«To radically, bearing in mind the perspective to solve transport problems … need to develop long-term comprehensive development program … which would have absorbed the best achievements of scientific thought.»
(From the speech of Comrade. Leonid Brezhnev at the November (1979) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee.)
Boris Morozov — Vice-Minister of Railways, Head of the way. Born in 1927 in Irkutsk. He graduated from the Moscow Institute of Transport Engineers in 1949. He worked as a road master, the deputy and the head of distance path, head of the way, the deputy chief of the road, the deputy head of central board of the way the IPU. Since 1978 — the deputy minister.
— Boris, quite often recently and abruptly said that rail transport is a serious criticism and passengers, and a number of departments. At the November Plenum industry rightly criticized for violating the major cargo transportation plans. They spoke about the need for technical re-equipment industry. What is in this context takes on the state of your economy — railways?
— 53 per cent of global turnover is made on the railways of the country, the length of which is only eleven percent of global railway network. I think most of the problems are acute for our industry, can be derived from these two figures. The intensity of traffic in our country is so big and growing at a pace that the technical capabilities of the industry somewhat behind on the re-equipment and reconstruction of the railway transport are allocated a lot of money. However, only one investment is necessary. Looking for a fundamentally new technical solutions. You can provide the railways with the latest locomotives, beautiful cars — and all this will barely move around the paths unusable. You can not solve the problems of rail transport without a radical restructuring of the track facilities. From year to year increases traffic. Some roads are currently trains at intervals of 8-12 minutes, in the carriages is now shipping more than it was before, or, as experts say, increasing axle loads. From all this way to wear out faster, and requirements to grow its technical condition. So, track facilities must often be repaired, it becomes harder to preventive work, we called the current content path. It was then, and there is a serious contradiction for the first repair takes time, so-called «windows», and to allocate them without prejudice to the motion for a harder intensity. The high price has become a time of steel pipes.
— How can we get out of this situation? After all, the intensity and speed, and load will only increase.
— The output can be only one — the introduction of a completely new technology maintenance and repair road. To date, the track facilities employing more than five hundred thousand people. Small mechanization at the time played a role. At the present time putejtsy mainly provided with the necessary tool (unfortunately, the lack of performance), but the increase in the number of the tool does not give the desired effect. We need machines that automatically perform the necessary work. Performance must ensure their efficient use of «windows.»
— What should these cars?
— It is necessary to create a process chain of such machines that would perform the full range of current maintenance and continuous changing of worn rails, fasteners, sleepers, ballast. This type of work is called capital or average repair path. By the way, for this type of repair, we created the world’s best technological chain of machines: tracklayer, ballast cleaner, hopper feeders, and others. Mechanization overhaul reaches at 80%. In the labor-intensive work as a complete replacement of the way we employ fewer than 100 thousand people. Compare: the current contents of a mechanized way by 37%. The list of preventive work there such as adding ballast and layout, seal it in a sleeper boxes, lubrication and fixing the terminal and inserts bolts, where the path is laid on concrete sleepers. What is this work?
Under the influence of loadings from passing trains the way, of course, is deformed: subside sleepers, frustrated bonds, the position of the rails. A track, particularly on the straight sections, should be in relation to each other strongly at the same level (maximum tolerances do not exceed 5 mm). Given that the path is besfundamentnye structure to keep it in such a hard limit is extremely difficult.
Last time our industry has mastered the production of machines (CDF-1200, SP-MS-500), which automatically detect track defects and remove them yourself. Performance of about one kilometer per hour. It is a great labor saving. However, the issue will be fully resolved when the complex will start working on the machine seal and lay ballast, replacing the unfit individual sleepers, preventive maintenance bonds, and so on. D. And these seemingly ancillary works out to 40% of labor costs.
— Involuntarily the question arises: whether to offer any solution to the problem the inventors of the industry?
— Unfortunately, behind our designers and inventors. Proposals for which it would be possible to grasp, yet. With the mechanization of labor-intensive robots such as lubrication and perezakreplenie terminal and inserts bolts, we were lucky. Only one kilometer path of the bolts more than fifteen thousand. You can imagine how much time and effort necessary to at fifty thousand kilometers, where we laid a path, it is bound to work without failure. Railwaymen from Chisinau father and son Matveenko invented a machine that automatically without stopping the time to unscrew the nuts of bolts, lubricate them back and tighten with demanded effort. The invention is quite simple, but the original design (R & D, 12, 78, «Fastest»). During a series of similar inventions MD Matvienko was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. Great value car Matveenko that it fits well into the process chain with VPR-1200.
