgarian place names tell a different story. Anyway, the Bulgarian owned and used for a long time the upper layers of society, the court, the nobility, representatives of the executive management. Some features of these letters XIII and the following centuries, this may reflect the characteristics of a living language is allowed Miletic and earlier Venelin.
Srednebolgarskie features could appear in a live speech earlier, than in the language of these letters, not to mention already on the monuments of literature.
As monuments of folk speech lacking in this early period (up to the XVI century.), The study of Slavonic letters of interest not only for the Slavonic scholar, but also a novelist, as they come across sometimes, unfortunately, a few dashes of local Romance language, form the more precious, that they may be an ancient XIV-XV centuries.
Slavic Literature propagated primarily, of course, the church. Episcopal centers and monasteries were the main centers of distribution of literature in the Slavonic language. Monastic schools to train personnel for the Office for the clergy. Among the disciples at first dominated by Slavs, but soon began to appear among them and Romanian names. In these circumstances it is not surprising that along with religious literature, j starts to appear and secular in the Slavonic language. In the first place — annals and chronicles. So there was a chronicle of Moldova’s monastery in the Ritz-Beast, founded by Alexander the Good (1400-1432), patronized literature. For Bistritskoy followed Putnikskogo chronicle of the monastery (one edition presents events from 1359 by 1525, and the other — with 1359 for 1552). At the beginning of the XVI century. chronicles replaced Chronicle: Mac-dence, Neamt monastery abbot, Euphemia, Bishop Radautsskogo. Only in the XVII century. there are historical works in the Romance languages (Chronicle Gregory Ureke * * 1590- 1646). Interestingly, all of the above sites are associated with Moldova. Between the XIV and XVI centuries. it plays a leading role. Its influence extends to the schools adjacent Transylvania, which she had, as we know, long-standing ties.
Folk language as in the principalities and the Danube for a long time remained very instrument of oral communication and if it was applied in writing, in rare cases, correspondence or business records, as this allows to guess extant data. All of them are in XV. These are the introductory lines of the letter Boyar Dragomir Udrishte to the residents of the city of Brasov, in southern Transylvania (between 1482 and 1492 gg.). The letter was written in Slavonic, but his introductory formula has already Romanian words (bunilor and chestitem); is-an involuntary lapse under the pen nobleman, a man already accustomed to speak Roman, but to write in Slavonic. Another fact — counting records of Sibiu, which under the November 30, 1495 marked the payment of a priest-Romantsov certain amount of writing letters of Romanesque. All of these uses of popular speech associated with the city district urban bourgeoisie.
The first attempts to use the language of romance writing systematically belong to the XVI century .; These documents relate to the field of business relations. They were extracted from Bistrita-Rosetti who file in Transylvania, published and studied them. Covers a substantial period from 1590 to the end of the XVIII century. They are a valuable material for the characterization of commercial and private legal relations of Transylvania, the growth of its cities and the economic ties with their monasteries and country, uniting the northern region of Moldavia and Transylvania. But they are also important monuments of the language of these areas, it reveals characteristics common to them is largely a long time, and, moreover, the period for the history of the Romanian yazyka very early. However, they are not only the monuments of live local language, but also an important indicator of what she was taking shape when it was used in a kind of «literary» purposes. Considering these letters, petitions, inquiries, and so on. F. From the latter point of view, it should be noted in them the presence of a certain feeling of norms dictated by the need to raise the language above everyday its form, the desire to «sublimate» his view of the seriousness of the problem, which it is intended to solve . Hence, the exclusion of a certain purely local features and rapprochement with the speech of other regions of Transylvania, in particular its southern half, is already connected at the time with Muntentsey, t. E. The territory in which the second half of the XVI century, were first printed books in the Romance languages .
Thus, it becomes clear why writing documents bistritskogo archive does not reflect some of the features of the local phonetics, which were perceived clearly as too local, and were contrary to «sublimation.» These include labial palatalization characteristic phenomenon more ancient than the XVI century. Spelling, do not mark this line, allows us to give the appearance of well-known language of unity, already in charge of the rising somewhere in the back of his mind the idea of the unity of the speaker on it Latins. This coincides with the rise of the urban bourgeoisie. The need for enhancing and strengthening economic ties between the regions, expanding the market for the exchange of goods was a material base, which directed the thought of those who were interested in it in the first place.
