That only have to withstand any foundation. Weight houses rising in the spring of groundwater, waterlogged basement, ground, turns into ice in the winter and spring to limp state gruel … It would seem to cope with all the adversity, we need a special power, but it is not so. First, excessively massive base is uneconomical. Second, for different climatic and soil conditions are suitable structurally different foundations. In other words, it is important to choose the type of foundation that is optimal for specific conditions.
We dig shallow
Low-rise buildings do not need light to strong support structure. On the rocky and sandy soils are well suited for conveyor melkozaglublenny foundation. For all of its devices under the walls of the building, including capital walls, digging a trench depth of about one meter. At the bottom is filled with sand and gravel, compacted their hand rammer. Then set the formwork made of boards or plywood panels protruding above ground level at 60-80 cm. The formwork placed reinforcement cage and pour the concrete mix. When the concrete hardens, formwork is removed.
Melkozaglublennye inexpensive foundations. But for areas with a predominance of clay soils and the depth of freezing up to 1.5 m is not the best option. Spring light posthyuyku ^ Mauger bias.
In a similar technology are built-melkozaglu Blenheim slab foundation. For plate digging a shallow pit and make the sand-gravel cushion thickness of not less than 40 cm. On top lay a roll waterproofing, sometimes laid a layer of insulation — polystyrene thickness of 10-15 cm. In the next step set the formwork is mounted fittings and poured concrete. The minimum thickness of a solid foundation slab is about 20 cm. It is more resistant to soil deformation than the chalk-goat glublennyi strip foundation. Often this is the only opportunity to build a house on a site with high standing water table. However, the base-plate requires more materials and costing considerably more expensive than other types of foundations.
Widespread in the construction of private homes without a basement and outbuildings received light pier foundation, easy and inexpensive to implement. The foundation is carried out in separate columns, the number and size of which is determined depending on the weight of the construction and hydro-geological conditions. Poles spread of concrete blocks, rubble stone, brick, iron ore in the mortar with a mandatory bandaging of seams. It is important to calculate the distance between the pillars (a mandatory cast their corners, the intersection of the walls and under the rack frame). Under the pre-post cut off topsoil and preparing sand cushion thickness of not less than 20 cm. Since the foundation piles as a result of frost heaving soil experiencing greater upward load, they need to not only build, but also download the home in one season.
stake out territory
Save on expensive excavation work and reduce the consumption of concrete allow bored pile foundations. In the private construction they are also used to light buildings (wood frame, lightweight concrete, concrete panel) on soft ground. First well drilled to a depth greater than the depth of soil freezing. Install them reinforced concrete pillars, protruding above the ground about 50 cm. The end walls of reinforced concrete pillars linked raft, which serves as support for the walls and partitions capital. Ribbon grillage can be raised above the ground and can move deep into the ground (low grillage). The calculation of this design is best left to professionals.
Lite version of pile foundation — screw piles are steel tubes with a pointed tip and a helical blade is screwed into the ground as the screw until it reaches the bearing soil. Then the piles are cut in the level, and the barrel is filled with concrete. Top piping set of timber or metal sill. Piles can be screwed to different depths. The technology is used on slopes with a large height difference on flooded areas and areas with a complex picture of soils in the northern regions with a large depth of freezing. Pile foundations are building at any time of year, even in winter.
In some cases, optimum strip foundation laying normal when the sole foundation below the estimated depth of soil freezing. The tape itself may be the national team — made up of the foundation blocks — or monolithic, that is cast in concrete on site. In the latter case, the construction technology in general is similar to melkozaglublen nym strip foundation. Tape laying the foundation of the normal raw material intensive and expensive. Under the light of its outbuildings device impractical.
Before laying the foundation should order the engineering and geodetic survey site. Detailed hydrogeological information includes physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil, the chemical composition of groundwater, the depth of their occurrence, and so on.. These details will avoid serious errors.
Saturated water clay, loam, sandy loam, silt and fine sand exposed to frost heaving soils, the most dangerous for the foundation. The soils during freezing increases in the volume and put pressure on the foundation from the bottom up.
If the frost heaving force greater than the load of the house, a building like «pushed» out of the ground. In the spring the opposite phenomenon occurs, and the house settles unevenly. ■