The remains of many of the Khazar towns and villages identified in Seaside Daghestan, as well as an extensive archaeological material obtained in their research can determine the original center, and gradually expand to the south boundary of khanate. They enable the formulation and solution of a number of issues related to the problem of the Khazar. Among the most interesting and controversial to this day remains the problem of localization of the ancient political centers khanate. The only sources in the investigation of the matter remained until recently, contradictory and scarce attention medieval Arab authors who spawned a variety of assumptions about their location.
An important place in hazarovedenii is the question of the localization of the first capital of khanate — Belenjer. Bright idea of the nature of the written sources provide research AY Semender. A similar conclusion comes BN Buynaksk. It should also focus on a new version of its location, has recently extended VG Kotovich that underpins its findings not only written sources, but also the toponymic and archaeological data. He believes that Belenjer is south of the village of Derbent have Belidzhi. Such a comparison is justified, first of all the consonance of names and Belidzhi Belenjer, as well as the fact that near the village. Belidzhi are the remains of a large settlement called Torpahkala. However, the conclusion of M. Isakov examined this monument, it belongs to the last centuries BC and the first centuries of our era. Large archaeological excavations at Torpahkala was not made, but even for lifting material is clear that this settlement is the ruins of a typical Albanian-Sasanian city. By the Khazars, it is irrelevant.
Referring to the written sources, attracted VG Kotovich to locate Belenjer have to. Belidzhi. Analyzing hike Salman ibn Rabia in 652-653 years. However, the same Baladzori, Ibn al-Faqih and Jakub, evidence that that conclusion is supported, say the opposite. At his death, to the south (at Belidzhi) residents of Derbent would be no need to lock the city. Ibn al-Faqih also stated that «Salman made peace with the people of the Bab (Derbent)» and only then he met Hakan with his cavalry across the river Belenjer.
Not only the listed authors, but also a number of other Belenjer placed north of Derbent. Not surprisingly, none of the researchers to VG Kotovich did not admit the possibility of its location to the south of Derbent. The author of a new localization Belenjer also obviously not sure indisputability its findings and, therefore, believes that Belenjer, built on the site of Khosroev Anushirovanom Belidzhinskogo settlement Thorpe feces, served as the residence of the Khazar Hagan about 30 years, from the late 20s to 50-60 ‘s, VII century.
With the turn of the 50-60-ies of VII century. VG Kotovich Belidzhi move the capital from north to Samandar (in the district of Makhachkala). Immediately after writing that Belenjer (?) Was taken in 722/3, the Arab commander Jarrah troops who seized much booty here. But because the city had to take place and the river the same name, in which Jarrah ordered to drown captured Khazars, the author through various comparisons and linguistic analysis identifies Belenjer to p. Gyulgerychay. We reserve the validity of such comparisons on the court experts, we note only that in small river Gyulgerychay flowing 10 km south of Belidzhi, drowning people is impossible. Obviously, not solve the problem of localization Belenjer and push VG Kotovich the assumption of a gradual move that name to the north. Belidzhinsky Belenjer after his capture Jarrah, and with the rise of Derbent, according to VG Kotovich, has lost its former importance and disappeared from the pages of historical chronicles. After him this name he acts Urtsekskoe mound, then Verhnechiryurtovskoe and finally Belenjer moved to Itil, and even further north. The name Khazar capital roams so from one city to another, which has given rise, according to VG Kotovich, significant differences researchers. But his solution is not the best, because it is not a specialization of evidence of written sources on the basis of archaeological data and the recognition of all existing options of localization Belenjer. It is also interesting that he does not exclude the possibility of on-site Verhnechiryurtovskogo Belenjer settlement, located in the basin. Sulak. However, according to VG Kotovich, it should be called a city Bulhar or Balkh, and the name «Belenjer» — supposedly a misspelling of the name, formed as a result of the negligence of copyists. Meanwhile, according to most researchers, the name «Balkh» — misspelling Belenjer. VG Kotovich operates in his judgment this erroneous designation of the city in order to justify the idea of moving the name «Belenjer» from one city to another, in this case, the Balkh-Bulhar (Chiryurt).
Accumulated in recent years archaeological material allows us not only to disagree with the conclusions of VG Kotovich, but confirmed the assumption earlier localization Belenjer, justifying it with new material.