Unfortunately, because of departmental barriers (machines and we have an obligation to provide the Ministry of Heavy and Transport Engineering) mass introduction of machinery lubrication and fixing bolts will be tightened for two or three years. While out of the situation as follows: collected in the performance test of automatic wrench heads of services the way railways, showed the car to work, and then invited each set of her drawings to not wait for the start of series of their release in factories Mintyazhmasha, and road mechanical workshops start their manufacture and this year have such machines. The tightening of the development of this car is our fault: implemented on a large range fundamentally new design path, and the necessary machinery for its content not created in time.
— Can we conclude that the establishment of the above-mentioned machines in the complex repair and maintenance of way will solve all the acute problems of conducting traveling facilities?
— Of course, no. I shared our need for original technical solutions into several stages. That is to say, a minimum program and a maximum program. All of the above — this is the minimum, which in general is inconceivable without a serious discussion on the restructuring of the way the technology content. We also have other bottlenecks. For example, extending the life of rails by grinding them in place, mechanized snow removal, clearing of weeds ballast layer, on the bases of the mechanized assembly of the new track grating and demolition of the old sorting grids and so on. D. These issues are no less important than the previous ones. The difference is that for them to overcome a number of machines has been created. Another question that these machines in performance and processing quality in modern conditions have become obsolete. At the minimum program, as you can see, it includes works that are performed manually or were hardly implemented. Referring to the problem of increasing the life of the rails. In the operation of the rail head is formed on the layer of cold-worked — the result of repeated exposure to the wheels of the rolling stock, rail, moreover, does not wear out evenly, but wavy. After passing a certain number of trains on the rail head surface has a large number of microcracks depth of 1-3 mm. If not removed, this time perenaklepanny layer by grinding or gouging the cracked venturing into the railhead can cause it to fracture under the weight of the train. Created before grinding train is extremely low productivity. To remove 1mm softening the metal surface of the rail head, it is necessary to miss this train on the same stretch of more than a hundred times. This means it is necessary to remove from circulation the same number of trains. Previously, it was bearable, and now — a luxury. Now we need a train that would have removed the layer of metal in two or three passes. In world practice, such a train set.
Total costs for snow removal up to 13% of all expenses for the maintenance of the way, 75% of them -on cleaning snow from the station. If the snow is on the stretch by a snowplow can just fuck off to the side, the snow on the station should be immersed in a special mechanical structure and unload outside. Especially inconvenient to pick up and load snow within turnouts necks — and it is the most vulnerable spot at the station upon the occurrence of the weather. We have now fleet of special machines, but, unfortunately, they are not perfect, often fail because of design flaws. While powerful, robust and versatile snowplow to be established.
On the railway line settles a lot of dirt. Here and coal dust and metallic ore, all kinds of chemical products. In short, all that remains of what was transported at different times and not always gently. If time does not clean the ballast, all these pollutants detain incoming moisture in the form of rain and snow and weaken the ability of the prism and the roadbed. To clean the contaminated ballast designed special machines. But we are not satisfied with their low productivity and especially the quality of cleaning.
Finally, not only the current contents of the path awaits original technical solutions. Thorough and medium repairs path also has its unsolved problems. Track machine station (PMS), which is designed for such repairs, service three or four hundred people, and although mechanization is about 80%, the proportion of manual labor is still high, especially on the basis of which is made of a new assembly and dismantling of the old track grid. The volume of this work in the year about 40 thousand kilometers. There are many areas where a repair has to make six or seven years. This is very difficult and time-consuming process in the near future must be fully mechanized and PMS future — is a team of highly qualified engineers serving tracklayer, ballast cleaner, hopper feeders, tamping machine type VPR-1200, travel Struga, ballastery, automatic assembly line, and dismantling the track grating and a number of other heavy track machines. In these units track facilities should be concentrated whatever is necessary to eliminate the manual labor.