Debate about the internal laws of language development in the Academic Council of the Institute of Linguistics of the USSR Academy

Debate about the internal laws of language development in the Academic Council of the Institute of Linguistics of the USSR Academy

From 4 to 7 February 1952 in the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was a discussion on issues related to the study of the internal laws of language development. The debate aroused great interest among Soviet linguists: at meetings attended by up to 1,000 people — scientists, teachers, post-graduate students. The urgency and critical importance tabled problems are caused by the fundamental indication of Stalin that the study of the internal laws of language development is the main task of linguistics.

Organized by the Institute of Linguistics of the discussion, as noted by the deputy opened the meeting. Director of the Institute V. Borkowski was intended to clarify the content of the concept — the internal laws of language development, specification of ways of scientific research in this field, the disclosure of all the features which are defined fundamental information Stalin.

Addressing the internal laws of language development is impossible without the determination of the context of «law», «domestic law» and «development» in the general system of Marxist-Leninist philosophy and the concept of «internal law of the development of language» in the Marxist linguistics. This issue has been exhaustively covered in the introductory report, Acad. Vinogradov.

BA Serebrennikov in the report, «to clarify the nature of the internal laws of language development,» noted that the function of communication, language and inherent component of its specificity, should be considered as one of the main causes of the observed and the main language of the general laws, or rather, a regular trend, receiving specification, specific direction and national identity in the internal laws of the development of a separate language-specific.

These natural tendencies common concerns above all the tendency to typing, the creation of seasoned types and ways to change the words, without which it is impossible to communicate through language. In different areas of language inherent in any language, this trend is a specific expression. In phonetics it finds expression in the regular changes of sounds, the so-called phonetic laws; in morphology — in the creation of regular types of declension and conjugation, education naturally recurring formatives; in syntax — in the presence of sustained and recurring structures; in the vocabulary — in the regular and regular derivation formulas, as well as in specific gravity discharge of words to one or another part of speech.

The speaker described the material in the different languages ​​are classing them to the natural tendencies of language phenomena such as the desire for uniqueness grammatical form and content; the desire to preserve the differentiating moment in the system, which is indispensable to the existence of language as a means of communication; the tendency to reduce the number of parallel ways of expressing grammatical meanings; trend towards improved technology in the field of phonetics, pronunciation; the trend towards the establishment of the dominant prevailing methods of education types, the system pushes a particular language into the background of private and less common types.

BA Serebrennikov also spoke on the issue of different types of language, distinguishing between changes in which can not seek proper progress of language (for example, the transition of the nasal vowels in nenosovye in Slavic languages), the phenomenon of «relative progress» and finally an absolute phenomenon Progress language, which include the development of vocabulary, ruggedness means of expression of the relationship between words and so on. d. The speaker emphasized the relationship of these recent phenomena of social history.

The report VN Yartseva «internal laws of language development and language system» focused on the issue of domestic laws of language development in various aspects of the life of language and historical transformation of the system itself.

The systemic nature of language, noted the speaker, is stored in all the periods of its development as it is determined by the specifics of the language, by the appointment of the language — to be a means of communication between people. Systematic linguistic phenomena has its own specifics in various aspects of language — vocabulary, grammar, phonetics, which is due, in particular, the uneven pace of development of different aspects of language. The internal laws of language development are concentrated primarily in the «basis of language» in the grammatical structure and basic lexical fund which, ensuring conservation of the language of their «quality» of their national identity, are together in a relationship of close interdependence: in addition to the fact that grammar covering the entire vocabulary, and thus covers the word basic word stock, it is associated with them, and a private relationship, as the domestic laws of the grammatical structure of the language is reflected in the process of deploying basic lexical fund, in the laws of word of this language.

The internal laws of language, says in conclusion, the speaker, those basic laws that determine the direction of change of the language, they themselves are closely related to the specific features of this system. One can therefore say that the very type of language to a certain extent indicates the shape of its future development.

Report Corresponding Member. USSR Academy of Sciences Zhirmunsky was devoted to clarifying the question of the internal laws of language to the German language.

Under the domestic laws of language development, says the rapporteur, we understand the general laws of trends, sustainable and at the same time, historically changing, which characterize the qualitative features of the language, determine the path of development and improvement, and are manifested in the private laws of its change.

For a group of related languages, these general trends laid down in the language-based as the domestic laws of its development. These laws continue to apply in the individual languages ​​of this group «for ages»: this shows the stability of the tongue. But at the same time they undergo a qualitative change over time: this is carried out in the development of language, its deployment and improving, the gradual accumulation of elements of the new qualities that distinguish this language from the language -osnovy and other related languages ​​of the same group.

Self-critical appreciating his old job «development build of the German language» as incorrect and based on a flawed theory of the «morphology of stages», which considers historical phenomena of German grammar in terms of the «progressive» development of flexion to the analysis, VM Zhirmunsky indicates basic the internal laws of the development of the German language in the field of phonetics, grammar and vocabulary of the system.

VA Zvegintsev made a presentation on «Development and function of language.» The speaker of the language laws distinguish different orders. Firstly, the laws that are in relation to other social phenomena are internal to the language, but within the language they are universal. Since they are required to present the development of each language, although in particular its application to receive diverse expression depending on cash as a language, they can be called internal general laws of language development.

Secondly, the presence of a natural process arising from the structural features of the quality of each language separately and are stable to the extent that the quality of the language is stable. Processes of this order and it is possible to assign the name of the private domestic laws of language development.

General laws are not opposed to internal, they merge with each other.

Having further considered the main features of the internal laws of the development of language, VA Zvegintsev goes to the delimitation of the concepts of law and the rules of functioning of the language. The problem of domestic laws we are talking about the historical movements of the tongue, on the factors that lead to the establishment of rules for the functioning of language. Thus, grammar rules existing at any given stage of development of the language — is the result of the internal laws of development of the language, but not the laws themselves.

Report M. Gukhman was devoted to «internal laws of language development, and close relatives of languages» Comparative study of the internal laws of development of the languages ​​of one group should be one of the important sections of comparative linguistics.

In the development of related languages, in the nature of the deployment and improve the elements of the structure of these languages ​​can be found commonality of their domestic laws due to the end of the base structure of the language. This community is manifested in the media and structural types, characteristic for the development of formative systems of each of the related languages, to develop their grammatical Troy, finally, in the phonetic laws. In this community of closely related languages ​​of the internal laws of the development appears much more clearly and definitely than in the comparison of languages, related more distant kinship.

However, the very fact of linguistic isolation, directly connected with the history of tribes and ethnic groups who speak related languages ​​leads to linguistic differentiation, the gradual differentiation of domestic laws of these languages. Despite the age-old structure in the proximity of its subsequent history, one related language develops very peculiar. Each of the related languages ​​has therefore its own unique system.

The generality and the proximity of domestic laws manifested in the development of related languages ​​in the fate of the old categories and the emergence and development of new language categories. However, this community has always manifested in a distinctive characteristic of each of the related languages ​​form. A comparative study of related languages ​​should disclose the complex and contradictory picture of the ratio of the general trends in the development of related languages ​​and specific features unique to that language, the domestic laws of a group of related languages ​​and distinctive form of a separate language.

In the concluding part of its report, MM Gukhman developed a position that the study of linguistic affinity, comparative-historical study of domestic laws related languages ​​helps to reveal a complex picture of the ratio of the internal laws of the development of language and history of the people — the creator of the language and media.

Issues raised in the report have been widely and comprehensively discussed in numerous speeches, participants in the discussion.

VA Avrorin and E. Galkin and — Fedoruk focused on the question of the relationship between language regularities inherent in language, together with other social phenomena, and the domestic laws of a particular language as a social phenomenon.

EM Galkina-Fedoruk briefly addressed the issue of causality in the development of linguistic facts, noting that this issue has not been sufficiently addressed in the reports.

