Candidate of Economic Sciences
December Plenum (1959) pointed to the need to organize the specialized state farms and collective farms specialized in the production of fruits, berries and grapes in areas with favorable conditions for this.
For seven years the area of orchards and berry fields in industrial areas and around the major cities of the Ukrainian SSR is planned to increase in comparison with 1958 almost in 2 times. To do this, in suburban areas around major cities and industrial centers it is planned to organize specialized farms and some farms specializing in the production of fruits and berries.
In such specialization is greatly affected by the availability of labor, the amount of land suitable for gardens and berries, as well as the right balance of basic and additional branches in each farm.
With the specialization of suburban farms, in addition to soil, organizational and economic conditions, it is necessary to take into account transport costs. The territorial economy further away from the town, the greater these costs and higher production costs. Especially inappropriate far from the city berries lay on large areas. For example, the farm «Scoops», located at a distance of 1 km from the city of Kiev, transport costs of 1 quintal of strawberries trading organizations in 1958 amounted to 2 rubles. 50 kopecks., And at the farm named after Dzerzhinsky, located at a distance of 65 km from Kiev — 14 rubles. 25 kopecks.
In this connection, depending on the remoteness of collective and state farms of the city vary not only the volume of production of fruits and berries, but the combination of industries and cultures (Table. 1).
These data show that the remoteness of the city reduced the proportion of commodity production of fruits, berries, vegetables, potatoes and increase production of grain and industrial crops.
Proper organization of suburban economy requires not only a rational combination of industries, but also the establishment of the optimal size of each sector. The size of the industry — is one of the most important organizational factors that creates the foundation for a more productive use of labor, the introduction of agricultural techniques and the rational use of mechanization.
This is especially important for gardening — industry, dealing with permanent crops that require large expenditures of labor and capital.
Although gardening is the profitability of the industry, but with a small amount of the commodity and the garden yields its share of commodity production greatly reduced, and the cost of labor per unit of output increased. This is because the small size garden does not allow sufficiently to mechanise the work. Such a garden a secondary role in the economy, given less attention. As a result of the economic efficiency of the sector is reduced (Table. 2).
Efficient and cost-effective layout of the garden, which provides the proper organization of labor, the use of mechanization and proper placement of breeds and varieties, is possible only when the size of the garden will reach 75 hectares or more.
The size of the area occupied by gardens, also depends on the distance from the town of collective farms — farms located close to the city, spread out over large gardens, as well as the distance from the city their size decreases.
So, within a radius of 20 km are common garden area of 25 to 200 ha and more, within a radius of 21 to 40 km — an area of 10 100 hectares within a radius of 41 to 65 km — an area of 1 100 hectares.
The same is observed when placing the berries. The farms near the city, the proportion of the area of berries with respect to the area of the gardens is 7.4%, in a radius of 21-40 km-4.4%, within a radius of 41-65 km of -1.9%.
Analyzing the production of fruits and berries, we can conclude that the economy in most suburban areas is still far from full use of the opportunities for increasing horticultural products. In many farms, even located near the city, the industry has not yet become a major.
Even a number of farms the 20-kilometer zone of gardens cover an area of 10 to 50 hectares. Only a relatively small part of the collective farms has large gardens and can be considered a specialist in the production of fruits and berries. Therefore, when placing gardening in suburban areas is necessary to provide for orchards and berry on a scale that would allow the use of mechanization and the creation of specialized horticultural teams.
In suburban farms with a large specific weight in pome fruit trees and rocks using fertile land for gardens it is advisable to hold the aisles of young plants strawberries, melons, vegetables and potatoes.
Rational specialization of individual farms in the production of fruits and berries is possible only at diversifying their development. Therefore, for more effective management of such facilities must be the right mix of gardening with other industries.
Development of horticulture around cities and industrial centers is a testament to further enhance the culture and welfare of our country.
Michurin wrote that the garden in an industrial area, not only the economic factor, not only a certain sector of the economy, the district, but also a great cultural phenomenon.