Only sophisticated ichthyologist researcher with a strong tilt towards aquarium (like H.Blehera) is able to determine beforehand, «counting morphology» and compare the results with the known data, some fish caught in his net once the Australian puddle (brook, creek, small lakes, etc. .). It is not that the inhabitants of local waters resemble each other, like Amazon hemigrammusy.
Quite the contrary: almost every creek (creek) live fish with a unique, typical only for this place, together. Copies of the headwaters of the different color of the fish from the lower reaches (especially when the population divides even small obstacles in the form of a waterfall or other obstacles). And you begin to understand in detail, and it turns out that it is one and the same form. No wonder more and more often in the literature, and the price lists of exporters of exotic addition to the scientific name of the fish is the place of its discovery or catch and meticulous hobbyists trying to keep these oldtimers in isolation, to preserve the natural personality georasy not prevent hybridization.
The full all of the above applies to the genus Melanotaenia, one of the representatives of which will be discussed today.
…That’s my wife standing in front of an aquarium and, looking at the newly acquired fish, suddenly asked: «Well, now we will live mullet?» I’m amazed at how it is possible, without knowing (and not interested in) the pedigree of my new acquisition, seen in It mullet?
Nevertheless, the issue of the couple lies homespun truth: according zoosistematike, the relationship is — melanotenii belong to the order Kefaleobraznyh. Certainly in ancient times some atheriniformes migrate from the sea to the river and settled there. From the visible signs of the times remained obscheotryadnaya label — small, often only a three-beam, prickly plavnichok located in front of the main spin. At mullet, which was once «full of barges brought to Odessa,» This fin also has — what can you do, the relatives!
In fairness, I note that this similarity between Mullet and melanoteniyami not limited, it is manifested in many other morphological and anatomical features, the disclosure of which, however, is beyond the scope of my story.
The subject of our conversation — Melanotaenia duboulayi Castelnau, 1878.
View rare enough for us, because the settled Russian name is not available, but in English-speaking circles known as malinovopyatnistaya rainbow fish (Crimsonspotted Rainbowfish) and the mass of synonyms. Has he double — Melanotaenia fluviatilis (Donaciinae river).
Our heroine lives in a relatively narrow band of east coast of Australia, which is from the rest of separates Great water separating ridge (The Great Dividing Range), and melanoteniya river — in the inner area in the river system Murray-Darling, in the southern part of the country and, of course, in cooler climates. Both fish has long been considered a single species, and only in 1986, Crowley divided them on the basis of a detailed study of the early stages of development of juveniles, where he revealed marked differences.
The aquarium European culture Donaciinae introduced Amandus Rudel, a founding member of the Australian Society of aquarium-terrarium Queensland. He was sent to Germany by boat in 1927, a few copies. Very quickly the novelty hit in North America, and in July 1930 a few of these fish were caught in the Mississippi River … (oh, those aquarists!).
A.Rudelyu mentioned also owns the famous statement about Melanotaenia duboulayi, belonging to the same in 1927: «I was amazed by the beauty of the fish as soon as he saw her. No other fish can compare with her beauty, though with a lively rainbow. Of course, since then it has become my darling. » It is believed that with a light hand A.Rudelya (or rather, thanks to his enthusiastic words) of silverside, even modestly colored, became known Donaciinae. At first, as they were called Sunfishes — solar fish
Due to the high variability of staining melanoteny practically impossible to make a concrete description of some species. Surely you can describe the outfit only certain populations of the reservoir (a stream, river, lake, etc.).
Thus in our case. Raspberry-spotted Donaciinae has a relatively elongated body, moderately compressed laterally. According to the literature, the male grows up to 10 cm, female 2-3 cm smaller.
Large scale is straight longitudinal rows. In the middle of the body can be counted 10 rows, and as the restriction body to the tail of their number is reduced to four, wherein the flake size is reduced slightly. The fourth and fifth rows (counting from the top), green or blue-green (depending on the light, and at night — all pure blue). The sixth and seventh truncated series — yellow. The lower ranks and stomach — gold. Back — golden-greenish gloss. Between the rows of green stretches a dark blue-green, almost dark blue stripe that starts on the head just behind the eye and reaching to the root of the tail. The remaining rows of scales are separated by narrow red stripes, the most striking of which is framed by yellow stripes.
Eyes are large, double-color: around a large black pupil — the red ring, the outer part — golden-yellow. On the gill cover is well marked bright red (crimson-red) spot, which, by the way, and the name of the fish species identified.
The fins are painted weakly: reddish rays, tissue transparent inter-beam, with a faint greenish spots. First dorsal and ventral fins are small — black (males), dorsal and anal — with a black border. When excited by black thickens.
The general character of the female dress the same, but everything looks much paler, leaving the impression of something yellowish-green. The fins are smaller, rounded, transparent and non-colored. The whole painting is pleasant, quite original and malinovopyatnistuyu lady can not be confused with the females of other species Donaciinae.
Here’s a picture. Would you agree to share the enthusiasm Amandus Rudel your cause, on my view, the fish is really attractive. When in the morning at the aquarium in direct sunlight, then by malinovopyatnistyh hard to look away.
