The introduction of more stringent environmental standards in Russia — is already a reality. We will understand the peculiarities of operation of diesel engines with EGR and SCR
This statistic is calling for action. According to another theory, a person is able to work only 10 percent of all possible emissions that affect the state of the atmosphere. For example, the eruption of Mount Etna in Sicily or any other in Iceland, Kamchatka may lead to irreparable consequences. Here fit to calm down and hope for a favorable arrangement of the stars in the sky, count on ETC … However, pushing in violently on the rise fumed tractor that does not overtake and drive around, or standing at the traffic lights next to this «unit», you know, that after all is the use of environmental standards there. Now stinking «rydvanov» was significantly less than a decade ago, when Russia was a solid Euro-0. And not the fact that the truck be sure to domestic — source of the smoke may well be older and foreign car …
However, the transition to the current Euro-4 Russian carriers and manufacturers is given easy. Carriers difficult to realize that the simple mechanical pump in the past, and engine builders took very seriously to bring the design of engines, pull up to the desired level of component base. Yes, Russia is lagging behind environmental standards from Europe, our engineers are already well-trodden path, but enough problems. Yet the transition from Euro 0 to Euro 2 our plants had to organize the production of turbines, heat exchangers, intercooler and fuel equipment, working with a high-pressure spray, or organize their purchases abroad. Euro-4 to provide even more difficult. Fuel injection equipment — only with electronic control, with sophisticated and accurate programs necessary computer diagnostics, but also in addition to relatively familiar term «exhaust gas recirculation» EGR (back in the 80s we used to «Volga» GAZ-3102) appeared » SCR technology »SCR. A together with the SCR — and the need to purchase than diesel oil, even of an aqueous solution of urea. Tighten requirements for diesel fuel, additional volumes of service and new, not previously encountered failure. And while cars have become more expensive.
It seems logical to do this material by January 2013, the beginning of the entry into force of the Russian «environmental fourth class.» However, until the end of 2012 all representative offices of foreign manufacturers tried to bring cars to the maximum Euro-3 and the nine months is mainly sold them. A «KAMAZ», «GAZ Group» and Minsk Automobile Plant «Ural» — seems to have long swayed by making vehicles Euro 4 only in small quantities. Therefore, during this time of grand changes in the market have occurred. It is at the end of this year and the next, in 2014, we should expect a surge of interest in these machines, and sales growth.
The ramp is common to all
Even for engines of Euro-3 required an electronically fuel systems, and for Euro-4 — even more so. IVECO, Scania and Volvo for a long time used the unit injector, a Mercedes-Benz and DAF — PLD system for each cylinder including a compact single-section pump, pipe and nozzle with electronic control. All of them are moving to the Common Rail. MAN and Renault Trucks have been more far-sighted and the first bet on the most promising system Common Rail. Moreover, the French general, first in Europe to have applied common rail engines on heavy-duty trucks as early as 2000, MAN — only since 2004. But the rest of the company, even though later, but also went on the Common Rail. Moreover, this system is now enjoying «KAMAZ», «YaMZ» and MMZ, «Americans», «Chinese» and «Japanese». It makes no sense to talk about the work of the unit injectors and PLD: not only the future, but for now have Common Rail. It does not matter who has the name of an electronically fuel battery system with a common rail (it was called at the Scania XPI), it is still a Common Rail. This fuel system significantly reduces the load on the drive shaft and couplings TNVD- recall on MAZah and KAMAZ by Euro-3 is dropped frequently drive. In comparison with unit injectors, the application of Common Rail, less loaded camshaft, free design of the engine from unnecessary tappets, rods and rocker arm, independent of revolutions of a cam, and even at idle speed can increase the pressure of the spray up to 850 bar, and the maximum can be up to 2400 bar. Alone only pressure increase to a level improves engine efficiency and reduces the formation of soot particulates in the diesel engine. Electronically controlled feeding cycle is able to split the injected fuel into several portions, which is not possible with classical mechanical fuel systems. Most often, three servings. The first — preliminary, it is usually less than 5% of the feed cycle, reduces operating noise of a diesel engine, makes the flow of combustion softer, improves the ignition of the second — the main portion of the diesel fuel. Third — the final portion is even smaller in volume than the pre reduces soot and NOx in the exhaust gases. Commands that the electronic control unit, making it even more powerful than with unit injectors and PLD, increased performance, expanded functions.
The standoff between the two systems
How many manufacturers of diesel engines around the world — and do not count, and efficient exhaust aftertreatment technology to the Euro-4 — only two. Recall, SCR — exhaust gas with an aqueous solution of urea, first appeared in thermal power plants and ships, and then later it was used on cars. SCR followers immediately began DAF, IVECO, Mercedes-Benz, Volvo (though the Swedes had a diesel engine with EGR) and Renault Trucks, Cummins promising Russian representative also said SCR. Moreover, they claim that the motors with urea are not only reliable, but also more economical than conventional diesels, soon proved to be true, although at first it was perceived as a publicity stunt. Later in the number of supporters of SCR we stood our «KAMAZ», partly YaMZ with motors V6 / V8, and even Minsk Motor Plant.
Exhaust gas recirculation system EGR, was more common in America, and when in 2004, at the Hannover Fair, the heads of MAN and Scania said not to use for the neutralization of urea, it was hard to believe in the realization of such plans. First of all, it was not necessary to spend money on AdBlue — in the mid-2000s, Scania and MAN have talked about this as its competitive advantage. Then urea was in short supply in Europe. But two European apologists EGR were differences. MAN used the recycling, expanding it to its patented particulate filter. At Scania recycle used in the most modern of its kind — a two-stage, with an additional water-gas heat exchanger for cooling the cylinders supplied to the exhaust gas. Such a heat exchanger has been also patented Sweden — it allows not only to increase the proportion of exhaust gas supplied to the air cylinder to 25-30%, but also to reduce the exhaust gas temperature from 150 to 50 degrees.