Distribution territory in Dagestan Khazar culture and character of the cultural monuments of sediments studied here show that the Terek-Sulak interfluve — the earliest area where there was a process of settling the Khazar tribes. It identified sites with the early, often reaching two meters and more cultural deposits with characteristic seroloschenoy Khazar ceramics. These monuments testify that the Terek-Sulak interfluve — an area where there was a process of origin of the Khazar state. «Khazar great nation, emerged from Berzilia (Barsils), the farthest country first Sarmatia» — says Theophane. Indeed, to the south of the territory of the observed attenuation of the Sarmatian cultural influence. This area, known from Byzantine writers called «Barsils (Berzilia)», and the Arabs as Barshaliya, and was the original center from which, according to Constantine Porphyrogenitus, «are all means of life and all the contentment of the Khazars.»
Obviously, it is here that should put them first political center. He could be in a strategic point and remain the capital of the khanate until the borders of the state in VII. not extended to the south, up to Derbent. Which of the investigated monuments Terek-Sulak interfluve can claim to be the remains of the first political center Hazarin known as «Belenjer»? The most likely of these is huge but its size Verhnechiryurtovskoe settlement, situated at the river. Sulak on the border of the foothills and lowlands. Town settlement — Caspian nodes in the system path, where to go, all roads leading to the south of the country in the Caucasus and the Near East. Mound is remarkable, not only considerable size and layers of Khazar culture, but also a powerful system of fortifications, and the extensive cemeteries with different designs burial structures testifying to the ethnic and social diversity of its inhabitants.
All catacombs beneath barrows burial ground, which stretches over 3 km from the ancient city walls, robbed in antiquity. It can be assumed that the wealth of these were recovered by the Arabs in the capture of the city in 723, which allowed their leader Jarrah pay each soldier a 300 dirhams gold.
Some sources Belenjer not without reason called and the country. The fact that the entire mountain range of the closed Chiryurtovskaya Valley revealed a series of settlements and settlements with an identical culture along the river. All of them tend to Verhnechiryurtovskomu ancient settlement that closes the valley with an open coastal side.
According to the «Hudud al-Alem» Belenjer been a city with strong walls, or the famous Khazar fortress. Indeed Verhnechiryurtovskoe massive fortified settlement, 10 m thick, defensive walls with regularly spaced towers, which gave the city an impregnable fortress views. The system of remote towers, erected in the ruling before the walls of the hills, makes it difficult to approach the main walls. These towers are also reflected in the sources: Tabari wrote that the tower Belenjer Arabs inflicted a lot of damage in the capture of the city. Repeated seizures Belenjer Arabs (Jarrah, Maslama, Marwan) certified sources, are confirmed by the remains of defensive walls, bearing the traces of the many completions and reconstructions.
It is noteworthy, finally, that Belenjer known sources and a river. When the Arabs in 723 conquered the city, their leader Jarrah due to a number of prisoners of the Khazars and their families ordered to drown them in the river. Belenjer. Therefore it is not accidental that Markwart noted that district. Belenjer must seek n ‘p. Sulak. That Sulak — this district. Belenjer pointed and MI Artamonov.
BNZakhoder analyzing information Belenjer, he drew attention to the fact that with him in power was often mentioned Khamlij. If we exclude that in the sources under Khamlij means the part Verhnechiryurtovskogo settlement, located on the opposite bank of the Sulak, they could be located near the Verhnechiryurtovskim Bavtugayskoe Sigitminskoe or settlement. They advocate a kind of satellites Verhnechiryurtovskogo settlement united with him not only a common culture and mutual defense. Therefore there is nothing surprising in the fact that the sources they appear side by side.
And finally, the very name of these efforts completed the construction of the famous Derbent defensive complexes.
On the strengthening of the Sassanids seaside passage and settlement of its soldiers it is reported in a number of sources. These facilities were intended not only to close the passage to the sea, but the nearby mountains and gorges, where could surround the city of Derbent.
Important nodes among this elaborate defense system., Built on the distant approaches to Derbent were Belenjer city and Samandar, based on the testimony of the written sources Khosroev Anushirwan. Therefore, it is clear that the names of these cities must have Iranian origin. The name «Belenjer (Balanjar)» formed of two words, «Boland» and «jor.» «Boland» in the modern Iranian language — «high», «long», «loud» and «Jor» — «gap», «crack», «cleft». Bolandzhar means such a way — high (long) the gap (crack). If we consider that Verhnechiryurtovskoe settlement situated on the bank of the river. They testify not contradictory sources, but rather about their objectivity. Ancient authors noted different, but really the inherent features of this city.
