Meaning chemicalization gardening huge. Without pesticides can not get a harvest of fruits, berries and grapes. It should be noted that the amount of chemicals for the treatment of fruit trees and vineyards, and their selection is small.
But some drugs designed to control pests, diseases and weeds of field crops can be used in horticulture.
Educational and experimental farm of the Institute for many years successfully used DNOC (dinitroortokrezol) to combat pests wintering orchards and vineyards in early spring. In 1963, in a production environment to establish the most effective dose as herbicides (for weed control), and as an insecticide (pest control) — The first spraying of fruit trees and vines.
So, at a young garden trees to bud seed species were sprayed with 8% emulsion carbolineum (800 g per 10 liters of water).
If added to carbolineum DNOC, the composition was as follows: 200 g DNOC carbolineum 10 grams per 10 liters of water. In processing plants one drug DNOC used it in a 0.5% concentration, ie 10 liters of water 50 grams of DNOC.
The vineyard was sprayed as a single drug DNOC (50 g per 10 liters), and 3-4% solution of copper sulfate.
Completely destroyed wintering pests (mites, aphids, moths and others). Harvest young garden reached 60 quintals per hectare of apples at 20. The action plan carbolineum and DNOC efficiency is approximately the same, but the drug DNOC uses less processing is cheaper. In the vineyard DNOC replace expensive and scarce copper sulphate and yield increase of grapes reached 8 tons per hectare.
DNOC can be used for weed control in tree trunks and the garden between the rows. Our studies showed that the drug ozhigaet leaves and stems of many weeds. Its effect is manifested through 2-4 hours after spraying (3-5 kg of active ingredient per 1 ha), almost all the weeds die.
The drug DNOC tree trunks can be processed at any time, as the 2% solution is already destroying the weeds, but does not damage the trunk of fruit trees.
Given the small study of the drug as a soil herbicide DNOC, we decided to determine the optimum standards and terms of making it into the soil, to identify its aftereffects. Because of fears of damage to fruit trees set experiments in the field next to the garden. The herbicide was added to the soil by spraying of herbicide-ammonium mounted machine (GAN-8) at the same time sowing maize. We felt that the content of the soil around plants and between the rows of corn will correspond to spraying the soil surface, the content of it in the tree trunks and inter-row cultivation in both cases will be held in accordance with the requirements of farming garden care.
The dose of the drug DNOC — 10 and 15 kilograms of active ingredient per hectare, the effectiveness of the weeds into account the procedure VIZR.
As a result, clogging of the soil has decreased to 10,6-18,4%.
Note that DNOC increases the amount of nitrate in the soil. Conducted July 7 determination showed that the control was 149.6 milligrams of nitrate, when applied to the soil DNOC 10 kilograms per hectare, it reached 843.6, while making 15 kilogrammov- 1007.5 milligrams per kilogram of soil.
Such an increase in nitrates, we explain the collapse of the molecules of the drug DNOC into its constituent parts: a nitro group and phenol, the first of which adds nitrates in the soil, and the second is decomposed by soil microorganisms. This property DNOC is very important to use it in the garden, where the soil is kept in fallow and decay processes of nutrients and reduction of their processes in the soil exceeds the concentration of its natural way. However, the high toxicity of the drug requires strict adherence to all safety precautions outlined in the manual handling during its use. Getting on the skin, DNOC causes severe burns and poisoning, so when you work with him you must have protective clothing, gloves and a respirator.
Use of the drug DNOC as a soil herbicide to control weeds in gardens can serve as a means of preventing soil erosion and its further development on the slopes, which are mainly located in the Donbass orchards and vineyards. It is of great importance.