Many of the speakers (VA Avrorin, EM Galkina-Fedoruk, YD Deschere, PS Kuznetsov, OP Sunik, AY Rozhansky, W. Levin, V. P. Sukhotin) addressed the issue of the relationship between domestic laws of general language development and private domestic laws of individual languages, came to the unanimous opinion of the illegality of the emerging trend of the discussion was on the sharp opposition of these categories, while noting their originality and difference. Especially widely considered the discussion on the issue of private domestic laws of development of specific languages, as they provide a national identity, national identity and specificity of language.

In this regard, VA Avrorin in his speech stressed that the internal laws of each individual language determine an independent path of development, providing a unique and distinctive look of the national language of each individual, and in this sense the specific laws of the development of all languages ​​to each other particular language are outsiders.

Therefore, a very valuable outcome of the discussion should be considered the fact that in many speeches have attempted not only to solve theoretical questions, but also to plan ways of studying the internal laws of different languages. Thus, the regularities of the process of internal development of the grammatical system of the Russian language

NS Pospelov stands out as the most important processes of labor differentiation of types of declension of nouns, grammatizatsiyu category of abstracting categories species, time and mood of the verb, the processes of morphological simplification of the composition of the word (ie. E. The creation of new neproizvodiyh bases), milk quality participles, the development of various means of expression of modality, the development of connecting structures, moving the various parts of speech into the category of state, and others.

VG Admony stopped on the inner laws of development of the German language in the syntax. The main domestic laws of syntactic structure of the German language, says VG Admony, is to weaken the direct link between words and sentences, ie. E. Strengthening the role of syntactic groups as intermediaries between words and sentences, and more closely and strict association proposals to strengthen the structural trends in its design.

KA Levkovskaya considered some patterns that are typical for the modern German word formation, which reflect the internal laws of the development of the German language. Particular attention was paid to the interrelation of vocabulary and grammar, which manifests itself in these regularities

The specific language material contained in speeches VIAbaev, BV Gornung, YD Desherieva, PS Kuznetsov, OP Sunik, VA Avrorin, TP Lomteva AND . Oshanin and others. The latter, in particular, noted correctly, homophony interpretation of Chinese language in the report of VA Zvegintseva.

Against the assertion that the national identity of the individual is determined by the peculiarities of the language of its internal laws of development, spoke OP Sunik. The laws of all the languages, said OP Sunik, united, but materializes, the implementation of these laws are different in different languages, which is associated with the history of the people — the creator and the native speaker and that defines national identity language. In support of their positions OP Sunik quoted Karl Marx that «the most developed languages ​​have laws and definitions common to the least developed.» However, as we know, then, Marx points out that, despite this, «it is opposed to this, and the general public, and is what makes them (language) development.»

Many speakers considered originality in the manifestation of the inner laws of language development in its various aspects — vocabulary, grammatical structure, sound system. The greatest controversy was the issue of the internal laws of language development in the field of phonetics. Presentations Avrorin VA, VG Admony, AA Reformatsky, V. Sidorov, AP Kuznetsov, VD Levin disagreed with the report’s VA Zvegintseva and B . N. Yartseva restriction of domestic laws in the field of sound changes to those processes, which are directly reflected in other areas of language and grammatical meaning is obtained.

In his speech, V. Sidorov emphasized the position that the internal law of development should be understood broadly as any linguistic phenomenon, having the character of permanence and caused by factors which lie in the nature of language itself; therefore classification in domestic law, only those changes which relate to the lexical and grammatical structure, inappropriate and does not follow from the content of the work of Joseph Stalin. This restriction of V. Sidorov see some reassessment of semantics. Considering the language as a whole, we can not infer beyond the domestic laws of language are regular phonetic processes that contribute to the change in the phonetic system of the language, even if they do not lead to changes in the grammatical and lexical structure (eg, switching rb in e in Russian) . After all, the phonetic system of the language is of national identity and determines the specific language.

The development of all aspects of language development is subject to domestic laws, although in specific forms, notes PS Kuznetsov. It is important to bear in mind that each language has a more general and more specific regularities; the latter also play a role in the overall development of language. From this perspective, there is no reason to exclude the sound laws of the domestic laws of language development.

AA Reformed also believes that the exclusion of the domestic laws of many phenomena of phonetics inappropriate. You can not, for example, the output of vowel harmony in Turkic languages ​​outside the domestic laws of language development, as it serves the additional means, which allows for loose connections, agglutinated part combined into one unit, to subordinate one whole — word.

Attempts to solve the problem of the internal laws of language development, based not on the overall system of language, and its separate parts, eliminating from consideration of its other sections, such as phonetics and vocabulary, have been criticized in the speech VP Sukhotina.

Many speakers addressed the question of the relationship between the structure of language, its rules of operation of the system and the internal laws of its development.

On the necessity of separating the laws of language development, where there is a causal relationship, the rules and norms of the use of language as a system where there is no such dependence, said V. Sidorov, TP Lomtev, VA Avrorin and others. At the same It has been noted, and the interdependence of these categories. AA Reformed emphasizes that any approach to language — with descriptive or historical — the language is always the system. From this point of view, should be subject to criticism and revision arguments Saussure on synchrony and diachrony. .

In this regard, of particular importance the fact of his tongue determinableness cash structure system. This opredeljaemost, said in his speech TP Lomtev, can take many forms. New accumulation may contribute to the preservation, strengthening and polishing accumulated previously means of language that so dominate the these new savings (although there may be some changes in the functions and values ​​of the dominant models), but may also lead to the restriction, the withering away of previously accumulated means language elements to form a new quality, a new structure. In this case, the previously accumulated in the language is only step, the material for the development of new quality elements. These provisions ETC. Lomtev supporting materials Slavic languages, mainly Russian and Belarusian. These same issues on a material different languages ​​concerned IK Kusikyan, OP Sunik, YD Deschere and others.

OP Sunik and YD Deschere of the indubitable fact of interdependence and inter-definability of laws and rules of functioning conclude illegality of delimitation of these concepts. Since the systemic nature — this is a general property of language, and so far the internal laws of language development acquire real meaning only within a certain specific language system, said YD Deschere. Laws of the system language is the internal laws of its development.

Most speakers, however, pointed out that the study of the internal laws of language development is impossible without a fairly rigorous distinguishing them from phenomena although close, but still a different order, in particular, without discrimination laws of both the laws of historical, the laws of dynamics and the rules of language use in a certain point in its development.

On the characteristic of the language spoken MN Peterson. Resolving this issue on a material particular language should, in his view, be preceded by a solution of the problem of domestic laws of language development. System language — in different stages of generalization: vocabulary summarizes the items, features, events; morphology summarizes level objects, features, events (forms of word) and integrates the words of the speech (form inflection); Syntax summarizes the relationships between objects, features or phenomena. The whole process of generalization is carried out in the proposal. In this regard, MN Peterson suggested the doctrine of illegality of the sentence, and it is argued repeatedly before they are put forward the position of the reference to an indication of Stalin that the syntax — the right connections of words in a sentence.

In his speech V. Abaeva focused on not sufficiently addressed the issue of the relation between vutrennimi laws of language development and external history of the language — the language of the interaction with other languages ​​(which can be in the nature of the substrate or external influences), as well as the interaction between the dialects and literary language. VIAbaev warns against attributing to the internal laws of language phenomena, which are determined by external history, and criticism from this point of view one of the report on the formation of language families, read at the end of 1951, the debate on issues of ethnogenesis.

VI Abaev posted BV T O R n y n r, one of the authors of the report on the development of language families in the debate on ethnogenesis. BV Gornung, noting that historical data must accompany every linguistic research, stressed, however, the danger of an uncritical attitude to the theory of the substrate, as a means of explaining the linguistic phenomena. For example, the careless use of this concept has led some researchers to the erroneous removal of the substrate neindoevropeyskogo so-called first-German consonant shift.

Some observations on the delimitation of internal and external development of language contained in the speeches of NS Pospelov, VA Avrorin,

AY Rozhansky, VA Lifshitz, OP Sunik. The latter, in particular, in contrast to all other speakers on this subject, argued that laws reflect the connection between language and other social phenomena, or other languages, and the internal laws of the development of the language in general should not distinguish between, as in the language, they do not exist in isolation, and in unity. This distinction, says OP Sunik, may be made in methodical order.