While vehicles MAN and Scania delivered only to Europe — there were no problems. However, when in 2007-2008, began deliveries to Russia — a problem arises. In 2008-2009, among Russian carriers rumors that «mann» motors almost burns piston group. Surprisingly — worldwide MAN diesels -almost standard of reliability, and in Russia, as it turns out, they do not work … However, MAN rumors of breakdowns did not comment. A failure were, and on automobile enterprises, which are difficult to accuse of negligence and incompetence. As an example, read the information contained in this article, the employee opinion «Sovtransavto.» However, later MAN All experts have declared the termination of research and promotion of engines Euro-4 and Euro-5, equipped with only EGR. Strangely, about Scania engines no «defaming the reputation of» the rumors in Russia was not, however, the Swedes not only openly said the completion of the work with EGR, and explained why. When running a series of resource and bench testing of engines with EGR, of course, and took into account the sad experience of our carriers. It was found that in the upper part of the sleeve, in Zharov belt and piston in the combustion chamber from the water condensate formed by admixing a primary air portion «dose» of exhaust gas in the cylinder corrosion occurred. And especially aggressive environment formed in the case of diesel fuel with high sulfur content. Pistons not only melted, but the temperature of the engine with EGR tension higher than with SCR, much corroded. When it became clear that the cause of the defect was the sulfur content of our diesel, supply engines of MAN and Scania Euro 4 with EGR in Russia were discontinued.
However, trucks with diesel engines Euro 4 and recycling is still available in Russia: some Japanese and Korean. This should be considered when purchasing trucks from Asian manufacturers. In addition, EGR equipped with in-line diesel engines YaMZ Euro-4 two new families — YMZ-650 and YaMZ-530, despite the fact that their V-shaped engines Yaroslavl still used SCR. I do not want to accuse the respected manufacturers of engines for incompetence, it is clear that they are aware of the problems that were at MAN. Perhaps guarantee normal operation of the engine is the use of liquid heat exchangers for cooling the exhaust gas before feeding them into the cylinders of the engine, as did Scania. It is also important the correct dosage, which again depends on the manufacturer of the motor. Anyway, EGR heat exchangers in combination with SCR practically all engines used on the Euro-5 and Euro-6. And the same sacking by MAN Euro-6 engine placed just two heat exchanger recycling — a «hidden» in general, below, in front of the sump.
To clarify: system components for Euro-4 — whether EGR or SCR, the same heat exchangers or dosing of urea — does not the manufacturer of the motor vehicle or as a whole, as a specialized company. Such component manufacturers can be just a couple of around the world, as it turns out from the fuel equipment: or Bosch, or Delphi, but with several factories, including certain and China. Of course, this list can get and let our Yaroslavl Diesel fuel equipment, if it can establish their release at least for the domestic diesel.
Now there is no reason not to trust the European manufacturers of trucks and buses: they are Euro-4 — has long passed stage, and in Russia, too. How to behave Japanese, Korean engines, and diesels YaMZ Euro-4 -pokazhet time. However, more subtle than any received «Chinese» — they have licensed Deutz and Cummins, widespread and deeply modernized Steyr WD615, original diesel FAW, but the level of Euro-4 all — only with Common Rail and urea SCR. It’s a win-win.
With SCR technology it is possible to include it is not constant, and if necessary, under certain conditions. In particular, at a certain temperature range or in certain engine operation modes. For example, in winter, when the motor is cold and the temperature converter below operating and idling the system can not operate. In addition, the engine with SCR Euro-4 is transferred to the level of Euro 5 only increase in the dose of the injected urea — ie migration system. Conversely, of the Euro-5 engine make Euro 4 decreasing supply AdBlue. For example, there is a unique y Scania Euro 6 engine technology neutralization SCR (of course, there is the particulate filter), but without gas recirculation. This diesel may be interesting is our carriers operating into Europe: the performance of Euro 6, but the engine is able to operate without the devastating effects on diesel with a high sulfur content.
Average consumption of AdBlue is from 2 to 4% of diesel consumption for Euro 4 and about 6% for Euro 5. This engine with SCR economically from 5 to 8%, but somehow carriers think that such an outcome should be and when the system is off. In fact, savings on fuel offset the cost of urea.
Service intervals for trucks with SCR Euro-4 seriously changed, but in the list of works added service system components, in particular — the replacement filters.
Of AdBlue deemed safe by European Union Directive 67/548 / EEC. Solution into the body in small amounts is not harmful, but prolonged exposure can cause burns to the skin, and in case of eye — irritation.
SCR. The first problem — AdBlue
Today, one of the problems with the standards of Euro-4 in Russia — the acquisition of aqueous urea solution that is AdBlue. The sale of urea is only in major cities and regional centers, and that it must still search. Prices also vary, it all depends on the region: in Moscow and St. Petersburg, a 20-liter canister is 650-700, and then all of 750 rubles, but if you take the gross — can be found for 500-550 rubles. Beyond the Urals urea solution more expensive. But, in the opinion of carriers, before a year or two ago, it was much worse: the price could reach up to 60 rubles per liter. In an effort to reduce the cost of purchasing AdBlue, large ATP specializing in international transportation, buy urea abroad in large quantities. Then the price may even be less than 20 rubles per liter. Someone lucky plastic «cubes» with AdBlue vans passing loads from Germany or Finland, and someone specifically drives the car to Poland and Lithuania. In addition to winning the price, there is another advantage — the consistently high quality of the foreign component. But to take the reserve once a lot of urea — is dangerous: can go wrong, it is necessary to comply with the special conditions for storage. The ideal temperature of from zero to minus 10 ° C, then the shelf life of up to 36 months. There is evidence that the shelf life is reduced by half at 20 to 25 ° C.
