Camping (called conditional «nature tourism») has attracted a growing number of people. Not only does it provide the human body needs physical activity to health, but also gives a person great aesthetic pleasure. Isolated on wildlife concrete walls of city apartments and thousands of square meters of asphalt, we begin to feel more acutely her beauty and originality. Add to that the ability of nature to take mental stress, calm the mind and to purify the human soul. And we hasten to nature.
How many of us? It turns out a lot. According to the Central Council for tourism and excursions of the All-annually in our country rests permits up to 30 million people. Much of this the number of people prefer outdoor recreation. Add to that vast army of amateur tourists. It is understood that such a massive invasion of human nature leads to a change in its landscape. And like a cart-effects on nature distributed on the territory of our country is not uniform, but focuses on objects that have the greatest appeal. Among such objects of the highest quality recreational be mentioned first of all the Caucasus, Crimea, Carpathians, Karkle, Altai, Sayan.
The geography of such objects is expanding all the time. The effects of tourism on the nature of many of these places can already be seen «naked eye» — landslides, conflagrations, deforestation, pollution. But this is usually unique nature of our country. So there is a contradiction — people in need of unspoiled nature, and destroy it yourself.
Solving the problem of the protection of nature in the most popular tourist areas have long been found. The meaning of it is science-based regulation of the size and direction of flow of tourists, and the organization of a special challenge areas for this purpose. Such areas are called national parks …
A bit of history. At the end of the last century, the development of vast territories to the west from the Atlantic progressed rapidly. It was accompanied by deforestation, plowing the prairies, destruction of wildlife, vodivshihsya there in abundance.
Even then far-sighted people began to talk about the threat to nature. At first, their words, nobody paid attention. But calls for the lights of American culture can not be ignored forever. At the end of XIX century in the area of the Yellowstone River in the rules of the expedition. The participants were delighted with the splendor of its geysers, canyons, waterfalls, lakes and forests. They put the question of preservation of the best examples of pristine nature of America. As a result, a broad discussion of the problems US President Grant signed a law to establish a national park. So, in 1872 came the world’s first national park — Yellowstone. One hundred years later in the United States, there were already 37 such parks.
Americans followed the British example, creating parks in the colonies. At the beginning of the century a number of national parks was organized in South America and Europe. Before the First World War in Switzerland was established park, which for the first time beginning to pretend the idea of preserving ecosystems and species for scientific purposes.
National parks are organized in our days. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, for 1975 there were about 1400 parks and equivalent reserves.
In the Soviet Union the organization of protected areas began in the 20s with the creation of reserves. Their main task is to preserve the natural standards. However, this proved to be very challenging. Despite the ban, the number of visitors has exceeded reserves for 200 thousand people a year, exceeded all conceivable limits. This situation can correct organization of nature protection institutions such as national parks. They contributed to an increase in the number of protected sites of nature and allowed to stay with recreational reserves the press.
The first national park in the country was created in 1971. It is a park of Lahemaa in Estonia. Since 1973 there is a national park Gauja in Latvia, 1974 — National Park of the Lithuanian SSR. In 1976, Kyrgyzstan was organized by the National Park Ala-Archa. Shortly after it appears in the 1978 National Park Sevan. Although similar parks in the USSR is still a little small, and their age, thanks to them some experience, which will be carefully studied and taken into consideration when creating new parks.
In the Baltic national parks should stop more detail. Firstborn, Estonian Lahemaa Park, located on the rugged shores of the Gulf of Finland in the north of the country. «Lahemaa» in Russian means "Region bays". It includes, in addition to the coast, islands and some territory inland from the coast. Gauja National Park covers mainly river valley, on behalf of which it got its name. It is located to the northeast of the Latvian capital. Lithuanian National Park is located in the east of the country to the edge of forests and lakes.
National Parks Soviet Baltic share many common features. All of them are relatively small — a few tens of thousands of hectares. Most of their territory is covered by forests, many rivers and lakes, and in Pahemaa — and even bays. The park territory is not often found deserted rural villages and even small towns, such as, for example, in a park Sigulda Gauja. This is understandable, because these lands inhabited by humans since time immemorial.
Many general and in the tasks assigned to national parks v. Chief among them — the preservation of the natural landscape, historical and cultural monuments; carrying out scientific research; promotion of the idea of nature protection and recreation organization. On their territory is prohibited travel by motorized means of transport, except for specially designated roads; designed routes of movement of pedestrians; built to serve tourists hostels, campsites, places for overnight stays and cooking. Some areas declared reserves and access to disabled visitors.
It is obvious that the current in the USSR the number of national parks is totally inadequate for the management of areas popular with tourists.
Consequently, the establishment has matured a network of national parks in the country. It seems to go in two directions — the organization of national parks in the territories now are in high demand for recreation (Caucasus, Karelia, and so on. D.), And on the way the provision of new, still little cultivated touristy areas.