The speakers at the discussion also touched upon a number of other problems related to the internal laws of language development problems.

MN Peterson suggested that the use of the reports of the word «trend» instead of «internal law» means the replacement of a term that is not only unable to explain anything in the tabled issue, but also creates if complacency and leads from the study factual material.

Objecting MN Peterson IK Kusikyan noted that in order to establish the laws and the laws need to discern precisely the trends that will help determine the characteristics of the target language. Not everyone found trends in the development of a language we can confidently be described as a law, but the statement of these trends will lead the development of the law and the development of language. These provisions IK Kusikyan Artworks Armenian language.

According to AI spoke of new domestic laws of families of related languages, in particular, the parallel development of common or similar phenomena in related languages ​​after the disintegration of the language of the base.

Underlining the similarity of the internal laws of the development of related languages,

AI Popov left in the shadow of the other side of the issue — national identity in the laws of development of individual members of the family of languages, laws are independent of those languages. However, it should be noted that the study of the internal laws of the development of related languages ​​was paid to PA debates too little attention.

PG Pustovoyt in his speech dwelt on the controversial, in his view, the provisions and wording of the report of BA Serebrennikov. Among them he includes wording that the development of thought is one of the incentives for the development of language. In this position PG Pustovoyt sees separation from the language of thought «natural matter». Considering that, in addition to progress in the language, there is a regression that is experiencing the defeated and gradually dying languages, PG Pustovoyt field-, miziruet with VA Avrorin, deny the possibility of such a process, and thus, according to the speaker, who came at the conclusion of the inevitability of the sudden death of the language, ie. e. the explosion.

A. A. Reformed raised an important and little developed the question of speech styles or genres that range and vary in different periods of life of the people, being directly linked to specific forms of human communication.

B. P. Sukhotin noted in his speech and made some undeniable position put forward and developed in the reports and speeches at the discussion: Understanding linguistic law given in the report of Academician. Vinogradov, clarification of the ratio of total and private domestic laws of language development, especially the development of related languages, and others. Praising the work of the Institute,

VP Sukhotin also noted some shortcomings in the organization of the debate, in particular, the non-uniformity of the discussion presented in the language; For example, specialists in Turkic studies did not take part in discussion of the issues raised.

It should be noted that the vast majority of the panelists noted, along with some shortcomings in the organization and conduct of the debate, its undoubted positive role, assessing it as an important step in the development of one of the most important problems of Soviet linguistics, emphasized an atmosphere of freedom of opinion and criticism that prevailed in the debate. The exception was in essence a performance t. Stepanova, and so on. Dmitrieva, Keld, who tried summarily strike out, to discredit all the work done at the discussion work to announce its «parade», «holiday», and so on. E., On the grounds that he had read on the discussion reports were written in advance and subjected to discussion in the Group General Linguistics Institute. In his speech, Dmitrieva-Keld clearly sounded desire to whitewash and reabilitirovat- «new doctrine» Marr put forward some «healthy elements sociology Marr.»

Speeches Stepanova and Dmitriev-Keld were appreciated by many speakers, so that attempts to cross out the positive side! this work received a fitting rebuff.

After the final words of speakers addressed Acad. VV Vinogradov, who summed up the debate. The four-day discussion on the internal laws of language development, said the academician. Vinogradov, held in an atmosphere-free struggle of opinion and search for truth has led us to some general conclusions, helped establish the unity of some basic points of view on this issue and to identify ways to further explore this issue.

In conclusion Academician. Vinogradov said that despite the fact that not the whole range of issues was raised and received a deep and comprehensive solution to the debate, it is a step forward in the introduction of Marxism into linguistics, to the achievement of the goal set before the Soviet linguists Stalin. .

January 20-22, 1952 in Leningrad, a session of the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the problem of «internal laws of language development.» The session was also attended by linguists from Leningrad University, the Pedagogical Institute. Herzen Pedagogical Institute. Pokrovsky and other scientific institutions in the city.

The session was opened by the Director of the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Acad. Vinogradov. Then the reports were read: BA Serebrennikov «Trends due role of language as a means of communication, and the internal laws of its development,» VN Yartseva «internal laws of language development and language system,» Corr. USSR Academy of Sciences Zhirmunsky «On the question of the internal laws of language development.» After the presentations, the debate unfolded.

R. Budagov said the solution to the problem of domestic laws of language development depends on the resolution of the question of the relationship between the general and its internal laws. Soviet linguists are interested in clarifying relations internal laws of language development with the general laws of development of the language as a social phenomenon. After you have studied the laws of each language, will open the possibility of transition to a deeper study of related languages. The internal laws of language are not universal because if the law becomes universal, it is already out of a number of laws, internal development.

R. Budagov criticized the idealistic concept of Saussure on the relationship of language and society. De Saussure believed that there is no need to know the context in which develops «a particular language. Our understanding of the general laws of development of the language of the internal opposition to this idealistic concept. He also criticized Marr, who, identifying external conditions for the development of language with its domestic laws, denied any autonomy of language development. The concept of «internal» in the language of Marr admitted idealistic concept, so in the «new doctrine» of the language center of gravity of research moved to the external conditions for the development of the language in the crossing and associated phenomena.

Acad. I. Meshchaninov expressed confidence in the specificity of the domestic laws of each language, disproving the «theory» of language by stages. Languages ​​can be typologically similar, but the similarity is purely coincidental often, so comparative typological method of the «new doctrine» is untenable. Typological comparisons in order to establish the historical past especially unwritten languages ​​to nothing lead. I. Meshchaninov criticized past their erroneous position of a linguistic stage and marrovskuyu typological classification of languages.

OP Sunik stated in the linguistic literature recently, overly broad and indefinite use of the term «internal law of language development» and expressed the opinion that domestic laws can not declare private language phenomenon. He acknowledged the wrong explanation of the qualitative differences between different languages ​​and qualitative fundamental differences of their domestic laws. According to him, the laws of development of languages ​​in the ground and the main one, but the material form of manifestation, their effects are historical and concretely peculiar.

VA Avrorin proposed provision on the need to separate the internal laws of the development of language and the laws of its functioning as a means of communication, expression and transmission of ideas, that is the need of separating the laws of development of the results and products development. But this delimitation does not have to mean the separation and isolation. Detach the laws of development of the language of the laws of its functioning, as did de Saussure, it is to fall into idealism.

The internal laws, he said, can be attributed all the characteristics for each language laws of the development, which on the one hand, reflects the development process of the society and thinking of speaking the language of people and on the other — are caused by the internal need to improve and streamline the most language system. Many authors put forward as a reason for inclusion in the internal laws of the criterion of «progressive» development is vague and shaky, as the changes in the language, if you take them together in a certain system and ultimately can not be progressive.

VA Avrorin spoke against the recognition of OP Sunik internal laws of language development for a particular manifestations of the same general laws common to all languages ​​of the world.

VG A d m o n and focused on the issue of «progress» in the language and concluded that the improvement of the language is extremely contradictory phenomenon: winning in one language at the same time can play in another.

EI Karataeva pointed to the illegality of the internal opposition and the general laws of language development that took place in the reports and speeches of some linguists.

S. Maslov put forward the position that the domestic laws of a particular language or group of related languages ​​are distributed not only on the basis of language — its grammatical system and basic word stock, but cover all the elements of the language system, as grammatical stroyi fond- basic word is the essence, but not all of the specifics of the language. He recognizes phonetic laws and domestic laws. Turning to the phonetic changes in the Slavic languages, Yuri Maslov named as one of the characteristics of domestic laws of Slavic Languages ​​Act open syllables.

FP Filin criticized the «theory» of crossing Marr, pointing out that this «theory» any significant change in language was explained as the result of external factors beyond the limits of language. Thus, in March-muir «theory» has lost the object of his research, and thus deprived of quality inherent in every field of science, has ceased to be a science. Stalin, exposing the essence of anti-scientific «theory» crossing, turned toward the Soviet linguistics study the internal laws of language development.

EA Yakubinsky agreed with the view that the internal laws of language development can be revealed only in the history of the language, because you can not understand the language phenomena, without revealing the whole historical process of language development. That is why a purely descriptive works on grammar and other branches of linguistics are only material for further research.