In addition, there is the same abroad, try and troubleshoot related to the exhaust gas cleaning system. It turns out cheaper. For example, in Poland are really engaged in the repair of a starter rather than replacing it with a new one from a warehouse and as a result the price is reduced three times. Even in Belarus, with a small number of service centers, easier and cheaper to repair the truck.
The SCR system is extremely sensitive to dirt and oil products, the work can be broken even with a slight contact with diesel fuel or oil solution. Often the cause of the fault is filling with liquid-surrogate. AdBlue is aggressive to copper and brass to zinc, aluminum, cast iron — corrosive, as well as some plastic and rubber. Possibly clogged nozzles, tubes and filter.
SCR. The second problem — the loss of power
The SCR system can not work, especially in winter, if the urea solution freezes in the reservoir, assuming gel form at minus 11 degrees. But even after repeated freezing agent is not stratified. Although many manufacturers machines AdBlue tank is equipped with heater, working on the cooling system after the engine is warmed urea, it becomes liquid. For example, the use of Cummins liquid heating metering pump and the AdBlue tank with automatic command of the electronic engine control unit. And in order to avoid freezing of the urea solution in the tubes and nozzles used pneumatic delivery system solution with the function of blowing air at low temperatures. In the absence of the urea solution freezes or engines of different manufacturers behave differently. MAN Trucks and Renault Trucks — do not lose power, Volvo and Mercedes — slightly loose, Scania had the power loss of about 10%, and can, and do not decrease. Most problems delivering DAF: reviews of carriers to travel becomes impossible: there is white smoke from the exhaust pipe, the speed of 30-40 km / h. This is due to the fact that the computer program does not allow the Dutch and the «thought» that you can ride without urea. But on any machine can not leave the tank empty, as the pump and nozzle are cooled by the most liquid AdBlue, as a result of overheating, they will fail. Another feature of modern trucks — the presence of the electronic engine control unit, from which you can take all the information on the motor and, in particular, the work of a diesel engine with the disconnected system SCR. This uses the police in Europe — besides the usual inspector checking the tachograph and reads the system parameters neutralization. Previously, the police checked only the presence of a reagent in the tank, and now tests and toxicity from. If violations are fixed — a fine is imposed, the car can do for the first time to come to the EB-roSoyuz, and operating system of neutralization, and the driver will be fined for the operation of the truck with a faulty SCR system in Russia … It is the story of one particular carrier. Information on all past «mistakes» of the engine is stored in the «electronic brain» of the year and gradually updated, in addition, it can be «erased» by a workshop. Other carriers say that Germany or Austria, the police have little interest in, polluting the air whether the truck Africa or Russia. And because we still practiced riding to the border with the disconnected system of SCR, and after the border — is enabled. Save urea.
SCR. The third problem — the layout
Another problem — placing the AdBlue tank to the frame of the tractor unit. Unlike trucks and flatbed trucks, where the wheelbase can reach five meters from the tractor at the base in 3600-3900 mm space quite a bit. Initially, in 2004-2005, when there were trucks in Europe with Euro-4, a revolutionary layout decisions were placing tanks in the place where you have previously installed the battery box. This is done in the Mercedes-Benz Actros second generation, and the battery installed in the rear overhang. But if batteries are flat, just right to disengage; otherwise, the battery does not crawl. One of the most advanced trends: on Scania Streamline tanks for urea can be placed inside the frame, and the outside under side skirts, is just filler neck with the traditional blue cap. There are reservoirs of different volume — from 30 to 70 liters. Shape is also very diverse and complex, it seems that the tank almost screwed onto the shaft drive — not for nothing that the tanks are made of plastic. In general, plastic fuel tanks of complex shape, there are already more than 20 years in various passenger foreign cars … Other accommodation AdBlue tank showed Volvo Group — behind the cab, behind the panel of the fairing. This is done on the new Renault range «T» on the Volvo FH.
Russian problem, the poor quality of diesel fuel, it seems eternal. Previously, the main trouble was the water in the diesel, fuel equipment that kills indiscriminately car brand and prestige automaker. Do not allow the water to the pumps, not to mention the injectors, additional filters to help settlers, and the name of Separ has long been a household name. Although there are other filters similar purpose. No less serious problem — razbodyazhi-tion of diesel fuel in the early years of winter, although sometimes gas stations sell diesel fuel summer and year-round at all. In this case the driver is unable to immediately verify the quality of diesel fuel. If you are lucky with a strange dressing — truck rides, and if not — I stood. But to deal with fuel waxing too long ago learned: there are filters and-plivozaborniki heated. But the high content of sulfur in fuel «to the tooth» is not to try and just do not realize that the engine operates at low-quality diesel fuel. The consequences will be, but later. To trust certificates that hang out at the gas station — a thankless task. Conduct laboratory studies of samples of fuel from the gas station specific to most trucking companies have no time, no place, and expensive. Would be alive regional management utility vehicle — it such monitoring is quite capable. We exchanged several regional management of data on the sulfur content in the Local — ready real picture of this problem. Next — lawsuits for negligent retailers and manufacturers of fuel. However, no controls — no analysis. Although similar studies regularly engaged in AIH, but he was not able to protect all carriers.