With the clarification of the location Belenjer — early center of Terek-Sulak original Khazars, increase opportunities for finding their second capital — Semender. The main sources for the solution of the problem are also the archaeological materials. They reveal not only the prerequisites for a new capital of the Khazars entitled «Samandar», but also the reasons for the contradictory information about the location of this city. As you know, the majority of researchers in Semender (J. Klaproth, J. Markwart, A. Garkavi, AK Kazembek, BA Dorn, BG Malachihanov, VF Minorsky, ST Yeremyan, LI Lavrov, VG Kotovich et al.), identify the city with modern Tarqui or with its surroundings.
Another part of the research (F. Vestberg, PK Kokovtsev, MI Artamonov et al.) Is subject to existence Semender on the Terek or identify it with the modern Kizlyar. Almost all the ancient authors, as revealed by a careful analysis of the written sources BNZakhoder indicate to Semender four and eight days of travel distance from Derbent. In the first case mentioned, and specific guidelines (sea and lake), near which was Samandar. This explains the growing number of supporters of its localization in four days’ journey to the north of Derbent from Makhachkala. However, in this embodiment, its location remains unclear why some sources said eight days’ journey from Derbent to Semender. The reasons for such contradictions sources disclosed in the analysis of archaeological materials. It was traced above, the culture of the original center of the Khazars became widespread in the VII-VIII centuries. around the foothill Dagestan Derbent inclusive. It is represented in the upper layers of almost all public monuments here. Written sources tell us about the negotiations troubled Khazar invasions Khosroev Anushirwan with Hagan held in Barshalii (Barsils). As a result of these negotiations, both the ruler shall enter into kinship with one another and establish a new frontier. As a result, the first foreign policy action young Khazar state is completed as a result of the agreement with Iran acquiring a vast area of foothill Dagestan.
With the development of this area should be linked to the emergence of the new capital of the Khazars, which was formed to the south of the ancient Belenjer. And the most likely point of his location is the area of Makhachkala, where he was not without foundation and locates the majority of researchers. This area stands out clear strategic advantage over the location of the early capital. There was, however, the new capital is located here and access to the sea, providing greater opportunities for trading and collecting sea duty, which is one of the revenue items Kagan. These suschestvennnye strategic advantages of the new district could not be taken into account when deciding the Khazars on the site once the capital of khanate. Currently accumulated considerable material confirming the existence of the opportunity here Khazar Semender.
More travelers passing in XVI-XVII centuries. A. In 1935, the remains of the walls looked AA Jesse. It also notes and plenty of mounds located between the walls. On the direction of the walls, completely destroyed to date, according to other researchers. The very existence of the wall in the area of
Archaeological research Tarkov given the opportunity to find out the location of residential areas of the settlement, the size and character of the representation on it of culture. It was established that the cultural deposits extend the settlement on the northern slopes of Mount Tarki-Tau overlooking the south of the city of Makhachkala. These deposits, covered by modern buildings Tarkov, stretched at 900-1000 m in length and at least 700 meters down the mountainside. In many sections of the construction sites, especially along the access roads to them, exposed the cultural strata of 2-4 m thickness, indicating existence of settlements is the turn of our era and up to the late Middle Ages. The huge mass of diverse ceramic material presented on the site, stands out clearly and seroloschenaya Khazar verhnechiryurtovskogo ceramic type. It found it in the Albanian-Sarmatian layers and layers that cover them. It is also interesting that on the eastern outskirts Tarkov during the construction work is exposed for 40 m upside remains of an ancient wall, built of stone and preserved to a height of 1 m. It stretches along the ridge of an elongated seaward slope of the fault. To the east of it, the other side of the fault, cultural deposits settlement can not be traced. Apparently, this is the remains of one of the defensive walls of the ancient city, which could be the creation of the Iranian rulers and Anushirwan in particular. City Name «Samandar» in Persian means’ extreme (or outer) door. » The walls were extremely Semender against major Derbent, with whom they had a passing resemblance in the planning and direction.