ETC. Ivanov proposed to classify the internal laws of the language in the laws of functioning and development of laws and distribute them to the duration of the degree in the history of the language. As an example of «long» the law of the internal development of TP Ivanov called the law of open syllables in Slavic languages; as an example of «non-durable» law — the transition of the s in the Russian language.

Yuri Sorokin opposed opposing the internal laws of the language common to the laws. According to him, the general laws of development of the language is only the highest level of knowledge of the laws of language development, but they are there but themselves; in each language, in each group of related languages ​​they find their particular and specific expression. It is inappropriate to talk about the two rows of laws, some of which apply to all languages, and other languages-on the individual or group of related languages.

The general laws of development of the language act in reality only in private law. Private laws of individual languages ​​is only one of the manifestations of the general laws. The common law is being built in the end, all the diversity of individual languages, but these general laws exist and are found only in specific development of specific languages. The general laws of language are determined by the general laws of development of society, the laws of history of the people. And over the general laws of social development, includes special laws and the development of language as a social phenomenon, are retaining their strength the most general laws of development — the laws of materialist dialectics.

Yuri Sorokin argued with VA Avrorin, recognizing his fuzzy terminological distinction between internal and external development of the language laws. The tongue has no external laws of development. Development in general can only be internal.

In the debate were also made by AV Desnitskaya V. I.Tsintsius, AG Rudnev and others.

The session ended with concluding remarks by Academician. Vinogradov, who pointed to the effectiveness of the discussions that took place in an atmosphere of free and honest search for truth on the internal laws of language development, and has led to some positive results. In conclusion, he said that the creative discussion helped to move a little forward on the issue of internal laws of language development and reach in its understanding of a unity that is now to be proved in a study of the laws of individual languages.

RESOLUTION OF THE SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR

Dated February 7, 1952

Results of the I. In accordance with the decision of the Presidium of the USSR, the six public meetings of the Council of February 4-7, the discussion about the internal laws of language development in the light of the works of Stalin on linguistics Scientific Council, after hearing a detailed foreword Acad. Vinogradov, reports BA Serebrennikov, TV. N. Yartsev Zhirmunsky, VA Zvegintseva and MM Gukhman and 27 appearances on the reports states:

1Diskussiya of the internal laws of language development took place in an atmosphere free of criticism, the free exchange of opinions, and all listened to the report and individual detailed performance had been discussed extensively.

2. The development of Soviet linguists problems of internal laws of language development can be seen a paradigm shift — from the debate at the formulation of the question that characterized, for example, the discussions held in the spring of 1951, Soviet linguists have moved to specific research on how the theoretical coverage of the various special parties this problem, and study the internal laws of the development of individual languages ​​and language groups, although in the latter area, the development of a particular material is moving ahead is still very uneven.

II. In the debate in reports and speeches were delivered the following key issues:

1) the concept of «linguistic law» and «the internal law of the development of languages» in the general system of Marxist linguistics;

2) the ratio of public and private domestic laws of development of languages ​​in connection with the original language and the ways of their development;

3) characteristics of the different aspects of language, their interrelationship and interdependence;

4) the ratio of the internal laws of the development of language and the rules of functioning of the language system;

5) To study the internal laws of the language in close connection with the history of the people;

6) The question of the manifestation of the inner laws of language development from a family of related languages;

7) the ratio of development trends and individual changes in the language of domestic law of a particular language.

III. Based on the brilliant work of JV Stalin, «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» as a result of free discussion of these issues with broad involvement of materials of different languages, it has been possible to formulate some conclusions and general provisions:

1. Based on the understanding of the law and the laws in the Marxist-Leninist philosophy, the meeting unanimously come to an understanding of the internal laws of language development as the dynamic changes in the laws of the relationship structure of the language in its various links. Therefore, it should not be confined to stating the specific facts in the history of the language without understanding the CPLP all structural aspects of language.

2. The internal laws of yazvyka cover all elements of the structure of language: phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, but not every single change or even a more general trend of development turns into a law of development.

3. The internal laws of language development, as dynamic, to be distinguished from the rules of functioning of the language system, but the rules of the functioning of language can not be separated from the inner laws of development, the result of which they are, as well as the very direction is determined by the internal laws of the cash system of the language .

4. The internal laws of language provide the national identity of individual languages ​​and determine their quality; general domestic laws of language development and define the general direction of the changes in the structure ting language, manifesting itself in the form of matter and kayaodogo specific language and merging with the internal laws of its development: there is no reason why break the general and specific internal laws of language development.

5. The study of languages ​​should be carried out in close connection with the history of the people — the media and the creator of the language. It is equally unacceptable as a vulgar sociology Marr and his followers, and ahistorical rejection of the establishment of these historical patterns, characteristic of modern bourgeois linguistics. It should be remembered that the transition from tribal to tribal languages, the languages ​​of peoples to national languages ​​is associated with the development of various genres and styles, reflecting the development of direct forms of communication in the transformation of society. However, these issues do not receive sufficient coverage in the discussion and require further in-depth development.

6. The study of domestic laws in the development of related languages ​​should be an integral part of comparative linguistics. In this area, it requires in-depth research on a material of different language families.

7. The debate has determined that a number of linguists, trying to clarify the concept of «internal laws of language development» based on the works of Stalin’s mistakes were made (attempts quantitative and qualitative, and measuring the characteristics of the internal laws of language development, schematic selection of different types of «jumps «in the development of nature and society, and the transfer of some of these types to the development of language).

8. During the discussion, it became clear that so far there are cases of a complete misunderstanding of the specifics of the internal laws of language development, attempts to substitute the analysis of these laws, general discussions about language change depending on the development of the society, with the dogmatic use of statements taken out of context Stalin ( Speech by D. Dmitriev, Keld, I. Gozalishvili).

IV. The Scientific Council notes that the positive side of this debate is the careful preparation of the reports, they repeatedly expressed in the preliminary discussion. At the same time, the Scientific Council believes that the preparation of discussions with the organizational side was not completely satisfactory (absence of printed abstracts), and notes that the group of general linguistics failed to engage in the preparation of the discussion all sectors of the Institute, which explains some unevenness of specific language material, which developed the problem of domestic laws of language development.

V. The Scientific Council considers that the group of General Linguistics of the Institute to further develop the issues should continue to discuss the issues raised at the meeting of the Scientific Council, wider, involving in this work all the staff of the Institute and encouraging this research applied to problems in specific languages ​​in the first place — the Russian language and other languages ​​of the Soviet peoples.

VI. The Scientific Council considers it necessary to publish the reports and speeches at the present meeting, as a separate issue, «reports and communications Institute of Linguistics, USSR Academy of Sciences.»

DICTIONARY language of Pushkin

In his work «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» And Stalin pointed to the closeness of the modern language to the language of Pushkin: «From the time Pushkin’s death took over a hundred years. During this time, were eliminated in Russia, the feudal system, the capitalist system, and there was a third, a socialist system … However, if you take, for example, the Russian language, it is during this long period of time has not undergone any break-up, and modern Russian language its structure is not much different from the language of Pushkin.

What has changed during this time in the Russian language? Seriously added during this period the vocabulary of the Russian language; It dropped out of the vocabulary of a large number of obsolete words; It changed the meaning of a significant number of words; improved grammar of the language. As for the structure of Pushkin’s language with its grammatical system and basic word stock, it ona preserved in all essentials, as the basis for the modern Russian language. «

In the light of the Stalinist doctrine of particular importance acquires the detailed description and study of vocabulary of the great writer — the founder of the Russian literary language of modern times.

In vstupitelpoy article to the dictionary of the language of Pushkin Acad. Vinogradov writes: «The historical merit of Pushkin is that the power of his creative genius, he powerfully contributed to the deployment and improve the elements of the whole people, the Russian national language. Pushkin enriched the Russian language literature new methods of stylistic use of popular speech, folk poetry, the new rules stylistic combination and integration of different elements of the national language … In the language of Pushkin Russian culture all previous artistic expression not only reached its highest development, but also has a qualitative transformation «.