Of course, the quality of diesel track automakers, but the results were not widely advertised. Its rapid monitoring of diesel fuel in Russia, we provided the Russian office of Cummins. As experts point Cummins, sulfur content in the fuel affects the formation of soot and nitrogen oxides NOx in the cylinders and, respectively, in the exhaust gases, as well as work of elements of neutralization. And technology EGR, SCR technology and standards in the Euro-4 diesel fuel is required with a sulfur content of less than 50 ppm. Otherwise, the operation of the EGR engine sulfur fuels leads to an irreversible reduction in the efficiency of the particulate filter. When SCR system performance catalyst which is located in the muffler, yet recovered, even after applying the sulfur content 2000 ppm. For Euro 3 sulfur content should be in the range of from 350 ppm to 500 ppm, while the Euro-2 — in the range from 500 ppm to 1000 ppm. Cummins studies were conducted in 2011 in several regions of the country, so to speak about the reliability of the complete «picture» there is no reason not specified, and no gas stations were sampled. However, according to some reviews the situation has not changed much for the better. But the result of the study is still visible 65% of the fuel with a sulfur content above 350 ppm, i.e. Euro-3, 40% of the fuel with a sulfur content greater than 500 ppm, that is, Euro 2 and 35% of the sulfur content of 1000 to 4400 ppm. There is a pattern: high-quality fuel to Euro-3 is in the oil-producing and oil-refining or obviously economically prosperous regions. This St. Petersburg, Ufa, Samara, Syzran, Tatarstan, but in Bugulma found a sample with a sulfur content of 2000 ppm. In Nizhny Novgorod, the fuel only Euro-2, but there are also containing 3000 ppm. In Siberia, a good fuel to Euro-3 in Omsk, a little worse — in Krasnoyarsk and Novosibirsk Region five three samples yielded results from 2300 to 4400 ppm. Meanwhile, back in 2009 in Moscow only 150 gas stations sold diesel fuel with 5000 ppm, not lying down, even outdated GOST 305-82. Perhaps such diesel fuel can be poured only in T-34 tanks …
There is one small strategic cunning, many obvious, but still recall: automated enterprise-oriented international and interregional transport fleet divided into groups with engines of Euro-3, Euro-4 and Euro-5. Naturally, «on Russia» work the machine age, especially the Euro-3, which has long been depreciated and «recaptured» the cost of purchasing additional trips abroad. And only then sell them at second-hand. By the way, due to the fact that international transport vehicles operate on a European low-sulfur diesel, they have problems with engines of Euro 4 almost none. Here it is, the ability to repair itself from the catalyst SCR!
From all this one conclusion: choose the best, and start filling the «black» lists of gas stations, used large fuel tanks. And if the situation with fuel is equally negative in all region- create their own gas stations, to provide them with high-quality diesel fuel. One of the options — cooperation with the railway. For them to drive a tank or two to the refinery — no problem. Moreover, private gas stations and profitable businesses operating in the transport of cargo and passenger convoys. By the way, when his refueling can also earn by selling high-quality fuel to Storo well. And there, staring, and will end with the troubled times of diesel fuel …
Will beat. Beat the ruble …
In 2010, Scania has led the statistics, according to which in the countries of Western Europe about half of the registered heavy trucks are still complies with Euro-2 and below. And this despite the fact that the European Union more than a decade is seriously fighting for the purity of the atmosphere. At times and in major European cities across the trucks do not even Euro-2, and the ancient atmospheric diesels, with serious fuming. And it’s not collectible old-timers, but very real commercial vehicles. But, of course, their units, that is incomparably less than it might be with us throughout Russia.
While it is difficult to assume what will be Russia’s sanctions on carriers that operate old cars. There is a total ban on the use of Euro-3, respectively, no major problems for the carrier. Maybe later they will impose higher taxes, but then it is logical, and the existence of preferential tax treatment to encourage the exploitation of more environmentally friendly cars. What we have instead of Euro 4 — cars with Euro 5 and especially with the Euro 6. Such benefits are in Europe. We have the same tax authorities can not even keep track of culling cars or sell them for years and send the former owner of the notice about the need to pay taxes on the vehicle. Where they already control a «trifle» as an adjustment of tax rates for the year or two that will work on the benefits of such supernova car.
But definitely we can say that there will be a ban on the operation of vehicles with outdated rules in the center of large cities and in ecologically clean areas, for example — at the resorts and tourist facilities. Probably at first it will be in Moscow and St. Petersburg-all such innovations begin ottuda.Voznikaet question: «How hard will they limit?» Meanwhile, the facilities in Sochi and Vladivostok were built with the use of trucks with Euro-2 and Euro-3. With the ban falls through construction, reconstruction and less significant objects. Backbone truck performing standards Euro-4, also is not so much if put on the fence less environmentally friendly cars — any serious problems with the delivery of any goods … The ban on service trips and tourist buses below Euro 4 seriously undermine the business. Complete the picture of a complete collapse of the country’s situation with public transport: buses with higher standards of Euro-3 is very rare.
On the other hand, when Russia have implemented «Technical Regulations on Safety of Wheeled Vehicles», also seemed to be standing on the edge … But something tweaked (in particular, the length of the trains left 20 meters), but something just not executed (as usual, we have) the same «kengooryatniki» alive and to machines with old, 30 years of age is no big finds fault with the passing inspection. Yes, and the inspection was quite different. Everything is prepared according to the Army wise saying: «Do not rush to execute a command — may be a second, canceling the first.»
As usual in Russia, to address some of the traffic problems will implement special permit. However, as they say, not so easy, and, as promised, it is now to get a Day Pass on the Ring Road … Another way to solve the problem of compliance with increasingly stringent environmental standards of all — conversion of automobiles snizshih classes to higher. However, it seems the only leader in this area — «KAMAZ». In Naberezhnye Chelny for nearly ten years as an established repair of trucks at the plant «Remdizel» of the holding. In fact, the old car is only the log, but it amends — and everything else new, or very well renovated. In particular, six years ago, «Remdizel» instead of engines Euro-0 set of Euro-2 engines. Apparently, the next step — Euro 4? As for the other manufacturers — is illustrative «GolAZ.» To the question: «Is it possible to convert the plant released there in the early 90’s tourist bus Mercedes-Benz O 303 from Euro 0 to Euro-2 or Euro-3» — responded that the plant is only concerned with the production of new buses. However, belonging to the «GAZ Group» Yaroslavl Motor Plant more than a decade with the motor operated Ikarus YaMZ — the refurbishment there is nothing tricky. Namely buses lower environmental classes dominated in Russia. Are manufacturers of engines, fuel equipment and other «linkage» is not interested in a new market for their products? Meanwhile, the real demand for the conversion of cars very soon may appear. Who will take this niche? Perhaps more flexible to market conditions small businesses, but not the fact that the conversion will be carried out efficiently and in full, not on paper. On the other hand, it would not hurt to bring order to the more «mundane» business — with cars equipped with gasoline engines, but rebuilt in the gas. It is known that the ancient petrol engine with a carburetor and a vacuum gas regulators, even in this case, already complies with Euro-2 and Euro-3, but nowhere in the documents that checks DPS officer, it is not fixed. While on the road to prove the ecological purity of the exhaust gas analyzer without checking — it is impossible. But the inspector in this case, the check is not necessary.