The cemetery with the remains of ancient tombs was discovered and destroyed by the builders on the western outskirts Tarkov. Its remains are located 100 meters north of the tarkinskoy high school. Studied here represented by collective burials and single graves in the stone vaults and drawers. The rich grave goods represented a variety of necklaces, bracelets, rings, buckles, earrings, etc. Is found here and gilded Arabic coin VIII century. The cemetery dates back to VII-IX centuries. and the time associated with the period of the Khazar Semender.
As a result of these preliminary archaeological research we are able to present a common topography Tarkinskogo settlement. Protections like Derbent on both sides of the defensive walls, it occupied the territory of the northern slopes of Mount Tarki-Tau. On the western edge of the settlement extended burial with different types of burial structures. In the lowlands, stretching for 3-4 km from the base of the slopes Tarki-Tau to the beach, cultural deposits are not traced. Maritime plain acts of its agricultural land, on which the famous vineyards Semender.
When localization Semender Tarko Belenjer and 50 km to the north of it on the spot settlement Verhnechiryurtovskogo describing the reason for slight variations in coordinates between them have Biruni they account for 73 ° / 44 ° 50 ‘and 72 ° 30’ / 44 ° 55 ‘; Hamdula Qazvini at 85 ° 20 ‘/ 46 ° 30’ and Abul Fida, 75 ° 20 ‘/ 46 ° 30’ and 78 ° 0 ‘/ 44 ° 50’.
Thus, Tarkinskoe settlement, and saddled his defensive walls strategically important approach in the area of Makhachkala, located in the four days of Derbent, near the coast and close to the lake. Ak-Gel relevant information written sources of Samandar. To explain these contradictions only sources of their carelessness or negligence of copyists, obviously, it can not be simply because this «error» is typical for almost all written records relating to it Semender.
The specificity and high accuracy of the Arabic geographical science known. Therefore there is no reason to doubt their objectivity and respect Semender. particular risk. Soon, however, the political situation has changed radically. Rather than sprawled Sasanian state Kaganate faced with new and formidable force in the face of the Arabs. The first wave of the Arab invasions of the Khazars in 653 reaching as far as the walls Belenjer. While this clash ended in favor of the Khazars, but they have experienced the potential strength and aggressiveness of a new enemy. If Khazars after beating Salman ibn Rabia has repeatedly invaded and held sway in the Caucasus, the situation changed dramatically after hiking Jarrah. By this time the Arabs not only strengthened in Derbent, but also take a number of successful campaigns in the depths of the Khazars, while repeatedly grasping and Belenjer Samandar,
In this regard, the question arises, could the residence of the Khazar Hagan remain at the forefront of the Khazar possessions, in the vicinity of Derbent? Hagan residence in the circumstances, had to move to a new, safe place. Artamonov, no Khazar city on the Volga was not there before that time.
A possible point of a new residence kaganate northern areas remain outside their own Khazars. It could build up on the Terek. Most likely the remains of a new Semender Shelkovskiy settlement area of 450×450 m, fortified powerful system of fortifications that were built of alternating layers of mud and adobe bricks. Pottery from the settlement, as well as construction methods of its defensive walls, including the size of the bricks themselves, are similar in other Khazar monuments studied in Terek-Sulak interfluve. Mound stands out among them more massive and better preserved remains of fortifications and a weak expression of cultural deposits. These features, obviously, should be inherent in a new residence and short-lived Khazar Hagan. Having failed to gain a foothold on the Terek, the Khazars were forced to transfer residence Hagan na Volga. Since then, the South-Eastern Europe and move beyond basic Khazar state.
These archaeological data, combined with the political situation that prevailed in the beginning of the Khazars Arab-Khazar wars, do not exclude, therefore, the possibility of the existence of the second capital of the Khazars entitled «Samandar». A careful analysis of the sources can be seen that these cities are clearly different from each other. For example, Al-Istahri states unequivocally that the Khazars there is a town called «Samandar». More specifically, this is reflected in the «Derbent-name», where it is said that some of the Eastern geographers distinguished from the city Samandar Semend. The name of the city was mechanically transferred to the newly arisen city in connection with the movement of the inhabitants from one point to another. Save for the new capital of the Khazars, the old name «Samandar» could be due to reasons of a different order. Give another name is already known throughout the capital would be to recognize that fact before the world and that further damage to its prestige.