The characteristic features of the local, made in the text of the document are as follows.
1. rhotacism (intervocalic ngt; p): Buna-borax. It is unknown Aromanian and meglenitam but ISTRA-known Romanians, Albanian (where it exists as opposed Romanian and Slavic words). Prior to the XVI century. its area — northern Transylvania, Bukovina, and northern Moldavia; but he knew that before, and the central region of Transylvania (Torda). The issue of rhotacism can not be considered solved.
2. affricate dz (from Latin d + i, dj + vowel Greek Albanian z): dzyk (dico), in Palee published in Orastie (Banat, 1582), in some Transylvanian and Moldavian manuscripts of texts; Slavic writing s (z’lo). Affricate dz (like ts) was very common at the Dacians and Thracians. She lives now in the national language of Moldova and Banat. Wallachian says s.
3. affricates h and j (i) meet the Moldovan NIL and soft fricatives zh: zhane lt; gena (eyelash), fashi (facit). In writing h and i are stored.
4. Soften before i and f yotom in x: = a and hi fi.
5. Unstressed egt; i: Dinty (dente), in Albanian, Bulgarian and partly modern Greek.
6. Pronunciation diphthong ea under the stress at the end of words like e: CTE (Romanian literary stea) or in the 3rd person singular and 1st person plural imperfect undzhe — it.
7. The Moldovan and already sounded like the sound midway between a (deaf, denoted in the Slavic writing b, b, and at the end of words, d) and i (s wrote, b and b: kyt, kt, kt). The same end of the word. Protonicheskoe and (e) in the Moldovan sounded like a, usually before the next and tonic: tsarans instead tseran, but also to other tonic vowels: gradine, fakjm, but in the latter case near gredine and fekut. The assumption that there is a well-preserved old Latin (expressed MV Sergius), improbable in view of the parallel forms and the fact that words like Barbat quite possible influence future Tony-agency and the previous Aton,
These were the first steps of development of written language vostochnoromanskogo. As we have seen, they are associated with the city.
Official Acts of Romance languages appear in the principalities only from the beginning of the XVII century.
Conquest of the South Slavic countries by the Turks at the end of the XIV century. (The Battle of Kosovo in 1389) played a significant role in ending South Slavic influence beyond the Danube.
It was replaced by the impact of Western Slavs, the Czechs and Slovaks (the latter, Slovak, saying in the language is already in the past, according to E. Petrovich), in the form of influence Hussitism, flow not only religious, but also social. In the second half of the XV century. Hussite movement went into decline in the homeland and in Hungary, which belonged TRANSILOV-tion. Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490) under the pressure of Rome led to the Hussite bitter struggle (1467-1471) and in the Czech Republic and Hungary. Fleeing from government persecution, Hussites passed in neighboring Moldavia, where they continued to preach crash, but their activity is to translate religious literature into the local language stumbled upon the resistance of the church authorities, opponents of the idea of transfer (at the other extreme Catholics), and uepeha had. Success came later, when the political situation changed in Transylvania. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that some of the translations of the originals preserved in the latest list, published in the XVI century., Back to the pore. Rhotacism and the presence of some of the Magyar words had limited distribution point to the northern regions of Transylvania, in the area of Maram-solving, but can occur in the northern part of Moldova. However, the translated literature, the first steps of «vulgar» language, had the character of isolated attempts, only to prepare as Hussites, way more broad and persistent movement XVI century. What was the Reformation.