The three-volume Dictionary of Pushkin’s language, compiled by a group of officers of the Russian literary language of the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, should contain a list of all words and interpretations, testified in the main text of Pushkin’s collected works of 16 volumes complete academic publication. Entry is made up in such a way that the reader can get an idea of ​​all the meanings and shades of meaning of the word in Pushkin, constructed as follows: 1) title, 2) an indication of the number of occurrences of a word, and 3) an indication of the meaning of a word (in case appropriate interpretation is accompanied by grammatical labels), 4) an indication of the number of occurrences of the word in this sense, 5) Examples illustrating the meaning, 6) a list of all occurrences of a word in Pushkin. In the case where the word has many meanings, or tints values, points 3-6 are repeated.

In cases where the word is used only in the Pushkin sustainable idiomatic expressions Dictionary gives the appropriate instructions.

Dictionary aims to highlight not only the meaning of words, but also shades within each setting, individual cases of the use, as well as specific construction of Pushkin’s time, phraseological combinations, the compound words. At the same time, aiming to characterize the language of Pushkin as the language of his time, and, therefore, not making installation on the disclosure of the entire diversity of Pushkin’s use of words, dictionary still can not celebrate a purely individual instances the use of a word or turnover language of Pushkin. So, in the Dictionary of special litters allocated humorous, ironic, punning use of the word, impersonation, transfers (metaphorical) periphrastic occurrences. For example, in the article word for lamb pointed out that, along with the usual use of the word meaning «lamb» in Pushkin there are cases and portable use.

" LAMB. Lamb. Dearer to me humble girl — Docile as a lamb field; C2 297.12. It sat … innocent Kochubei with him Iskra silent, indifferent, like a lamb, a docile lot. P II 411. Transfer. About meek, uncomplaining creature. Mephistopheles. You thought my docile lamb! How eagerly I wish you! How artfully artless maiden at heart I am troubled dreams! — With 285.78.f% U. I. lamb: Cr P 51,236 296.12 Ca II 41; transfer. C2 285.78; V. lamb Ps 65,123;

Lexical structure of the language of Pushkin, grammatical forms, types of management and coordination of words, the use of unions and their importance for the most part represent the material coinciding with the modern usage. This stability of the language is primarily in the stability of the basic lexical fund and the grammatical structure determines Pushkin texts comprehensible to the modern reader. But at the same time, the materials of Pushkin’s dictionary, is compared with a modern word-and formoupotrebleniem testify about the specifics of the language of Pushkin’s time, that the Russian literary language over the past 150 years has not remained static.

Besides having specific poetic resources that are lacking in the modern literary language, in addition to the special stylistic features of individual words and phrases, the language of Pushkin has a number of words that are either lacking in the modern language, or preserved in it, have changed their values ​​or shades of meaning.

Faced with the works of Pushkin disappeared now call, the reader will easily find it in the dictionary. As for the words that have been preserved in the modern language, but changed their meaning or connotations, the interpretation of Pushkin’s text in terms of our modern drinking can lead to misunderstandings, to a distortion of Pushkin’s thoughts. For example, the word lover, a mistress in the language of Pushkin, in addition to modern values ​​meant «lover, the beloved»: a hundredfold blessed the lover who gently before you, dare, sings about love. Ruslan we should take … In the soul of a hero, a true lover. Our lovers kept up a correspondence.

The word shame but modern values, Pushkin used to mean «the spectacle» But meanwhile, what a shame is deposited Kiev? All the literary life of Kachenovsky was dismantled over the years, all the classes evaluated, all simple-slips of the tongue are derived to shame (to obozrenie.- AG).

In these examples, the current understanding would distort the idea, the general content of the text.

Sometimes it is not enough accurate understanding of the word may lead, if not to distort the text, by reducing its forces significance: and his son Fedor? He is on the throne cry for a peaceful life of the Silent … God loves humility king and Russia with him in glory serene comforted.

Here the word serene matters «devoid of revolts, riots» instead of the current «late, unflappable, not knowing cares.» Also Pushkin meaning outrageous — «It is outrageous, referring to the perturbation to revolt»: Black met him on the beach with images and bread. He reads her outrageous manifesto. I was in touch with all and in correspondence with many of the conspirators. All the outrageous manuscript went under my name.

The modern understanding of this word («causing a sharp disapproval, condemnation») would distort the idea of ​​Pushkin, do not invest in the word of the negative assessment, which it is now, and which appeared in it as a result of later development and rethinking.

Comparison dictionary language of Pushkin and modern usage of words allows you to make some general observations and conclusions.

1. In Pushkin’s language there are many words that are not in active use of the language of our day. These may be the words of various ranks and groups:

1) The words associated with social phenomena of pre-revolutionary era: a free, serial (peasant), Batog, rack, type (passport), August, camera-lackey, the chamberlain, gentleman of the bedchamber, and more. etc .; 2) words that reflect mythological and religious ideas of the time: the house, the mermaid, 3) the words reflecting the life of the nobility of the time: Bolivar, Breguet, Blondie, Bosquet, etc .; 4) the words noble jargon: kokyu (cuckold) komerazh (gossip), etc .; 5) words related to classical mythology and expressing them based on the symbolism of the poetic language: Mars, Venus, Psyche, Zeus and many others. al.

Most of these words have ceased shirokoupotrebitelnoy now preserved in the passive vocabulary of modern language or in multiple combinations phraseology.

2. much greater interest to researchers and more difficulties for the general reader are the words of survivors change their semantics. By the nature of the subsequent evolution of the values ​​of these words fall into two main groups. The first group consists of words that Pushkin used in their original, raw values, directly based on the etymological structure of the word. The subsequent history of these words mainly lies in the development of secondary or secondary values ​​and the loss of the original. These secondary values ​​can be scheduled in the language of Pushkin, but they can also occur at a later time. These include words such as generous, cowardly, anger, powerless, seductive, humble, attractive, serene, and more. others. For example, the word generous in modern language means «possessing generosity» malodushnyy- word «indecisive, weak-willed.» Pushkin first matter «has a great soul,» the second — «having a small, insignificant soul.» Wed .: — You are not our Tsar — Ivan Ignatyitch answered, repeating the words of his captain … Pugachev waved his handkerchief again, and the good lieutenant hung beside his old boss. The queue was for me. I looked boldly at Pugachev, preparing to repeat the answer of my companions (KD 325.8). Do not let cool down the poet’s soul, harden, harden, and finally petrified in deadening uposni light Among the proud callous, brilliant among fools, among the wicked, cowardly … In this and still waters where I bathed with you, dear friends (EO approx. 40 )5.

Word seductive language of Pushkin is clearly related to the word temptation, and has a value of «typical seducer associated with temptation» Captain Byron, son of the famous admiral and the father of the great poet, he incurred the seductive glory. He took his wife of Lord Carmarthen and married her immediately after her divorce (275.13). Why do I have in mind? … Not because eh, my shame now have all been seen, and could in the community to bring you seductive honor? (EO VIII 44.14).

The second group consists of words that Pushkin has a wider range of values ​​than the modern literary language. The subsequent history of these words is the restriction on use of the word line, specialization, determines the language or the desire for clarity, accuracy (when it comes to words terminology), or the desire to get rid of the language arises doublet caused by the coincidence of the values ​​of different words.

Examples of words that have lost their value derivatives, suzivshih circle of use and terminizirovavshihsya can serve as words such as vaudeville, anecdote, fable, verse and several others.

Word of vaudeville in the modern language is set to «comic farcical nature of the play, initially with the singing of verses» (Dictionary, ed. Ushakov, I, 325). Pushkin wider use of the word: he calls vaudeville and satirical pesenki6: Greed for money united with hedonism and distraction; estates disappeared … and the state disintegrated under the playful chorus satirical vaudeville (AP.32) .Although there to listen to Adorable vaudeville? -And the Count sings (GN167).