The development of remote areas is very rapid. Take the example of Baikal.
Already, its shores annually visited by thousands of tourists. Completion of the Baikal-Amur Railway, apparently, lead to the «tourist boom» in large parts of Siberia.
Experience shows that there is a conflict between humans and nature, mentioned above, is inevitable. However, the nature still has a certain amount of «head start» on time — the flow of tourists in Siberia is not so great as in the European part of the country. Hence the conclusion: the national parks in areas of new development, and it is primarily the North, Siberia and the Far East, it is necessary to design now. And in some cases, and to organize, for example, on Lake Baikal.
Development of recommendations for the creation of a promising network of national parks in our country is engaged in a number of research institutions, including the Institute for Conservation of Nature and Natural Reserves of the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR. The group of employees of the Institute was tasked to find in the north of the Tyumen region territory, the right to their natural characteristics for the national park, and make appropriate recommendations for its organization.
Choosing a territory, we were guided by the following considerations. Since the Soviet Union reserves protect the most typical, and sometimes unique natural territory for scientific purposes, we focused on the territory, especially having recreational qualities — a picturesque, convenience for many types of tourism, the diversity of nature. Not forgetting the promotion of ideas of nature conservation and environmental education, we selected areas of greatest scientific and educational interest. Among other conditions, you can call for a preservation of natural landscapes, the absence of large industrial enterprises, the presence of objects of environmental values, such as spawning grounds of valuable fish species, habitats of rare animals, places of mass nesting of birds that require the protection of forests, the most vulnerable landscapes, and so on. As a result, our choice fell on the eastern slopes of the Polar Urals.
Ural Mountains — is that part of it, where the mountain range, which extends generally from south to north, suddenly turns to the northeast. It is the highest peak of all the Urals — Mountain People. The nature of this area as it has incorporated features typical for the neighboring southern and northern parts of the Urals. Here you can see the mountain taiga and tundra, gornotundrovye and plains.
The highest peaks are covered with perennial snow fields in carts and hide small circuses glaciers. From start to its run scenic streams and rivers with crystal-clear icy water. Among the many colors of the tundra here and there scattered lakes, blue eyes staring at the sky. In calm water mirror reflects surrounded their majestic mountains. Primordial silence disturbed only sonorous song of the mountain ridge, the wind whistling among the stone placers so incessant chatter of the river, angry boiling on boulders.
In some places there are forest-tundra areas covered with dwarf birch. Standing alone in a small curved birch larch but do not interfere with the perception of the landscape, it is easy and transparent.
The rivers are abounding, abundant rapids and shoals — the perfect place for competition in water slalom. In August, the coast of the darker, the blaze of an abundance of blueberries, blueberries, cranberries. Under the forest canopy found cloudberries on wetlands — cranberries.
Just below the confluence of the rivers and Schekuri Khulga. Saranpaul costs — settlement herders and geologists: log cabin, a few shops, a small airport. It is held every winter colorful and crowded Festival of the North, with traditional competitions specific to local residents. Despite the low development of this region, the members of the expedition of our Institute had to make sure that human activities are still spawned a number of issues related to the protection of nature.
Local rivers are spawning many valuable fish: cheeses, schokura (whitefish) and grayling. In addition to widespread poaching networks here during spawning huge damage to spawning grounds are applied mines. System sewage treatment plants are being built on them is clearly not full and can not cope with its task. IL, which is discharged into the river from sewage treatment plants, settles on the rocks among which the fish spawn. This leads to a sharp decline in hatchability and fry emergence of a significant percentage of non-viable freaks. Snow Plow mining, though small in size, not recultivated, despite the fact that the funds for restoration provided. Cases irrational laying of temporary roads geologists at which forests are suffering with a considerable admixture of cedar. Very often in the period of the ban on the hunting of waterfowl in the forest still thundering shots. Making the area a national park would, in our view, to the ordering of nature and would solve many problems.
In what seems to us a national park in the Polar Urals? Let’s fantasize.
…Daily Saranpaulsky airport landing aircraft. Tourists encounter park staff and escorted to camping or a cozy hostel. Here, travelers rest, customize equipment, stocking products itinerary, fishing license, are instructed on how to behave in the park. Then the boats belonging to the park, their dovozyat to zones of intensive tourism, where the river banks Schekurya, Manja, People and Halmeryu located campsites with saunas and baths. After spending the night, tourists go on to places where their routes diverge. Some of them goes to the western slopes of the Polar Urals to the nearby Natural Park of Komi, and others down to Saranpaul on foot or on the water, where rent equipment, buy souvenirs and take off in a birch, Tyumen and Sverdlovsk …
Create great national parks in this country — is new. Yet, given the accumulated experience of the world and the situation developing with the tourist resources in the country, we can conclude that the creation of a wide network of national parks is already overdue. In this regard, I want to express the hope that the organization of the park in the Polar Urals will not be shelved.