At this time in Transylvania we found a response to both trends reformy- Lutheranism and Calvinism. In distributing them played a big role ethnic composition of the country. The Saxons, German colonists who settled here in the XIII century., Have become supporters of Lutheranism (sermon I. Gonter in the 40s of the XVI century.); among Hungarians spread Calvin. If Catholicism was the faith of the exploiters for the Hungarians, then rency-ranizm is their belief the German. On one side were the «Orthodox» Romania, which were the majority and are prepared to accept new ideas Hussite not gravitated to the faith «Hungarian», ie. E. The faith of their oppressors landed nobility, power and influence increased especially during the reign of Louis II (1516-1527) under the leadership of John fill in. The peasant uprising in 1514, the former response to harassment and extortion landowners remained in everyone’s memory, especially because of the brutal suppression of his followed by no less brutal, systematic measures against the peasantry. Thus, with the Hungarians and Romanians faith it was not on the road. German urban bourgeoisie, the Saxons, and the economic impact that the plans have grown used this situation and launched a broad reform propaganda among the Romanians, and especially among the urban population. The government finally had to take trends of reformation and even encourage them, taking over their management, in order not to submit a reason for Romanians to go to a rapprochement with the same kin, and their co-religionists in the Principality. At the Diet of Sibiu (1566) was proclaimed by the introduction of the Romanians of the Reformation; they were given a bishop who at the Synod of 1567 abolished the ALS-vyansky language in the liturgy and the church in general. Thus officially Allowed translation of the Scriptures and liturgical books in a Romance language. For the urban bourgeoisie was a great victory, an important first step on the long and difficult road of national unification. «Reform» was, however, transitory; but the acquisition of the language of serious human rights literature and printing press could not be canceled and all further attempts to infringe on this right, no matter where they come from, have suffered the inevitable defeat.
The printing press for the spread of Slavic literature was placed in Wallachia near the beginning of the XVI century. Serbian monk Macarius. The new machine was raised in the south of Transylvania in Brasov, half a century later (1557), a disciple of the Serbian printer (Dmitry Lubavitch) deacon of Wallachia (Targoviste) Korea and its employee Oprea Logofet due Brasov-German citizen I. Benknera.
The first printed books were naturally Catechism (Lutheran, 1559 .; earlier edition, which appeared in Sibiu in 1544, lost), the Four (1561, Basic Books believer) and the Psalms (1570, throughout Europe, the Protestant Bible The most popular product ).
Quite naturally, Kores used for their publications already had finished earlier translations — otherwise explain the issue to them in the light of a significant number of books in a relatively short period of time (he served from 1559 to 1581). Translations those made with Slavic, reproduced sometimes along with the original (such as, for example, fragments of the Four stored in Leningrad). Language of the original bears traces of their place of origin, as evidenced rhotacism like mere instead of mine, and so on. N.
The first literary language was the language of northern Transylvania. But the printing press was counting on the distribution of its products far beyond the place where he stood. He pursued the goal of propaganda and at the same time was a commercial enterprise. It is therefore natural changes Kores in the language of his books, besides, he was of Wallachia Targoviste, and some of his staff — the natives of the area of Brasov. In addition to personal convenience, the orientation of the language of Targovishte Brasov makes the text understandable to a wider area. Fixed a number of monuments of language printing Kores has received recognition and has become the new form of literary language, which had to be guided as to the authority.
However, in a separate political existence Duchy sets and the complete unification of Transylvania language of the norm is not out of the question. Therefore, the language of the printed works of the XVI and XVII centuries. bears in each case marks mestoproiskhozhdeniya monument. Known Paley, published in Orastie (1582), came from Banat, the New Testament, published in Bolgrad (Alba Iulia) in 1648, contains transilvanizmy, Kazan (sermon) Varlaam (1643) — moldavanizmy (Varlaam was the son of a peasant from Putna) which occur later Metropolitan Dositheus in his verse translation of the Psalms (1673), is the first poetic experiences in the vernacular.
According to the observations Gaster, local features are much more pronounced in the manuscript than in the printed text. At a reprint of the book of Moldova in it to make corrections, among other things eliminated moldavanizmy. It happened, for example, preaching Varlaam, published first in arid, and almost directly Dyale (in Wallachia). Wallachian dialect at this stage was obviously prevail, although the Moldavian chroniclers XVII. On the one hand, continue to hold the archaic scriptures of the old church, on the other — close living speech of his homeland. The appearance of a complete translation of the Bible, published in 1688 in Bucharest and made on the basis of the Wallachian dialect, was of great importance for strengthening the authority of the latter by virtue of the nature of the monument.