The word denotes the verse is now the name of the song or verse poem. In Pushkin it can mean also the most poem, broken into verses, stanzas: As a true Frenchman, in his pocket Triquet verse brought Tatiana to voting, we know children … Between dilapidated songs almanac was published this verse …

Word pulpit in the modern language is the church and the term refers to the elevation before the altar. Pushkin that word could mean any elevation pomost7. For example, in «History of Pugachev» (p. 79. 25): Following the detachment of cuirassiers rode sleds, high pulpit. Same as in «Boris Godunov»: people — Boyar Prince sent us. I will hear what we lord. Here! here! Pushkin (at the pulpit) — Moscow citizens who ordered you to bow to the prince («place of the skull»).

Limiting the range of meanings of the word in a modern language than the language of Pushkin and touched a number of words, neterminologicheskogo character. So, the word suddenly in modern language means «suddenly, suddenly.» This is important and it is in Pushkin’s texts, for example: Tremble mouth, trembling knees, go … and suddenly … or a dream? Suddenly see two shadows close up close and whispers he hears (C 464, 465).

But Pushkin may use the word, and suddenly the meaning of «immediately, at the same time»: rich, smart, to anyone not bowing down to the waist, and as the lord between lives without having to worry; And give the bride suddenly and fox fur coat and pearls (Cr groom). It pleased God to deprive me of a sudden the father and mother (KD 342.6).

This meaning of the word is presented in a modern language spoken only in combination: all of a sudden, all of a sudden the meaning of «all (all) at once, at the same time.»

Word of the Old in the modern language is set to «decrepit, crumbling from old age» and the book is a shade (Wed Dictionary, ed. Ushakov, I, 265). In addition, the meaning of the word old, we find Pushkin value «has long been existing ancient» But since then, when was it, his offense violent avenger, with the Lithuanians under the old city of Holguin, the fame of him stopped (EG XI. 41). Avg. the same value combined the Old Testament (cf.. The New Testament).

By the way, to reduce the range of their values ​​is nonsense word that Pushkin has a value of «dissension, a quarrel» (plural, respectively. Vador number): e-mail, who will solve the intricate human stupidity disputes; Clever, cunning one hand intertwined with each other Diplomatic vador and rules also are our destiny (Cr For young widow).

Reducing the number of values, and rethinking in such words does not lead to the impoverishment of language: it refines and consequently improves the expressive possibilities of language. As is known, such a reduction may be caused or loss corresponding concept or, as occurs in the present case, the occurrence of doublets, t. E. Words not delimited by any semantic or stylistically (without the need for such a distinction). The subsequent history of these coincident within the meaning of the words usually follow the path of their semantic-or stylistic distinctions.

An example of such doublets of values ​​can serve as words of ignorant and illiterate in the sense of «who can not read and write.» In today’s language in the value of the two doublets used mainly two: the first recorded use of monolingual dictionaries ed. Ushakov as a possible, but not for the main word. In the language of Pushkin in this value are also presented two words: illiterate — 9 times, illiterate — 1 times. For example:

Fisherman detained unless it has ascertained that it was indeed illiterate … The governor sent him away, saying, Go, be happy you did not know how to read. (M2 29.6). Warden goryuhinskie never used anything do not read. The elder was illiterate (IG 138.36).

In the era of Pushkin, as at present, these words were stylistically neutral. And this lack of stylistic differences in the words with the same values ​​caused a consistent reduction of the use of one of the doublets: in the modern literary language of the illiterate in the sense of «who can not read and write,» is almost never used. Quantitative relationships with which we meet in Pushkin, suggest that time greater use of the word illiterate.

Speaking about developments in the language from the time of Pushkin to the present day, Stalin pointed out that these changes were made and the most stable part of the language, its grammatical structure. Without prejudice to the bases of grammatical structure, these changes were on the way to improve it, improve. «With regard to the structure of Pushkin’s language with its grammatical system and basic word stock, it is preserved in all essentials, as the basis for the modern Russian language.»

The dictionary gives the language of Pushkin in this regard, rich and varied material. For example, the reader may note the presence in the language in other words Pushkina grammatical kind or another decline than in a modern language. Now noun niche — feminine; Pushkin — the husband ray: And the dark niches where the twilight reigns, sneaking little wrong light of day.

The word myth is now masculine, Pushkin — Women: His name seemed to me false and legends about it desolate mifoyu (IG 127.29).

Word boa — we neuter Pushkin — male: He’s happy if she nakinet Boa furry shoulder (EO VIII 30.10).

Word dresser presented in Pushkin’s forms and masculine and feminine: She guessed that antimony and whiting were stolen from her chest (BK 120.19). Yeah well do me a favor: I moved my trustees ticket, which I left in the secret of your chest (Psalm 721.6).

Sometimes the use of the word in some way perceived as a fact of stylistic writer. For example, in Pushkin observe use of the word in the male swan and feminine. The feminine form is found in «The Tale of Tsar Saltan» (often with folk epithet white) and in the poem «Chu cannon thundered,» where this form may be determined by the requirements of rhyme: Chu, guns thundered! cruise ships covered with cloud [village fighting] The ship ran into the Neva River — and that among zybey Swinging floats like [young swan]. In all other cases, Pushkin uses the word swan in the masculine form, such as the moon and silent, like a swan majestic clouds floating in srebristyh (Cx Memoirs in Tsarskoye Selo).

The special character of fluctuations have used the words of one kind, but different types of decline. Thus, in the language of Pushkin and the word B is used with zero inflection (B) and flexion-a (bed). From forms of the words are as follows: nominative — B (1 case) and beds (3 cases); genitive — bed (30 cases); dative — bed (4 cases), accusative — B (11 cases) and the bed (13 cases); prepositional — bed (1 case) and beds (34 cases).

As can be seen, Pushkin increasingly using the word in the form of inducement in -a, t. E. In a form that is not entrenched in the modern literary language.

The presence of parallel forms is found in Pushkin and in syntax. Examples are synonymous expressions of causal relationship, largely preserved in the modern language. Pushkin conventional design not read for lack of time, a hand for his inability to write, was postponed for a dowry, and so on. D. In the modern language such constructions are preserved only in a part of phraseological units (aa lack, for what was the matter, and some others). Free use of such structures is limited.

For Pushkin common combination dative with the pretext of a causative meaning: … rain and snow. Trishka bit for the weather, for his inexperience caught in trouble, we are compelled for lack of students, and so on. F. In the modern use of such constructions ousted designs with the pretext of a genitive case (because of the weather, because of a lack of students, etc. . P.). The difference between Pushkin and modern use of synonymous constructions is not radical changes, not in liquidation or breaking design, and in a limited number of words, which can be connected with the pretext of expressing causal relations (stupidity, out of ignorance, out of ignorance, misunderstanding and m. n.).

Narrowing the range of designs in the transmission of certain relationships one form or another, during the expansion and enrichment of the other synonymous, may gradually lead to the elimination of one of the syntactic synonyms. For example, the syntax of the two synonyms — cry for whom, and for whom, more broadly represented in the language of Pushkin prepositional form [on the old Roháče widows weeping amorous (When out of town), she sighed at the other (EO II 30. II)], in the modern language clearly preferred form with a dative. This design productivity with dative — a phenomenon, identify dopushkinskoe back in time. The displacement of one form of another, observed in the comparison of Pushkin and modern word- and formoupotrebleniya leads to partial internally displaced prepositional-case system.

Change one of the other types of control, in some cases the loss is determined at one or another specific lexical meaning of words by which the word was part of a whole group of words related to certain types of syntactic relations with other words. For example, the verb to sing Pushkin manages the following deaths: bespredlozhnym accusative: I sing a song for himself (C 270). Already he sang the immortal verses misfortune banks of the Neva (MB II. 87). You sang a passion — and proudly hand Beauties carrying their crowns (Cx One Love — fun life hladnoy). And sang at the sound of lyres War bloody feast (Cr Batyushkov) ‘, accusative with the preposition about: Shepherd, weaving a colorful bast, sings about the Volga fisherfolk (SW VI. 41. 4); ablative: The poet’s favorite skies Oh immortal verses sing … Misfortune Neva shores. {MB P 87); with the pretext of prepositional; But lira young singer sings about? (Cr Andre Chenier).