ALEXEI OSTRETSOV Head of Product Management Company «Mercedes-Benz East Truckee.» Moscow
By analogy with the transition from Euro 3 to Euro 4 in Europe, Russia Mercedes-Benz immediately moves to more stringent standards Euro-5, bypassing the Euro-4. SCR technology from the perspective of the system for the Euro-4 and Euro-5 is no different. The only difference in the configuration and number of reactant AdBlue, applied to the treatment of exhaust gases. But the carrier gets the car cleaner, potentially having a higher residual value and protected from possible changes in the legislation, one way or another associated with environmental standards — whether limit entry into towns or tolls on roads. SCR has gained an advantage because the engine does not actually make any changes that make it more difficult design or additional requirements for the operation: special oil or diesel fuel with low sulfur content. The SCR system is simple and reliable. Failure of the component if it happens, it is usually associated with misuse, poor quality AdBlue, attempts to circumvent the system, and so on. N.
Additional amount of maintenance associated with SCR, negligible. The main problem is the need to acquire additional liquid AdBlue-to that carriers are not yet ready psychologically. Specialists have caused some concern over the low exhaust gas temperature, which is critical for the dump, and operation at low temperatures, it is in the Russian context. AdBlue availability is still limited, and the price per liter of urea may still exceed the cost of diesel fuel is about 2 times. Until more experience has been accumulated since the volume of supplies trucks with engines of Euro-4 and Euro-5 is not high, but the answers to many questions will be available after the next winter. With the transfer engines of Euro 2 / Euro 3 to Euro 4, the design of diesel engines Mercedes-Benz largely remained the same, the diameter of the cylinder stroke — geometrical parameters — have not changed. Of course, I had to change the design of the cylinder block, cylinder head, cylinder-piston group, including gaskets and seals, in connection with the increased workload. But such changes always occur in the process of modernization of engines. Engines Mercedes-Benz Euro 2/3/4/5 vehicles Actros, Atego Ahog and have a system of power PLD. At engines of Euro 4 / Euro 5 compared with engines of Euro-3 increased the compression ratio from 17.75 to 18.5, which allows the fuel to burn more efficiently. At Euro 4/5 engines are installed other jets. The control algorithm injection system and modified to achieve the desired power characteristics and emissions. Fuel consumption has been reduced by 3-5% in comparison with the Euro-Z.Udelny fuel consumption, g / kWh engine OM501LA for example, 300 kW / 408 l. from. It looks like this: at rated power of Euro-3 211 g / kWh and Euro-5 -197 g / kWh at full load 190 and 187, respectively. Depending on the weight of cars equipped with SCR, increased by 80-130 kg. This mass of components SCR. The greatest increase in weight gives AdBlue tank, (the amount of 25 to 95 liters). Of course, additional components SCR make production more expensive. However, the price is more determined by the market, customs duties and so on. N., A manufacturer is not always consider it possible to shift their costs to the client. It makes no sense to talk about the difference in price as well as the Euro-3 in Russia is not supplied. Last year, the segment of tractors higher customs duties on cars Euro 3 roughly aligned with the price of Euro 5 vehicles.
The negative impact that the nature of one truck with a diesel engine Euro-i, still in operation, is comparable to the twenty (!) Modern cars of Euro-6 and a similar amount of power.
In Europe, the USA and Japan almost simultaneously attended to the problem of preserving the Earth’s air basin. It is clear that every industry has its own standards for emissions: car Euro-i appeared in the EU in 1992 and in 1995 — Euro-2, 1999-m-Euro-3 and Euro-4 -in 2005 and Euro-5 — in 2009. Note: three years between the Euro and the Euro-i-2, and between the Euro-3 and Euro-4 for six years. Not so easy these standards were observed, even the Europeans. As you can see, while the gap between Russia and the European-eight years, but then the gap will be reduced. The most technologically complex and «painful» transition is from Euro 2 / Euro 3 to Euro 4. Interestingly, the timing of China’s transition to Euro-4 standards are comparable with Russian noses Chinese say: «We have a little special norms of Euro-4». However, that is in them «special» -not specify. Meanwhile, Russian sales of commercial vehicles in China are close to selling «Europeans».
PETER Keene specialist warranty and service LLC «PAC-Eastern Europe.» Moscow
In the transition to Euro-3 and Euro-4 carriers feared that it would be impossible to diagnose the fuel system with electronic control, their bogey reliability electronics. Practice has shown that the reliability of electronics and components is high enough and the problem of DTCs removed prevalence of service centers with a universal diagnostic equipment. Major problems still produces low-quality diesel fuel from which fails fuel equipment, mostly — the injectors. Carriers afraid of the additional cost of urea, its absence in our «blind» areas. There are difficulties with the heated exhaust dump bodies -ostatochnoy temperature is not enough for a complete heating of the bottom and walls. This leads to the fact that the manufacturers are forced to put the body of the «pipe», which reduces the useful volume of cargo, or use polymeric liner body, which leads to more expensive techniques.