The above remark Gaster suggests once again that all the literary use of language requires writing on it giving it a special form, it would have gone from everyday life, makes drop all too local, wrote an article preventing the wider domain. Metropolitan TRANSILOV-vanii Symeon Stefan expressed this idea in his preface to the translation of the New Testament, published in Alba Iulia in 1648, he compared the word to coin, which is good when it is able to apply everywhere; as «good only those words — he writes — that is understood by all.»
Thus, representatives of the Moldovan literature, plays almost the leading role in the XVII century., Joined in the work on the creation of a single inherently literary language, which later became the national language and one Romanian. Sophisticated work on polishing and enriching the language fills the activity of representatives of literature from the end XVII — to the early XIX century. A lot has been done in this direction Dm. Kantemir (1673-1723), the father of our satirist, to improve the language of scientific prose, but his works have had beginning of the XIX century to the much less influence than they deserved, at least in principle respect. Passion for the idea of Romanism Romanian language on the borderline between the XVIII and XIX centuries. has emphasized performances and works of so-called «Transylvanian School» gave a lot of positive to «defend and illustrate» the Romanian language, but left behind and the embryo of the future patients, overreliance on all that only binds tongue with its Romanesque fellows: Latin, Gallo — and italyanomaniey, the effects of which are felt to this day.
In the process of the Moldovan association refused on a number of its features. The area in which it is most different from Romanian, is the area of vocabulary. It was dealt with, perhaps, not enough, although this work could be of great benefit and obscheliteraturnogo language, which would open in front, so important and interesting source of vocabulary enrichment. In this respect, interesting work I. Jordan, not only reveals the new words or their forms, but also their new values. And while Jordan shows the need to distinguish between two zones in Moldova — north and south, which bears the traces of its intermediate position. With respect to the dictionary, Moldova has a very significant number of words not known Wallachia, part of the same common word has spread mainly in the south of Moldova. Using the well-known dictionary Tiktina, M. Sergius added a list of Jordan, but had at the same time state that very many of the «Moldavian» word (for Tiktinu) entered in the Romanian word stock, and it is almost impossible (at this stage), set during their incorporation into the latter. Of great importance for the history of the dictionary would be a study of the Moldovan monuments XVII. and old dictionaries. But this is not yet attracted enough attention of researchers.
Work on giving the unity of the literary language, on the improvement of its means of expression and enrichment given for the XVII and XVIII centuries. significant results. In search of the main varieties of the unity of the Romanian enter each something of my own, but continued to lie at the basis of the language of Wallachia. Moldova remained in the living everyday life, coloring, in one way or another, in the mouths of those for whom he was a native pronunciation of literary language, its vocabulary, but, as has happened elsewhere, in its pure form was regarded as a national «dialect», contrasts literary standard. Securing the phonetic form of spelling the last, and it was the subject of grammar system works grammarians at the end of the XVIII century. But the debate about language, particularly on the sources of enrichment of its vocabulary, and continued in the XIX century., When the growth of literature, science and technology has given them a special urgency. Combining the principalities and the formation of a unified Romanian national state put forward the question of giving the language of the national character. In contrast, supporters of the broad debt, continues the line of Eliade Radulescu (1802-1872), made by supporters of the widespread use of the heritage of antiquity, and especially the richest treasury of the national language. C. Negruzzi (1808-1867) ridiculed in his «Letter» adherents Latinisms, Gallicisms Italianisms and later A. Odo-Besco (1834-1895) and M. Eminescu (1850-1889) relied on people’s language and widely used neologisms. These principles, along with the reference to the living, spoken language, even dialect, found a strong support among writers-realists, enjoying at the moment, the construction of a democratic Romania, the greatest authority and influence.
In the midst of the work on the creation of a common literary language Bessarabia departed for Paris in 1812 to the world of Russia, and thus the story of her and her tongue began to flow in a new direction. Accelerate the pace of the formation of the Moldovan nation to claim the Moldovan national language. Bessarabia evolved first, according to the Statute of 1818. In the region, which retains its customs and language, the last — so much so that the law provided for a series of measures to raise the education and among Moldovans, by the way, — covering schools for people with their own language. Moldovan allowed to use in the preparation of applications, petitions and other official documents. In the 20s of XIX century. It was indeed opened a number of schools in different locations the area, among other things in Chisinau. In 1822, the Moldovan ABC has been published, and later reprinted. But this policy did not last long. When Nicholas I turned the region into an ordinary province with all the consequences, and began its Russification.