As can be seen from the examples, the indirect object in Pushkin can be expressed with the preposition prepositional about, accusative with the preposition pro and bespredlozhnym accusative. Bespredlozhny accusative in this function is not tinichen, he meets with the Pushkin counts the number of verbs dicendi (speaking). So naturally there is an assumption that when these verbs we have Pushkin is not a special feature of indirect expression object and use, due to the special significance of this speech: verb sing appears here in the sense of «to sing» trace from the French and the loss afterwards. Entering thus a special and independent semantic range of the word sing purchased and the type of management, which is characteristic for this series. Avg. I will sing that glorious hour (CP Ep 25) 10.

It seems to this kind of cases concerns the presence of the accusative in the function of indirect object with verbs tell — to tell, say Von Vision once told His is the world of adventures {C i Shadow Fonvizina) ‘We are home to the gate with you and tell you this battle our children (AP 3.22) Kiril Petrovich with great pleasure began to tell their feat Frenchman (R 196.24).

Dictionary of the language of Pushkin, highlighting a particular meaning and noting the grammatical peculiarities of its use, will help to reveal the cause and nature of these discrepancies with a modern language and.

Systematics in the Dictionary of material related to official said, to measure changes in the limits of a relationship, or the formation of the establishment of a fact of language.

It is known, for example, that a number of prepositions appeared in language relatively recently — in the XIX century. (because, as a result, and due al.). Many of them still retain their former more significant. One of these is a new pretext pretext verbal thanks. Articles Dictionary of Pushkin show that the use of this word as a function of an excuse there is a new phenomenon, becoming. The pretext due Pushkin connected to dative mainly in cases where the dative presented nouns inanimate (25 cases, 1 to animate): accusative with the same pretext appears when combining it with the noun animate (7 cases): Say: Do not be ashamed that in Holy Russia, thank you, we do not see the books until now? (C2 Message censor). On his mercantile circumstances tell you that, thanks to my father … I got married and economy (Psalm 585.39). Avg. one case of a dative: All literature became handwriting through dye-s.komu and Biryukov (Ps 1251. II).

The use thanks to the combination with the accusative outlined three types: 1) due to synonymous with because in the case of a negative reason: because of you injured (KD 310.10), thanks to you we do not see books (C2 Message censor) ‘

2) due to sinopimichno due, but it has not lost its original lexical knowledge

10 Such use of the Dictionary of Church and noted the Russian language in 1847, which states that sing in the 3rd value means praise or portray something in the songs (now, chant).

11 For example, in an article on the word hope it will be noted that such cases, where the word hope to control genitive: (new grace not dare to hope (Psalm 214.10) From you I will hope the letters in Simbirsk (Psalm 837.23), and so on. N. Is not are • synonymous form of the design hoped someone chgpo n., but means: «We hope to expect that Mr.» Avg. in the «Russian grammar» Alexander Vostokova, ch. II, Sec. II, § 129: «genitive movement a thought to the subject, or the subject, takes place at the verbs and adjectives, meaning desire, anticipation, getting at … ozhidanie- wait case chayat salvation, waiting queue, hope of success. «And a little below:» The verb to hope also controls the accusative possessive case with a preposition to when the verb is set to rely, for example, rely on their strength. «

cheniya in cases with a positive reason: I got married and the father got a farm (Psalm 585.39); 3) due to a combination of who speaks in revolutions introductory character and is not the cause of anything, and the person who promotes anything else. In this case, the introductory turnover means the same thing thanks to whom. «We are on our habitation,» he said, «thanks to God and master, do not complain» (D 163.26); Opozitsii Russian, Russian-ended thanks to God, of our writers … have come to some impatience (Ps 89.39).

Thus, the analysis of Pushkin’s usage shows that erasing the lexical meaning of gerunds and turning it into a proper excuse started especially in cases where the subject indicates a negative reason for anything. It is natural that in these cases could be assimilated before the dative form.


Pushkin for us — not only the carrier of the literary language, but also the creator of its new rules, the artist boldly transcending the boundaries of the old language, enriching his expressive means. Therefore, the language of Pushkin Dictionary reflects not only what is typical for him as a native speaker’s age, but especially the language of Pushkin and the artist. In this regard, highlighted, on the one hand, the words that are binding belonging to a specific literary style or genre (for example, necessary aksessusary poetic language, the special vocabulary of journalistic speech), on the other hand, those that Pushkin was first introduced at one time or another genre .Analiz vocabulary of this kind have to go through the study of how Pushkin used the words that are specific to different styles of speech.

Dictionary of the language of Pushkin is not intended to stylistic characteristics of words. This work is still waiting for its researcher. But by grouping all occurrences of a word, specifying where it is used, Dictionary gives the researcher the opportunity to explore the future of stylistic coloring of a particular word in the language of Pushkin, genre and stylistic figure out the conditions for its use.

From the words used by Pushkin in traditional poetic terms, it follows the following groups:

1. The names of mythological gods and heroes, the names of the classical writers and artists, is used therefore in their own and in a household, in a figurative sense. Many of these names have become poetic symbols (Venera- «love» Vakh- «wine, fun», Apollo — «poetry» and so on. D.).

2. Relatively small circle of words from other languages, which, while not specific to a particular literary genre, from time to time writer used to give «local color.» These are the words: Abaza, yeah, Amanat, Adeje village, Abraham, Verbano, belmesa, beshlyk, Bosnjak and others.

3. tserkovnoslavyanizmy which by their meaning and use in the language of Pushkin are divided into groups: a) Word-specific range of phenomena associated with religion and the church. This word-terms typical for a narrow range of use and do not have synonyms in the literary language: a censer, canon Akathist, Virgin, Vespers, and others. Pushkin uses these words in poetical purposes, taking advantage of the metaphorical transfer; He enters them into the fabric of poetic language to express ideas or atheist in order to enhance visual capabilities literary language. Avg. use of the word Virgin in the following context: there is a God other earthly circle — he is obedient beauty, He is the god guys Tibull, Moore They tormented, they comforted me. It’s all in you — you are the mother of Cupid, you my Virgin (Cs-Thou Gomati pb).

Word of the censer is also expanding its range of use and purchases portable metaphorical meaning: the lyre modest, noble gods of Earth, I do not praise and pride in the strength of flattery is not free censer censers (C2 To Plyuskovoy NY). I zhalvelikiya wives, wives who loved [All generations of Fame:] And the smoke of the smoke of war Parnasskii censer (C2 I wish Velikija wife).

b) Church Slavonic in origin words of poetic language, included in the standard language in certain synonymous ranks. Some of them act as semantic and stylistic synonyms (A voice — the same as to say ,. but to say loud and solemn ‘broadcast — talk, but solemnly, in an elevated tone, and so on. D.); others — as synonymous only stylistic (eyes — eyes, bosom — breasts, lips — lips, forehead — forehead, cheeks — cheeks, was in charge — to know the wind — the wind, the branch — branch, Velma — very, very, commandingly — loud alien — someone else). A comparison of these synonyms allows you to explore ways to enrich vocabulary with new words with a strictly defined range of values. In this respect it is interesting to trace the use of synonyms strange and alien to the language of Pushkin and modern literary language. In the language of Pushkin’s words were synonymous in all its meanings: 1) a foreign land, language and alien land, the language in the sense of «belonging to others without their own»; 2) strangers and alien people in the sense of «non-native, stranger»; 3) I have everything a stranger and he soon became a world alien and foreign to me to be the earthly world to mean «distant in spirit; such that there is no internal proximity «; 4) To this day the fear and sorrow were alien to me in the sense of «alien, not inherent to someone.» Ability to use modern language these parallel rows synonymous significantly narrowed our time; at least for the first two meanings of the word stranger she ruled. With regard to the values ​​of the 3rd and 4th, the synonymy in the use of these values ​​is noted in the Dictionary, ed. Ushakov, but Pushkin testify to the consolidation of the values ​​of the word alien. So the language of Pushkin’s Dictionary lets you compare current usage of the word with the use of the beginning of XIX century. and trace the history of differences synonyms.

Comparison of different synonyms and supervision over their use in the works of Pushkin sometimes allows more or less reliably conclude about the relation of the poet to these words. The work of Pushkin as the Russian literary language converter includes a selection of language means a variety of stylistic layers, pushing them in a neutral context.

