Datacenters and Internet Exchanges: relationships evolution
The article talks about the evolution of modern data centers and Internet appearance exchange points Internet, their contribution to the development and expansion of the geography of the exchange, the impact of the Internet business on a hierarchical model of relations in a global network, the complementary nature of the interaction between data centers and Internet exchange points .
Internet as information medium of communication, entertainment and leisure has become a necessary part of our environment recently. The transport component of the Global Network has existed since the late 60s. XX century., Is gradually transforming itself from the technical means of exchanging information between computers in a universal means of access to information, entertainment and communication, on the way replacing the traditional means of communication such as the telegraph, mail and fixed telephone.
Today, when the Internet is already an essential attribute of our life, the network is not always comparable to the quality and reliability of traditional wired services (which does not interfere with the Russian companies, competing with global service providers from time to time make proposals to ban or that the foreign service ), but the time comes, the variety and quality of services on the Internet is growing, they are competing with each other and as a result of competition for the user, including on the part of providers, increasing service quality and expanding the range of their users.
The development of IT and the Internet has stimulated the growth of productivity and energy consumption of computing and telecommunications equipment. The growth of business and user requirements for the quality and reliability of electronic services and entertainment has led to the emergence of a new trend in real estate — digital: it is specialized buildings / premises in them serving for placement of corporate and public data centers (DC).
And if the first data center (in the 90s. The last century) was converted office space (started with the otgorodok-server) for placing telephone exchanges, servers / PCs and a variety of computer systems such as IBM AS / 400, Sun SPARC, and so on. n., is a professional data centers emerged in the early 2000s, at the peak of the investment boom of Internet services and resources, which soon turned into a separate new and rapidly growing area of business, which became noticeable to the general public on the background of globalization and the development of cloud technologies.
The reasons for the rapid development of digital real estate began to increase in energy intensity (from several to tens kW) and mass computing and communication equipment, as well as the need to ensure constant power supply and heat dissipation. For example, in used in the 90s. XX century. trading systems such as IBM AS / 400 system restart after an unscheduled stop required hours or more. Not all were then UPS and not all buyers were willing to wait for an hour or more the time when they will be discharged and released the documents the goods.
Initially the network requirements were minimal — tried to place the equipment in close proximity to users and communication was carried out on (corporate) LAN (initially 10/100 Mbit / s in the future 1 and 10 Gbit / s).
Parks servers and storage grew in volume, the equipment became more and more capacious and weight, and power consumption. As a result, began to end with the possibility of conventional office space for the growing needs of corporate data centers: the loads on the floor, electric power and other alterations have become so costly that close in value to the price of the construction of certain buildings for this purpose.
One of the first, this trend picked up by communication service providers, who quickly realized that the free space in their hardware, often having a free electronic power, uninterruptible power supply and cooling can take large corporate customers, to earn additional income on their rent and communication channels to them. At the same time their own needs were much more modest: a typical consumption rate of 2-3 kW per rack, and temperature to 30 C.
One of the first such step was taken "Sovintel"Who offered accommodation services to corporate customers.
But the needs of customers have grown their own resources statements are not designed for such an increase in demand quickly depleted.
Self-construction of DC, as a business, for the large operators turned out to be a very capital-intensive and non-core (more money, time and risks). The exception was "Synterra" with the project 40 × 40 in the second half of the 2000s. But, as in the implementation of this project turned out very important factors in the success of any DC are the location and (Telecommunications) neutrality.
Large Russian system integrators, such as IBS, "Croc". "I-Teco". "Inline" et al., noting their projects for the construction of the data center. There were also foreign projects such as DataSpace and IXcellerate, built and certified professionals get real certificates of Tier 3.
There were no Internet projects. Those who have successfully started and grew rapidly, gradually overgrown server park in thousands of servers. The original places in the data center was enough, but the pace and scale of business expansion and required allocation of resources to different sites to ensure their smooth operation.
The situation of the global Internet is also not stood still. Originating one specific segment of the military network ARPANET, then turned into a scientific network NSFNET, linking universities and research institutions United States, since the commercialization of it developed rapidly, expanding geography. The center of the Internet remained in the United States. There were a network of the highest rank (in English. Tier 1), each of which (AGIS, MCI, PSINet, Sprint, UUnet), being at the top of the hierarchy, access to the entire network (that is, to other networks of the highest rank and their clients ) due to exchange traffic at no cost to other such networks.
By 1995, both in Russia and in the major European countries were already several major networks (academic and private), competing in the national market, but buying access services to the rest of the Internet abroad. Channels pricey, traffic and maintenance costs soared. To reduce the cost of the exchange of national traffic abroad, who by that time a significant quantity (due to cost pa channels and infrastructure), the major scientific networks and service providers together to create local exchange points in the telecom capitals of their respective countries.
So in 1995 arose following the European point of traffic exchange:
• AMS-IX, Amsterdam;
• DE-CIX, Frankfurt;
• LINX, London;
• MSK-IX, Moscow;
• Netnod, Stockholm.
Initially, traffic volumes and the number of participants was small: up to a dozen networks and several Mbit / s.
The fundamental point in the creation of traffic exchange points was their neutrality, as all in some way compete with each other and wanted to be equal participants in the exchange.
Internet is growing rapidly, the volume of traffic and the number of networks grew. Gradually, in addition to e-mail and send information between computers in a network (called then "Hosts", From the English. host), the use of the network began to gradually move the various corporate information systems using data exchange in real time for tasks such as accounting and sales (in the early 2000s, it was plain text terminals, undemanding to speed).