Orodnym use of language in official documents was put a limit in 1842 .; Moldovan phased out of schools, both primary and secondary. Opened in 1835 in Chisinau semiklassnom Lyceum taught the local language optional, and it lasted until 1872 The same situation existed in the institution in 1835 Nobility guesthouse. Public Library in Chisinau, founded in 1832, is not to acquire books in the Moldovan language. Even compliant and obsequious nobility deemed it necessary to draw attention to a disregard for the natural and fair national needs, and its leader — V. Sturdza focused on the topic in the address filed with the governor in 1841, especially.
Russification continued to do their own thing as before, breaking the law and the needs not only of the nobility and the bourgeoisie, with a relatively light-hearted mirivshihsya new orders, but the bourgeois intelligentsia, forced to surrender, since it was not in the circumstances at the time no other way. In 1865 I. Donici (or Donchev, as he called himself) complained in his «initial course of Romanian language» (to use the Latin alphabet) that those wishing to learn it almost never is, and two years after the publication of this book, the Moldovan language was removed from schools of all types and replaced by Russian, while the Germans, Bulgarians and Greeks the right to learn their mother tongue remained.
But even in these difficult years, and in these difficult conditions are still now, as before, the people who support among his fellow countrymen interest and love for the native language and native literature, people like padagoga-GUM-grained A. Hazhdeu one time led Chisinau Lyceum. For the first time after the accession of Bessarabia to work in this direction, it was easier. After 1812 Rod was not abroad, to stop communication with Moldova. Russian troops remained in it, and a little later in connection with the Turkish war — from 1828 to 1834. A number of educated Moldovans took refuge in the territory of Bessarabia by the Turkish orders, waiting for better times. Among them were politicians and writers such as K. Negruzzi who met in Chisinau with exiled to Pushkin and was then one of the first advocates of Russian literature at home with Bessarabians I. Donici. From abroad then entered Bessarabia books and magazines that supported the old ties with the literary language and literary traditions. But to keep them farther away, the harder it became. 1878 Rod was closed as a way of communication, and the royal regime has led to the fact that those who were able to maintain and continue the tradition of the Moldavian Bessarabia and cultivate literary language began to go abroad.
Custodian of national principles and traditions of the people stayed.
It would, however, a historical mistake not to point out the positive side of what had to Bessarabia ties with Russia. Bought, the truth, dear price they have paid off handsomely, given their results. Separation of Bessarabia had the effect of at the outset the gap between the backward eastern traditions that hampered the development of Moldova, as well as other countries in the Balkans, where Russia plays objectively progressive role. Finally, as in Tsarist Russia familiarize despite the tsarist oppression and obscurantism, that progressive thought and the revolutionary movement, which has joined gradually and Bessarabia. This idea and this movement helped to end the right of formulating and solving the national question, and taking the position of the guar-harmonic combination of the principle of socialist culture and a national form of its realization. The old national ideals led the country, as you know, to enslave it Romania, bourgeois and landlord. Do not be in 1812, but now she could do healing boyars of the capitalist regime, moreover, in its worst form, as it provides insights during the Romanian occupation. Now she has teamed up with the adjacent and ethnically related to her band on the left bank of the Dniester River and has long been a full member of the great Soviet Union, to ensure the protection of its borders, and help build a new life and a new culture.
The new position announced her new rights but entrusted it with new responsibilities, among which belongs to the development and improvement of language as a tool of literary, scientific and other kinds of cultural work.
Wherever there is this problem, it required considerable effort and time. It is clear that the process is not easy to resolve it flows in Soviet Moldavia. In addition, there are difficulties. On the one hand, the task is made easier by the fact that do not have to build from scratch; the other — that is the last thing was an embarrassment, because during more than a century of existence of language in different linguistic and cultural environments, when its scope was limited to using it mainly for practical purposes, the natural course of its development and improvement has been broken. Language requires Appliances and work on it. Meanwhile, «A short course of Romanian language» (as the author calls it) Ion Donici (Doncheva), released in 1865, was the last grammatical guide to its study. Next grammar appeared only in 1918 (Art. Ciobanu). Not much better than was the case in the field of literature. For a time, it may be noted Pushkin Moldavian C. Negruzzi, Bessarabians A. Donici and Costakis Stamati («swan Bessarabia», as it was called). Greek uprising in 1821 forced several zaprutskih Moldovans to seek refuge in Bessarabia. Such, for example, the writer A. Beldiman, poets K. and A. Kotsaki Chrysi Verga. By 50-60 th year include activities Ion Sarbu, historian and poet Alexander partly Nuku.