As an example of such stylistically delimited synonyms include the following series of words: Post — why — why — why, bored — naskuchit- nadokuchit; sovladet — cope — cope perfectly — very — very. If words are purely bookish and poetic pretty easy to get in the number of synonyms their stylistic characteristics (as connected with them a long tradition of their respective stylistic use), then the words defined by the Dictionary of the Academy of Russian as a colloquial or vulgar, genre and stylistic movements and stylistic functions but the language of Pushkin defined with complete clarity. If we recall that the Dictionary of the Russian Academy of stylistic behind in their estimates or not giving them, will become clear the difficulties facing researchers vocabulary of Pushkin in its stylistic interpretation.

Dictionary of the language of Pushkin, reflecting all uses of the word, may determine conditions for the use of one or another synonym, and the reasons that determined his choice; comparison of the same synonyms in the language of Pushkin and in modern language, taking into account the statements of Pushkin’s contemporaries and data dictionaries will allow a greater or lesser reliability assessment to determine the role of stylistic words from Pushkin. Thus, a comparison of occurrences of Pushkin’s words instead and instead leads to the conclusion of their stylistic coloring: Pushkin used instead of once: Bradaty elder Avdyei With a nod of his mistress Instead of red eggs Brought scientist starling (C3 Bradaty mayor) instead — 122 times. The text, which used the word instead, as well as isolated examples indicate «folksy» vernacular or his character. Dictionary of the Russian Academy does not give the words instead, Dictionary of Church Slavonic and Russian languages ​​in 1847 gives the word to the litter «bunks. old. «, and Dictionary, ed. Ushakov indicates its regional and vernacular character.

Comparative analysis of the use of Pushkin synonymous row zazornyy- shameful — shameful gives the following conclusions: the word to be ashamed of Pushkin met only twice, in specific texts («groom» and «Songs of the Western Slavs»), where there is a pastiche. In the «Bridegroom» ashamed of the word is found in the speech of a matchmaker: — You have the goods, we have a merchant; Himself fellow man, and handsome, and agile, not quarrelsome, not shameful (C3 groom). All this passage is an example of imitation of «folksy» speech. Intonation, represents a typical formula of courtship, the words man, boy, parallel syntactic structure, repetition, finally, the word ugly in the specific meaning of «prone to quarrels, blah» — all these linguistic features suggest that Pushkin was well aware folksy painting shameful word and used it with a certain stylistic task.

In «Songs of the Western Slavs» («Voivod Milos») use of the word to be ashamed due to the stylized character of all language songs: Over Serbia mercy, O God! Wolves have seized Janissaries! … Red make a mockery of the girls sang songs and danced shameful infidel dancing.

Use of the word in Pushkin, they prefer one or another synonym allows you to make adjustments to the outdated and imperfect stylistic characteristics listed in the Dictionary of the Russian Academy. Synonym shameful — disreputable meets Pushkin 9 times, in different genres (poetry, «Count Nulin», «Boris Godunov», «History of Pugachev», journal articles). From the stylistic shameful word it is more neutral. Wed .: Talent captivity, and his imitation of the kidnapping is not shameful — a sign of intellectual poverty (82.9 M2).

Third synonym — a shameful word used more frequently than others (14 times), and in all genres and is stylistically neutral. Wed .: But not so Arzrum upland, Mnogodorozhny our Arzrum: Do not we sleep in luxury shameful … (sa Istanbul Giaours now praise).

The modern literary language stylistically neutral word shameful: his great upotrebitelnost determined by the presence in his 2nd values, missing in Pushkin («very bad, bad, causing ridicule, contempt») in the dictionary under the editorship. Ushakov word shameful given with droppings «book.» Shameful with droppings «vernacular.». It may be noted that modern stylistic differentiation of these three words there has been mainly in the language of Pushkin.

Quantifying the prevalence of one or another synonym is a factor to consider when explores the stylistic characteristics of the word. An example is the use of words paunchy (19 times) and pregnant women (1 time.). Perhaps the word paunchy in speaking of that time were more common than in the modern language; Pregnant word against it as book. Book character of this word is especially emphasized in the use of his «History of the Village Goryuhi-on», parodying the language and style of the scientific and historical literature of the time: «In these things bog called devils. They say if one poluumnaya shepherdess watched over the herd of swine is not far away from this secluded place. She conceived, and could not satisfactorily explain this case. Voice of the People accused swamp demon — but not worthy of a fairy tale And this historian’s attention … «(IG 134.36) .. In all other cases — in works of art, letters — Pushkin uses only the word paunchy. Once in stylized folk text, the word does not violate the overall sound of the text and is consistent stylistic litter «folksy.» Attached to it in the Dictionary of the Russian Academy, Wed .: Mother sat paunchy, yes the snow and looked only (IC 89); Elena became a great swell, began to bait: Elena paunchy (AP 4.38). In all other cases, if we exclude the letters, the word entered in the text, stylized povestvovatelnorazgovorny genre of the era preceding the Pushkin vremeni14. The letters in the word of the poet’s personal use paunchy neutral: it does not have the print roughness, vernacular, which is peculiar to him now.

Comparative analysis of individual synonymous series allows you to watch not only the expansion or contraction synonymous row, but also stylistic regrouping within it. This situation can be illustrated by the history of a number of perfectly synonymous — a very — very — essentially, that the language in the active reserve of the modern literary language has become synonymous in the number of very — extremely — extremely. Quantitative relationships in the use of synonyms Pushkin following: Undo — 19 times vesma- 131, very — constantly, in the highest degree — 1 times. In these ratios is hardly possible to talk about the neutrality of the words perfectly. Wed .: Night of Quiet wonderfully peacefully Kolomna (DC XIX); Dubrovsky was exceedingly angry (D 13 186), and others. The word is already in Pushkin begins to acquire the shade of literacy and later archaic, which allows not to enter it in the dictionary of modern Russian literary language (it is not, for example, in the Dictionary, ed. Ushakov). Synonymous expression essentially is a phenomenon few special-order. The only case of its use in Pushkin and monitoring of the degree of use of the word suggests that this combination is issued only in Pushkin’s time. The only case of the use of this combination in Pushkin: Maria Ivanovna was greatly alarmed, but said nothing, for highly gifted was modesty and caution (KD 369.31) — may not be indicative of the already defined meaning and use of this combination.

With regard shirokoupotrebitelnyh very, very, the first was more limited in extent commonplace; use it in a purely book, sometimes bureaucratically and business texts does not give reason to believe the word neutral. Avg. Used in a joking: And to continue dared miracles truly caught the hang and abdomen rather deprive (C2 291.18); in stylized portrait speech: My lord, you are guilty first, podoshed to this young person …; for this you have to be very punished imyanno must drink the cup of the great eagle (AP 17.28). At the same time, the word can be used quite in relatively neutral texts, for example:

I was in their hands, and quite recently, quite a round sum … (Psalm 897.16); Wife you very bow (Ps. 671.32), and others.

The subsequent history of this comes down to a number of synonymous words perfectly loss (because of its archaism), a sharp decrease Used to enhance the stylistic features archaizing very words. At the same time synonymous in this series was a synonym for securing highly appeared synonymous exclusively, which was not in the language of Pushkin.

The issues raised by no means limited to the range of problems, the resolution of which will help material dictionary language of Pushkin. Separating proverbs, phraseological combinations, periphrastic expression, noting portable occurrences, Dictionary provides the researcher with a wealth of material that characterizes Pushkin as an artist. Articles Dictionary of Pushkin’s language will make a difference not only to learn the language of Pushkin himself as a writer and as a carrier of the literary language of his time, but they will also serve as a starting, a reference point in the study of language writers of the beginning of XIX century. and the subsequent time.

Dictionary of Pushkin’s language will be one of the necessary preconditions podlinnonauchnogo study of literary language in the XIX-XX. Finally, as the first experience of language dictionary writer Dictionary language of Pushkin, after a critical analysis of it, could serve as a model for compiling dictionaries of languages ​​other writers.

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