When upgrading the major Chinese manufacturers of engines for the Euro-W / EURO-4 had the power to change the system, install new fuel pump, injectors, engine control unit, new pistons, new rings, new turbochargers. But in general, the «global» changes in the design of the engine did not happen, so some special damage, we do not expect. On FAW engines Euro-4 achieved using the technology SCR-injection of urea (AdBlue). At this point the EGR system is not in use. Daylight environmental class Euro-5 can rather simple modernization of the fuel system and engine management. When using SCR technology applied a new exhaust system with catalytic converter and injection of urea, a new electronic engine control unit, adding urea dosing and its heating, the entire exhaust system made of stainless steel. Vehicle weight has increased somewhere 150 kg.
Power and torque in the engines of trucks FAW rose slightly, and they have become more economical. If motors Euro 2 de minimum fuel consumption was 200 (g / kW .ch) or less, on engines Euro-3 was less than this parameter 195. For the catalyst requires a high temperature of the exhaust gases, in connection with which periodically occurs increased fuel injection to the engine in the exhaust stroke. It adds about 2 l / 100 km to the total consumption, plus about 3 liters per 100 km consumes AdBlue, which also is not cheap. In this regard, the total operating cost is still rising. Periodicity has not changed — the system with the Euro 4 SCR with AdBlue, as opposed to a system with EGR, not reduce the life of the oil. The price in the transition to Euro-4 has increased due to the use of additional electronic components and expensive materials in the exhaust system. Declared yield series engines 6DL2-800 thousand. Km., And the resource engine series CA6DM2 -1 million kilometers. The cost of the truck FAW during the transition to Euro-4 increased by about 300 thousand. Rubles. Tipper Euro 4 will be available in Russia only with the fall of the warehouses was a major reserve of Euro-3 technology, which is now coming to an end.
The name «AdBlue» is a registered trademark of the Association of the German Automotive Industry-VDA. Urea is produced from a highly purified and demineralized water in the urea solution -32.5 percent.
AdBlue is aggressive to copper and brass to zinc, aluminum, chugunu- corrosive, as well as some plastic and rubber.
Vladislav Doroshenko Director fleet of Itella in Russia Moscow
— In the transition from engine Euro-2 and Euro-3 to Euro 4, the majority of Russian carriers are concerned about a few technical issues. The first — at the SCR system are inevitable additional costs for the purchase of urea carrier, and problems arise in its availability on the market. In Russia, unlike Europe, urea is not sold in sufficient quantities and is not widely available. Furthermore, AdBlue freezes at a temperature of minus 11 degrees, in this climate, this leads to the fact that four months, the system is not working. Exhaust gas recirculation EGR — also raises some concerns. It is known that the system is demanding on the quality of diesel fuel, particularly for the sulfur content therein. In the big cities, where you can actually control the quality of fuel at filling stations and producers, this system can be safely used on cars. But most of the trucks operated throughout Russia, where the control over the quality of the fuel is not as strict. Therefore, carriers are treated with distrust of machines operating with EGR. Significant risks causing the driver’s attempt to save money on buying cheap fuel. Practice shows that in this case the engine problems can occur within 200-300 thousand kilometers of operation — after about two years, and then have to invest in costly repairs. We need urgently to address the issues with the availability of urea and fuel quality.
Well, let’s prohibited to release vehicles with Euro-3 and below, but it should not lead to a ban on the operation of these machines. After all, any increase in the cost of road transport has a direct impact on the increase in consumer prices in the country. In Europe, the standards are effective Euro-used, but most of the internal European fleet complies with Euro-2 and below. Probably, the same tolerance for a few old vehicles should be with us. Carrier without any problems should be able to continue to operate the vehicles purchased earlier, especially since not every company has the ability to radically upgrade its fleet. For example, after the crisis, the cost of transport in the Russian market is still rising slightly, but prices for Russian carriers are much lower than in Europe. At the same time the cost of Russians are practically the same. Cars are expensive — we use the same brands of European trucks. Last year, among other things, also introduced recycling. Fuel is not much cheaper, and the repair, maintenance and spare parts — more expensive, while the salary of drivers is gradually approaching the European.
RF Government Decree of January 20, 2SP2, the transition to the new Euro-4 standard was postponed for a year. From 1st January 2013, all manufactured and imported into the territory of the Russian cars must comply with Euro-4, but it is possible to use the basic chassis and vehicles with certificates of Euro s, issued before 31 December 2012.
PETRKATS director of the service and guarantees of «MAN Truck & Bus RUS», Moscow
-We in Russia MAN Common Rail system appeared in the 2005-2006 rn These were the engines of Euro-3 type D2876. The new system, new diagnostic methods, more and more electronics on the engine appeared especially during system maintenance. All this caused some tension at service stations. In all of this the clients were satisfied with the new engines: a significantly reduced noise of the engine, improved vehicle dynamics. In 2007, the market in Russia has a new engine is Euro-3 standard D2066 with a fuel injection system Common Rail. It was a completely new engine, completely changed the system timing. Subsequently, it is based on this engine to implement new environmental standards Euro-4/5, and now and Euro-6.
To fulfill ecological standard Euro-4 MAN sells one of the two technologies. The first — the use of the AGR / EGR, in this case, you must install the RM-catalyst, the second — the use of exhaust gases to neutralize the solution AdBlue, the solution is injected into the SCR-catalyst. In the transition from the Euro 3 to Euro 4 major changes in MAN engines touched several systems. System components AGR / EGR received differentiated regulation, unlike the previous generation of engines, where regulation system AGR / EGR held on the basis of: a fully open or fully closed.
The final system used a new exhaust catalyst (PM-Kat), in the previous generation of engines used a simple silencer. The fuel system also has been subjected to several transformations, for example, in Rail pressure was raised to 1800 bar, fuel injection was carried out with three portions of each injector. In addition, the lubricant high-pressure fuel pumps from this point to produce fuel, and not oil as before.