Lpteratura in Moldova began to develop really only in the Soviet times, and now it has had a significant number of representatives.
Only at the same time it was organized by the teaching and the scientific study of language and literature, a special branch of the Institute of the Moldovan Academy of Sciences of the Union.
More than half a century gap in the life of a literary language and literature could not, of course, pass unnoticed. Tradition, already not very strong, was broken. First, the gap would be filled with the help of the Romanian language, it was essentially the language reform and contrary to Soviet nationality policy. But, not to mention the political side of this act, and linguistically a solution to the problem was wrong, because the use of Romanian was uncritical and people are instilled not only often alien to him verbally, but also incomprehensible foreign borrowing pz Romance and ner of some languages, with whom he had no connection. He were attached to the elements, which are in a foreign language is Romanian littered giving it too colorful character and disfiguring his radical image.
These more than unsuccessful experiments were finally eliminated in the republic began the normalization and codification of its literary language. On the basis of simplified notions of democratization, it came closest to a peasant dialect speech. But this literary language captivated the wrong way, for even serious folk songs (such as the ballad genre) do not use pure dialect, leaving the share of the last songs such ditties, and so on. P. I. Kryange managed to give to his tales of a remarkable example of artistic treatment of the peasant speech of his native Moldovan village Humulesht, but such language is only possible within a certain literary genre. He can not, of course, claim to its use as a literary language in general, although the latter can benefit from it as much useful. To do so, for example, and Micah. Sadoveanu, for which the Moldovan people’s speech — a source of enrichment-style.
The only right way — is to use what has already been achieved in the past, writers, whose authority in the language is not suspected and there is no doubt, for example, K. Negruzzi A. Donici, Stamati K. et al. This is picked up by a number of Soviet writers, such as beech and Lupan, Istria, Deleanu, Canna and others. They, like their predecessors, of course, not for a moment doubt that they are Moldovans that clear to his compatriots, for whom they write, although and do not consider the norm ayasta or ama, or kyatre Gines.
Reproaches the supporters of this view in a forced «Romanization» of language have no foundation. We have already noted that the history of the literary language in Moldavia and Wallachia is characterized, as it were, co authors of both principalities, the desire to create a certain rate, which would be generally accepted, t. E. Served to the widest possible range of readers, not paying their works uzkoprovintsialnye writings. We have seen that even the language of Bistrita-cal documents of the XVI century. It can not be considered a monument of pure dialect. If Gy. Ureke, Varlaam M. Kostin, Dositheus, D. Cantemir or I. Nekulche Moldovans tried to write in Moldovan, their chronicles, sermons, hymnals, historical and literary works would have monuments oblastnicheskoy literature and could hardly have got the resonance that they had. Trends in their language did not prevent them, however, feel that, for all Moldovans. When the Italians for almost two centuries denied toskanizm literary language and claimed that write each in his own language, it means just what Tuscany has become obscheitalyanskim, t. E. Basically their families, and that small natural variations toward the dialect they wrongly attributed great importance.
Moldovan could consider their language and Moldavian writers, as they are sometimes appealed to the Moldovan vocabulary. Moldovan could consider their language Gy. Ureke Dosifej or I. Nekulche because their own text sounded in their pronunciation of some Moldovan natural shades. But there are things that did not change. Stalin’s definition of the specificity of the language leaves no room for doubt. Even a supporter of the Moldovan identity, as was M. Sergius, speaking literary language of education in Moldavia, so ends his observation: «Thus, the Moldovan script consists mainly based on one that already exists in the southern regions of Wallachia and Transylvania, with some deviations dialectal order. » And further, he noted lexical differences, which, of course, no one doubts.