The development of Internet services, content and network games as consumers of Internet access required from operators (ISPs, from the English. Internet service provider, or ISP) providing access to the Internet not only for them, but their members are often connected to other operators in order to ensure the comfort of use, which proved almost impossible to do whatever the size and ambitions provider, since the internet is an associated set of separate networks, each of which is autonomous, that is to decide how to transmit user data and other networks and how and wherein interacting with other networks participating. As a result, the data in the way of Internet service to the user and vice versa (so-called traffic) may be delayed and lost (including partially) on the Internet — this is exactly the task that will be partially solved with the help of technology and software controlled (define) networks (from the English. software defined network, or SDN).
Solution for online businesses transition to pack their own autonomous network -podseti global network, each of which has a unique autonomous system number (from the English. Autonomous system number, or ASN) and independently resolve issues of interaction with other networks and traffic. And unlike the networks of Internet service providers, businesses may be geographically dispersed, such as content delivery network (from the English. Content delivery network, or CDN) and cloud (as an example, the company’s Google).
Only arisen, Internet services and content at once took an open peering policy (with everyone and everywhere, where technically possible, without looking at the hierarchy). Thus, they solved the problem of delivery of their data and content to the end user (peering — a direct interaction networks with minimal delays and losses, and the absence of cash settlement allows the parties not to save on the amount of interaction).
The rapid growth of Internet business networks and open policy of cooperation with all the other networks have led to the fact that the second half of the 2000s, the Internet started structural changes affecting the basic principle of its construction is its hierarchical (network tier — Tier 1 second — Tier 2, etc.).
And here the important role played in terms of traffic exchange whose technical grounds are the site of interaction of a large number of different networks (network virtually airports, according to AMS-IX). In large number of exchange points networks — exchange participants reach many hundreds from Moscow MSK-IX networks with 374 Parties to 601 in Amsterdam AMS-IX.
Combining its members geographically distributed high-speed local area network traffic exchange, they provide multi-direct traffic exchange between all participating networks simultaneously. In addition, each participant will minimize the number of ports used its equipment, trunks and other resources that would have to be spent on the organization and maintenance of the individual connecting lines between the individual networks (to combine N = 100 networks need N * (Nl) / 2 = 4950 connection Line (SL), or nearly 50 lines per participant PA) that, subject to payment of large modern DC, taking a monthly fee (up to $ 200-300) each, giving substantial savings, and remote participants in such exchange points (those whose networks are in other areas), traffic exchange points also help to solve the questions of logistics, placement and connection equipment for the organization of exchange.
Over the past few years the number of points of internet traffic exchange increased sharply, reflecting the general trend in the world for geographical expansion of the availability of the network and increase speed access to users. Our country, although it does not show any outstanding results in relative terms, taking only 41 th place in Europe with 48% of the population that uses the Internet with an average access rate of 6 Mbit / s, while only 12% of users have access to the speeds above 10 Mb / s, which is based on a vast territory and the length of the country from west to east, the diversity of climatic conditions and low population density by itself is sufficient progress with the large size of the Internet audience in Europe.
In addition to the above, traffic exchange point, as an essential element of the infrastructure of the Internet, has become a place of concentration of network resources such as a variety of network root DNS-server, various service platforms (GRX, eNum, VoIP exchange), private and public cloud service providers that is not in the least affect the popularity of one or another dealing center.
As a user of DC, traffic exchange point is a small tenant, occupying up to a few racks and having a large number of connecting lines radiating to both parties exchange located in the DC, and external links to connect to other nodes and connect remotely to the participants of exchange .
Hosts traffic exchange points are based on the equipment L2 (intelligent switch) / Lk (router VPLS) with a large capacity (from several to tens of terabits of traffic per second) and advanced features control traffic profile for each port connections to ensure reliable and trouble-free operation of all participants exchange and security of their networks.
Internet data center
Modern successful Internet data center is almost unthinkable without the traffic exchange point as an essential element of the infrastructure of the Internet. Examples abound: the domestic and MMTS-9 to MSK-IX, and Interxion Frankfurt to DE-CIX, and Equinix platform with its own distributed virtual switching. Services Data centers and Internet exchange points are complementary and are structured according to the following parameters:
• Infrastructure: high-quality and reliable infrastructure BFP allows its users to place it in their business-critical service, and computing power, data storage and network nodes, providing integration with other nodes and interactions with business partners and operators, providing the highest level of reliability and quality its services, and services;
• connectivity: the availability of a wide variety of operators, the variety of services and competitive prices are not in the least affect the choice of a data center when deciding on placement. In the case of operators of the presence of traffic exchange points stimulates the latter to place in DC is not a simple client node and the network, which has a reserve and on the network, and the volume of traffic, which has a positive effect on the quality of services, and the possibility and timing of expansion ;
• Neutrality: the modern variety of potential participants in terms of traffic exchange and users of data centers (operators, Internet business, banking and finance, corporate) is fundamentally important to each of them are uniform high standards of service, lead to a serious commitment to the reliability and quality of service (in English. service level agreement, or SLA), and non-discriminatory access to services and infrastructure, built on clear and transparent principles;
• attraction. Like DC, the attractiveness of the traffic exchange points more than the greater its members, wider and more varied range and scale of their activities.
Thus, data centers and traffic exchange points are an example of a complementary and mutually beneficial cooperation of two such different elements of modern digital and network infrastructure.