Of course, the installation of new systems require new software engine management system EDC. For each type of engine tuning work EDC individual. The implementation of ecological standard Euro-5 demanded deeper and fine tune motor control. For heavy series trucks implementation of Euro-5 remains possible only through the use of SCR with AdBlue, a light-Series trucks and engines MAN buses using turbochargers with duhstupenchatym supercharged and intercooled charge air between stages of boost. The world is moving in the direction of tightening the requirements for the quality of the exhaust gas, which, in turn, entails the complication of engine management systems, and imposes strict rules on the applicable operating materials. The resource engine and its systems are directly connected with it. Applying the manufacturer’s recommended maintenance materials significantly prolongs life and ensures reliable operation of the units MAN.
Undoubtedly, the cost of ownership of modern cars has increased compared to previous generations of cars, but this is not a selfish tricks manufacturers, rather it can be called the spirit of the times.
Euro 4 fuel originally planned to introduce from 1 January 2010, but the terms were postponed first to 2012, then for 2014. Until December 31
2012 acted Euro-2 standard, as from 1st January 2013 all produced fuel required to have an environmental standard not lower than Euro-3.
DMITRY KOLESNICHENKO technician of «Total East», Moscow
— For oil change intervals in engines Euro-4 provides essential technology used exhaust gas. The SCR system does not affect operation of the engine oil, so there are no additional requirements to the oil. Engines with EGR vehicles require the use of higher-quality motor oils. In this case, there is increased nitration (ingress of nitrogen oxides NOx) in oil — as a consequence, its accelerated oxidation and reduction of the resource. The exhaust fumes may be acidic combustion products which have a deleterious effect on the engine and the oil. In addition, EGR technology also requires the engine oil improved detergency -for effective control of soot falling into the engine. The amount of soot formed is also greater. Oil should neitrali zovyvat-acidic foods and disperse the carbon black.
But manufacturers, knowing these problems developed for vehicles with EGR special category of oils with higher requirements, e.g., API CI-4. An API CI is specially designed for the American Petroleum Institute oils that have been working in engines with EGR. In the case of DPF diesel particulate filter must take into account that occasionally honeycomb filter is burned, resulting soot particles are converted into C02. The main problem here is the fact that some elements in the oil inhibit particulate filter, in particular, the ash components. This reduces oil life and efficiency. Therefore, at the request of automakers have been developed low-ash oil (LOW SAPS) with a low content of phosphorus, sulfur and sulfated ash. Accordingly, in Europe there was a specification for oil ACEA Eb in the US — API
CJ-4. In Russia, the sulfur content in diesel fuel on average in the country is still high, so the resource LOW SAPS oils using sulfur fuels will be still lower.
If we compare the European Automobile Manufacturers’ recommended intervals for engine oils, we can see that they have not decreased during the transition from Euro 3 to Euro 4, av some cases increased, but there are also important to consider the quality of the fuel sulfur content. Of course, the price of different motor oils is also different. Oils with a higher level of properties (the higher categories), of course, cost more. Type of core framework also plays an important role in pricing: synthetic, semi-synthetics, mineral water. For heavy-duty truck engines Euro-4 company Total Oil recommends the following: TOTAL RUBIA9900 FE 5W-30; TOTAL RUBIA 9200FE5W-30; TOTAL RUBIA 8900 10W-40; TOTAL RUBIA 8600 10W-40; TOTAL RUBIA 7900 15W-40; TOTAL RUBIA 7400 15W-40.
For technology EGR and SCR, with the Euro-4 standards require diesel fuel with sulfur content below 50 ppm. Otherwise, the operation of the EGR engine sulfur fuels leads to an irreversible reduction in the efficiency of the particulate filter. When the system operation 5CR converter, which is located in the muffler, yet recovered, even after applying the sulfur content 2000 ppm.
VLADIMIR Mochalkin ARM Chief of «Sovtransavtoekspeditsiya» Moscow
— In 2007, our company has acquired 35 tractors MAN by Euro-3 to work on international traffic. Half of the car was purchased with engines MAN D2866, and a half — with MAN D2066. At the time D28 engines it was already very well known Russian carriers, a D20 just beginning to be delivered, so we decided not to risk and to hedge — share a lot of cars. All engines were equipped with exhaust gas recirculation EGR.
At first, everything was very good, satisfactory to the cars was not, but later, at run about 400 thousand kilometers, in some engines, increased fuel consumption and engine oil. Moreover, motors and D20, and motors D28. Unfortunately, at the moment in Russian MAN service staff could not help us. The reason for the increased consumption of oil and fuel have decided to seek their own, all the more so in the company of «Sawt-Sovtran» traditionally strong and well-equipped technical service has its own highly qualified specialists. Uncovered head — saw cylinder engines simply «live» oil and piston crowns, the combustion chamber — as if melted. Piston rings — lay. Several of these pistons have given to our international drivers so that they travel in Europe stopped at the service centers MAN, show piston local experts, we found out the cause of breakdowns. It turned out that in Europe with such a problem in MAN engines nobody faced. For several reasons, we have decided to repair the engines themselves, mainly -Replaced piston and repair of cylinder heads. At the same time we decided to sample disable the EGR system on the first renovated so soon restored power motors, and fuel and oil consumption has bounced back. Further operation of these engines is also not a problem. As a result, we have disabled the EGR system on all cars MAN, some of them still had to be repaired by replacing CPG; and part goes flawlessly now. And apparently to the next, as a major repair of the car engines are still very far away. In 2011, the company purchased a batch of tractors Mercedes-Benz Actros Euro 5, which, of course, were equipped with SCR. During this time, of course, also Breakage of neutralization, but minor. And not with the very engines. Basically failure have been associated with the use of urea is not of good quality, that happened in the initial period of operation of these vehicles. The service centers Mercedes- Benz changed the pump and nozzle system SCR, nozzle cost 11 thousand rubles. At that moment, AdBlue was in short supply, and the price reached 60 rubles per liter. Now wholesale and guaranteed high quality urea for sale to 17 000 rubles per ton. Later, when the supply AdBlue to get by, problems with SCR our Actros is already gone. Information about the broken system of neutralization, of course, is stored in the engine control unit, but it can «clean up» the original «mersedesovsky» computer. Cases in Europe to our drivers fined for broken neutralization system — I do not remember.