As there are generally moldavanizmy language, so there may be muntenizmy; for example, some phonetic features: morphology — the use of a simple perfect tense (aorist), in the lexicon — the use of specific words or common words in the singular values. Dante was right when he said that his vulgare illustre — literary language, a language that exists everywhere and does not have «the nest» anywhere («De vulgare eloquentia»).
Language Soviet Moldova must therefore rely primarily on national traditions, on the gains of the past come from them. This is irrespective of the conditions in a language system was created.
«It’s no secret of the fact — says I.
This tradition is not, of course, only the tradition of the chroniclers and other writers of the XVII century., No matter how valuable their language. This tradition developed writers XVIII and XIX centuries., Should develop and Moldovan modernity. But, as always and everywhere, the past should be used critically, given the needs of the present and future prospects. In the past, there is much that can be taken literally when it is needed. .Pushkin Turned to antiquity, when required by the art form. So did Negruzzi makes and Sadoveanu.
But the past is valuable and that it contains gaps in the future, so that it is alive, progressive, applicable to the present. There are, for example, communication with live folk speech, which is accessed and Negrut-chi and Leonidovich and Eminescu, Sadoveanu and appeals. There is a reasonable, natural contact with foreign languages, from the extremes of which may serve as a cautionary example of the E. Radulescu. Language evolves not only from its internal resources, no matter how they were important, but also by borrowing. When it was necessary in the old days, the Daco-Roman languages used Slav, Greek, Turkish, French and German. At the present time, thanks to its leading political and cultural role of great importance acquired Russian, not only in the life of the languages of comrades, members of the Soviet Union, common interests and the task of building a new life, but also in the life of languages in the countries of people’s democracy, and even in the capitalist countries.
The relationship between the languages of socialist nations must now be built, as shown by Stalin in his brilliant predictions about the future of the language, different than they were built in the era of the bourgeois nations. One step in this direction will be the convergence of the languages of-mates, the range of which will be more and more to expand. But the maximum development of language at the national level it is not canceled, but rather because it is in the future for the language synthesis is important that the languages of cooperating nations ultimately launched its capabilities in every competition with language-mates, and even more so related. These wonderful provisions should determine the relationship to the modern Russian language and the Moldovan language. Communicating regularly with Russian, he should not forget that he — Romance languages warehouse and that he therefore has its own laws of internal development. If arifmetike convenient to talk or even arithmetic, what makes the basis to reject aritmetike?
In connection with the transformation of Romania into a country of people’s democracy and carrying out reforms in it, it is preparing the establishment of socialism, in view of the development and strengthening in her the teachings of Marx — Engels — Lenin — Stalin and the appearance of the relevant literature, should be reviewed and relevant to its language. The old attitude prevailed justify it before the bourgeois ideology of the Boyars. Now there is no reason not to use the positive, giving, for example, its literature and language in those parts of it that are not blocked by foreign elements than many Romanians have sinned in the past hundred years. It is not alone achieve his sins depleted during the same period; because attitude should be critical. And this use of it, given its proximity to the Moldovan should not, apparently, meet objections.
Work on the development and improvement of language in Moldova — it is cultural circles of the Moldovan people and especially its writers, as custodians of its heritage and conductors on new paths, paving that they must first and foremost be guided by a sense of the native language in its whole, a sense of the language of the people It is based, rather than smaller deviations, «jargon» in the words of Joseph Stalin. Only when these conditions are not afraid of any borrowing or contacts, and the measure is found using a simple, everyday language, the local dialect, which can serve as material for the ‘construction and decoration of the literary language. An example of how it is possible and necessary to work in this direction, can serve as Pushkin, who managed to find the type of speech the most flexible, expressive, applicable to a variety of requirements in mind at the same time as simple and widely understood. In the modern Romanian literature, a great master of speech is a real representative of the school, as the Moldovan Micah. Sadoveanu, who knew how to use his native dialect expanded the range of expressive possibilities of the Romanian language.
His study of the language of the past and live folk speech in its various local, social and professional displays, and equally valuable achievements related Romanian carried out under the ideological and social fracture, Moldovan linguists can provide valuable assistance to writers of Moldova in their difficult but noble cause — work to improve the language of young Moldovan socialist nation.