Donaciinae, to the chagrin of fans, usually swimming close to the body with fins. Moreover, for the first dorsal and ventral body has special recesses where they are formed. Disclosed is constantly only the tail and pectoral fins, and if such a situation in many fish signals about their painful condition, then Donaciinae — is the norm. Surely rastopyrivat all fins only in certain cases: for the sake of demonstrating the merits of the opponent, when courting a female (ready to mate), yawning and sipping (photographers always strive to catch these moments) during vigorous maneuvering, and then only for a very short period . But during the night all fins fully deployed. Explain the reasons for the latter, I find it difficult. Perhaps this kind of protection or warning response at a time when other senses are relaxed.
The German firm Glaser, whom I bought my Donaciinae in September 2012, offered this fish as a Melanotaenia duboulayi Kangaroo Creek (ie «from the creek Kangaroo»), and pushed me to the purchase of widely replicated on the Internet an attractive picture by Gunther Schmid (Gunther Schmida).
I got slightly stained teenagers quickly become a mature fish, and have embarked without delay to reproduce. And immediately arose an agonizing question: what was sent to me? In some fish was like a picture with photo graphy seduce me, but at the same time and markedly different, and not for the better: the color was more modest.
Later in the same Internet I found some pictures is my version Melanotaenia duboulayi marked «origin unknown». It is useless to speculate, when, who and how it caught creek’e and multiplied. Maybe it’s just Taiz America, from Mississippi? And the fact that my Donaciinae were allegedly from the «Kangaroo Creek,» let it remain on the conscience of the company Glaser and her uneducated sellers guest workers who, apparently, have already been introduced into the world and Aquaria.
O.Rybakov in its illustrated encyclopedia defines suitable for content Donaciinae tank 50 (or more) liters of water hardness 8-25 ° dGH, pH 7- 7,5 and a temperature of 22 to 26 ° C. It, however, does not say much This amount should live specimens. Meanwhile, we must remember that Donaciinae — particularly schooling fish. The literature provides various necessary minimum aquarium «rainbow» flocks: but most — of 6 or more.
According to naturalists in natural bodies of water in the school is going to more than 50 individuals (I wonder how they find out there in the river?). That estimate, what size should the capacity in which freely live, say, ten desyatisantimetrovyh moving fish?
Expert Australian fish fauna, a prominent ichthyologist and aquarist Adrian R. Tappin in a marvelous, beautifully illustrated book «Rainbow Fishes: Their Care & Keeping in Captivity »presents his point of view.
He believes that in order to be selected Donaciinae Aquarium possible larger mentioning the 55-liter (apparently some Australian standard) as the minimum allowable for reasons of the complexity of maintaining the notorious «biological balance». The depth may be from 30 to 60 cm in accordance with a total surface area and width — 45 cm and more, depending on the size of the fish.
However, the depth of the tank, he does not consider the determining critical value.
The duration of daylight in the home pond should be 12 hours, but acceptable, and 8-10. The transitions from dark to light and vice versa full advisable to make a smooth, even A.Tappin recommends to establish special timers, including intermediate dim lighting, or else the fish are experiencing a lot of stress. Water parameters: stiffness — 2,8-14 ° dGH (50-250 ppm SaSOe); nitrates — less than 10 mg / l; pH 6,5-7,8; temperature 22- 24 ° C (28 ° C for reproduction). As you can see, the data specialist with the motherland Donaciinae differ little from local recommendations.
In nature melanotenii live in coastal areas, whose «interior» made thickets of aquatic plants, submerged woody debris (trunks there, all sorts of branches), bare roots from growing crop water shrubs and trees, in some places — stones, rock and other debris. Similarly, you can draw and an aquarium, leaving, however, a lot of space for swimming.
Usually malinovopyatnistye Donaciinae occupy the middle layers of the water, do not conflict with other fish species not peel plant. In my community tank (150 liters), they are combined with a dozen different haratsinok marble gourami (cleaners territory, sweepers) and even variegated shrimp that brazenly walk on the bottom during the day, always causing the fish alive (though and unmet) gastronomic interest.
The perimeter of the tank is densely planted with plants: giant eel (this winter blooms several times) grove Cryptocorynes (C.pontederiifolia, C.retrospiralis, C.wendtii), rotaloy, Thai-rogatik ferns, dwarf Anubias (also blooms) bolbitisom, cabomba , Java moss and other greenery, which I attribute to the category of «do not know that.»
All this flora gets primitive unnormalized fertilizing carbon dioxide (yeast and sugar in a bottle, gas is withdrawn in a small tube underwater «bell»). Water — from the Mytishchi water supply system — quite hard and carbonate, 400-550 (IS (with a total hardness 12-15 ° dGH, pH 7,0-7,5 and carbonate — 6 ° dKH). Everybody is happy.
Since the fall, I had procured the traditional frozen food (bloodworm, koretra, cyclops, daphnia). However, in an effort to diversify the menu, I have included in the diet of fish Public cooked frozen seafood from grocery store: shrimp, mussels, squid, octopus (a kind of «sea cocktail»), and it is so pleasant to pets that gradually became the main daily meals.