Seichas no reason not to trust the European manufacturers of trucks and buses — for their Euro 4davno passed stage, and in Russia, too. How to behave Japanese, Korean motors and diesel engines and KAMAZ YaMZ Euro-4 show time.
It is necessary to bring order to the documenting of vehicles equipped with gasoline engines, but converted to gas fuel. Even the old engine with a carburetor and a vacuum gas reducer, already complies with Euro-2 and Euro-3.
Sergei Kotov manager of sales support of «Scania-Rus’, Moscow — most Russian carriers fear torque limit by 40%, which included an increase exhaust emissions. This happens very often because of poor quality fuel or negligent maintenance. Since this function is required, the owners are looking for ways to disable illegal. Sometimes they succeed, sometimes — not. Basically modernization of engines in the transition to the Euro 2 / Euro 3 to Euro 4 touched profile cams camshafts and shape of the combustion chamber. In addition, the changed unit injectors and turbine and system of fall of toxicity appeared — such as SCR and EGR. And with these new sensors and systems, program-ing software control units and so on. N. The last three years all cars Scania, supplied to the Russian market, are equipped with SCR, which is power is not affected. Prior to the introduction of the new platform engines range in our market was equipped with a 9-liter five-cylinder motor capacity of 210-310 liters. s, 12-liter and 420 liter 340.380. from. and 16-liter «eight» power 500-560. The new 13-liter platform has a number of 400-480 liters. c, a 16-liter — 730 liter. from. in the version Euro5. The increase in mass with the Euro-4-almost imperceptibly: about a hundred kilograms of 80-liter tank with urea, power supply and light ceramic catalyst. When GCW 40 tonnes such increase in mass can be neglected. Prices of cars, of course, increased, but a much greater impact on their changes were economic factors -such as the situation in Russia and Europe, the euro and the Swedish krona, etc. Our experts have noted that the use of EGR with our sulfur fuels leads to rapid failure of the piston, which erodes the resulting sulfuric acid. Therefore, Scania has officially banned the supply to Russia of machines with EGR and encourages carriers to bring their own. Application of SCR system can reduce fuel requirements, but demanding culture of service as a solution karbomi garden, yes, sometimes sold together AdBlue, killing the entire system, and diesel fuel with 3000 ppm sulfur kills the catalyst. Increasing environmental level Euro 4 to Euro 5 with SCR requires only increase the rate of urea injection pump. Theoretically, for the transition to Euro-4, as well as for all measures to protect the environment, you have to pay an increase in fuel consumption. However, improving the engine, the use of new management systems and new components offset the increase in fuel consumption, and even led to its reduction. Today its Scania 13-liter engines Euro-4 and Euro-5 are far superior fuel economy cars with engines of Euro-2 and Euro-3. A second generation of Euro 6 engines even more economical engines Euro 5. If you use the recommended fuel engine life, especially with the SCR, does not differ from the motors with other levels. Source of the SCR system depends on careful handling it. For example, entering the tank with urea kills diesel pump and dispensing valve. Now there are repair kits, and some time ago had to change the entire block assembly, which is about 20 000 Euros. The transition to Euro-4 engines sales Scania in Russia is practically not affected. Changes in the number of cars sold is due to the stiff competition in the Russian market of heavy trucks and fluctuations in the global and Russian economy. At the time of the introduction of Euro 4 we did not have a large stock of cars with engines of Euro-3, so that the sale of the remnants of this class of trucks took very little time.
In Russia, the only leader in the retrofitting of vehicles — «KAMAZ». Six years ago the company «Remdizel» within the holding company instead of engines Euro-install the engine on the Euro-2.
In 2010, Scania has led the statistics, according to which in the countries of Western Europe about half of the registered heavy trucks are still complies with Euro-2 and below.
Vyacheslav Topunov senior engineer of the department of production and purchasing, Volvo Group Trucks Russia, Moscow
— It is clear that carriers do not like any increase in costs, and the introduction of Euro-4 in Russia entails also expanding the range of cost -in particular for the purchase of liquid AdBlue. There are many questions about the operation of the system during the cold season -on which we are always ready to answer, but in general the past six months have shown that the correct operation of vehicles of problems with motors Euro 4 no. This is due to the fact that the existing line now Volvo engine was originally designed as engines of Euro-W / Euro-4 and Euro-5. In Russia, we have just moved to Europe in the run-in technology. Now Volvo offers a number of different engine variants of volume and capacity: 7-, 11-, 13- and 16-liter engines Euro-4 and Euro-5. Depending on the model of power line with Euro-4 and Euro-5 may vary. Most of the original parts in the exhaust system, as well as the fact that due to the engine control system and power supply system, and the original software. According to the «hardware» of basic engine parts — the differences are minimal. In general, the machine grew heavy 100 kg, but it depends on the vehicle, of the volume of the tank AdBlue, performance exhaust system and even the direction of the exhaust.
To comply with Euro 4 / Euro 5, Volvo uses only SCR. Engines Euro-4 and Euro-5 in our model range — units of different generations. Euro 5 engines more economical, quieter and a number of indicators are superior to the previous generation, but they have long operated in Europe, so it is well-established, proven solutions. In the transition to Euro-4, compared with Euro 3, service intervals have not changed (at Volvo are individually calculated for each vehicle, depending on the operating conditions). Due to the increase of volume that associated with the service of SCR, THEN value rose slightly. Specific breakdowns or resource change engines Euro-4 is also not mentioned. Resource motor essentially depends on many factors — such as the intensity and operating conditions, the quality of fluids and service, climate … and a host of other features. Operating experience of Volvo cars in Europe shows that a million kilometers of Euro-4 engine — not the limit.