State Farm number 12 — largest horticultural sector of Azerbaijan. It has 1836 hectares of orchards, of which 1553 hectares is occupied pome crops.
Perennials service three divisions consisting of 14 production teams, in which at 25-32 permanent jobs. For each of them is fixed from 112 to 180 acres of gardens. All the labor-intensive work carried out three tractor brigade.
It should be noted that in the past for a number of years there was no proper care of gardens, resulting in the majority of fruit-bearing plants appeared severely damaged by pests and diseases, sharply decreased their productivity. Many of the trees remained 2-3 skeletal branches. Particularly affected varieties of apple trees Kandil synaptic, Parma winter gold, Rosemary White. Several hundred acres of gardens became uneconomical for further exploitation. Trees appeared more resilient varieties Reinette champagne Giro Haji, Sarah-Tursh.
The staff of the farm is making every effort to restore the garden, and in the years to sharply raise its productivity. To this end, we perform reconstruction of neighborhoods with heavily affected trees to be removed, that is, to re-plant trees between rows damaged. Because old trees are located 10X10 and 10 ^ 12 meters and do not interfere with saplings, we temporarily maintain them and get them to harvest about 30 quintals per hectare. When the young trees grow, remove the old.
Before planting the seedlings in the middle of row spacing raise Plantage to a depth of 60-70 cm in a band at the same time are making per hectare to 30 tons of manure, superphosphate and 3 quintals of ammonium nitrate 2 quintals.
Plantage and fertilizer beneficial impact not only on the newly planted, but also on old trees. It improves soil structure, grows better root system, increases productivity.
In 1962, a reconstructed 588 hectares of orchards received 700 tons of fruit in 1963 — 1774 tons. Of the 1,200 acres of gardens, to be updated, it has reconstructed 729 hectares.
In order to raise the yield, we studied the effects of changes in farming practices in each brigade quarter alone, and since 1961 have implemented all new and progressive. This applies above all to cut. Previously, we only removes dry and broken branches are now as necessary conduct a detailed pruning, particularly in the 5-6-year-old wood, and shorten decimation kolchatki.
On weak apple trees Kandil synaptic, Parma winter gold, white Rosemary spent renewal pruning on an area of 60 hectares. 90% of these trees gave good gains, and in 1964 they expect to harvest. For the better development of new shoots, which should be formed crop, makes the necessary amount of fertilizer.
Before 1961, the rate of mineral fertilizers in orchards was low, which has a negative effect on the development and fruiting trees.
After analysis of soil per hectare are making fruiting garden in the fall tillage about 30 tons of manure, superphosphate 3 quintals, the potassium salt of 1,5 kilograms. In addition, ammonium nitrate fertilizer give 2 quintals, 1.5 quintal of superphosphate, the potassium salt of 1 quintal. In young orchards in the autumn tillage are making superphosphate per hectare of 0.75 quintals and the same number in the dressing. Fertilizers are buried to a depth of 16 centimeters.
In 1960, 1,500 acres of garden have 200 tons of ammonium nitrate, in 1963, that is after the analysis of soils, 1140 acres of 425 tons.
Previously, during the growing season in the gardens of the farm spent four irrigation regardless of the year, stand age and the characteristics of their place of growth. Since 1961, irrigation conduct differentiated. Planting seed species planting years 1930-1932 pour 5 times, reconstructed areas and operational stone gardens — 4 times with the rate of 700-800 cubic meters of water per hectare. Irrigated orchards all over an area 1836 hectares.
The most difficult task is to combat pests and diseases of the garden. To do this, we have 20 sprayers and dusters 2. We also use the aircraft. During the growing season perennials handle up to 5 times. Since 1962, the use against ticks metilmerkaptofos. This had a positive impact on the condition of the trees.
As a result of the timely conduct of the whole complex of technical measures significantly improve the appearance of gardens, raised productivity, reduced labor costs and means for production.
Gross harvest of fruit increased from 5677 tonnes in 1961 to 9360 tonnes in 1963, the profit for the same period increased from 579,000 rubles to 1,800 rubles, the cost of production quintal fell from 12 rubles 91 kopecks to 7 rubles 14 kopecks.
Our success to restore the gardens — is the result of hard work of all collective farm. Especially good team takes care of the gardens, led by S. Mammadov. In 1963, growers of this brigade raised pome fruit crops by 204 tons per hectare over an area of 125 hectares, the brigade A. Novruzi from 118 hectares to 103 quintals gathered, the team B. Khatami, with 136 hectares of 91.6 quintals.
This year, the gardeners are doing everything necessary to grow high yield fruits.