«Cocktail» little boiled and finely I cut-ruble. You can prepare it for the future and — for 1-2 days, with repeated freeze.
In addition, give the brand dry food (as a kind of dietary supplements) gammarus, daphnia and dried bread crumbs from the master’s table. Occasionally crumbs grated cheese and cooking fish at home — its a little scrape flesh and caviar.
For some reason it did not fit the green canned peas that are willing to consume my haratsinki.
It is believed that the least fit Donaciinae tubifex: causes obesity, especially among females. In general, you need only to feed abundantly growing young adults is what is called action in the food do not know, but still constantly begging.
Adopted think Donaciinae easy to breed in captivity. To some extent, the way it is, but some problems still exist.
An important role in inducing spawning playing length of daylight (or, as some say, a photo period) in 14 (!) Hours desired (24-26 ° C) water temperature and the abundance of food.
Under these conditions, the fish spawn in the same aquarium, where they live, and throughout the year. However, the chances of survival of fry in the total capacity insignificant — the neighbors will not allow.
Even the melanotenii sometimes not averse to bite offspring. However, only when hungry or accidentally stumble at spawn — single-minded hunt prey of this kind they do not lead. Rescues also that all Donaciinae reluctant to pick up food from the bottom, which often fall spawned eggs (they are heavier than water, sink). In nature, the spawn implicitly protects the male chosen for protecting spawning site and fending off competitors. The buffer zone is permitted only female (she comes alone), and the father is too busy reproduction cares to hunt for their own eggs. Clearly, this scheme is not limited aquarium volume runs.
During the mating ritual, the male swims around the female vigorously, trying to inspire her to you Branagh for them. He painted and brighter as it «plays» fins, repeatedly turning and stacking them. Spawning necessarily any substrate on which to hang the eggs: moss, small-leaved plants, roots, driftwood and other (heater, sprayer tube, thermometer). Fish coveted pressed against the surface and to each other, while vibrating, then vigorously blur.
From the movement of water caviar flying anywhere. Each berry has a thin sticky thread capable, by the way, stretch and then shrink again like a thin rubber band. For something caught (Wrap), this thread in the future securely holds the eggs in place.
In international practice, when diluted Donaciinae besides natural substrates (mosses, peristolistniki), apply the so-called mop or a beard (the British — Torr). For their manufacturing thick knitting wool or acrylic yarn dark colors (green, blue, brown). It is wound on a flat object (e.g. a book) in the 30-40 series tied firmly with one hand and cut — on the other. Then boil to remove the paint if the yarn sheds.
The resulting product is placed on the bottom (after a small weight to weight), hung on the wall of the suction cup is attached to the foam float — basic value accommodation option has not.
Manufacturers firmly cling to the mop eggs, and it can be safely transferred to another container. After use (ie, when all the fry vyklyunutsya) it is recommended to disinfect the boil again. The number of such devices in a spawning only limited size.
The fecundity of the fish — the value is very unstable. It could be two or three eggs and one or two dozen, and even then not every day. At the «volley» spawning when manufacturers previously held separately, the output of «goods» is much more. However, it observed that in the absence of females and males can drop ripened eggs.
It is transparent, with a diameter smaller than a millimeter. The duration of 4-9 days, depending on the water temperature (at 24-26 ° C, the process lasts 150-151 hours).
The larvae hatch at a length of 3.5-4 mm, they are very mobile and is completely ready to independent feeding. In some instances visible remnants of the yolk sac, absorbable (expenses) for a few hours.
Feeding should be started immediately: ciliates slipper, rotifer, powder of dry food — like protein and vegetable (spirulina). A week trial permissible expansion of the diet by svezhevyklyunuvshihsya Artemia nauplii and microworms (acetic nematode — turbatriks).
Babies are ready to eat almost constantly, and potchevanie fivefold during the day affects their development favorably. Ciliates and rotifers freshwater expedient to give even at night (if vyrostnike in low light).
The fry are kept in the upper layers of the water, so we strongly recommend to lower the bottom of the uneaten remains of the water is not spoiled. The increasing concentration of nitrate (N03) leads to very unpleasant consequences, up to the death of young animals. The first indirect signs of poisoning — loss of appetite fry.
By the way, for the adult specimens water quality — also no small thing.
Get rid of the accumulation of nitrates is possible only by replacing water and remove excess food particles help snails and cleaning the bottom of the trap.
The first two weeks, the fry grow very slowly, then accelerated development. For four months in adult coloration appears so that the offspring can already be divided by sex, and to six months before you appear quite mature malinovopyatnistye Donaciinae embarking on marriage courtship, though, to achieve specific to the type size, the fish still require the same period.
Thus, thanks to elegant, unpretentious, reasonable size and peaceful conduct of these fish is certainly suitable for a wide amateur content in aquariums, both at home and in offices and public places. The main thing that these bodies of water cover was, and is very much dynamic melanotenii — may jump.