Before laying perennial crops collective and state farms make a plan, develop project of the garden, which provides: the size of landings over the years, rock-grade composition, order placement plantations device irrigation network (if the garden will be irrigated), the amount of work required labor and materiel.
Each republic, territory, region have recommendations on the tab of perennial plants and care for them. Details on these matters you can get advice in the test facilities on gardening, educational institutions, industrial establishments.
Selecting a location for the garden. Garden laying taking into account natural conditions, as close as possible to the settlements, to make better use of the labor force to care for plants and harvest. In addition, the garden promotes greening and improvement of villages, towns.
Industrial garden is better to lay large arrays. This will allow widely mechanize labor-intensive processes. Sites are selected as possible with the natural protection (forest, hills etc.), Preferably near rivers, ponds, to be able to irrigate crops.
In the northern strip, where more rainfall and less heat, the garden is better to lay on the slopes of the southern, south-western and south-eastern areas; in the southern and southeastern regions, where sufficient heat and moisture — on the slopes of the northern areas, where suitable slopes and others; in the central strip of perennials can be planted on the slopes in all directions. The instructions in the literature on low suitability for this purpose northbound slopes in this area are not confirmed by practice.
Not suitable for gardens lowlands, especially closed, where cold air flows from high places. Here, the trees suffer more from winter frosts, spring frosts, strongly affected by fungal diseases.
When choosing a location for the garden should be guided by the soil maps. If they are not, carry out soil testing and establish how suitable array or some of its land for planting perennial favorites.
Most fruit trees grow best at a fairly fertile, loamy soils, black earth, including degraded and leached loamy black earth, and the relatively fertile sod-podzolic soils. Garden unsuitable for heavy clay and peat-marshy soil, loose sand, salt licks, as well as the soil, where subarable horizons are almost impervious to water and air tight clay or deep quicksands.
Particular attention should be paid to the depth of the water table. If you are close to stagnant water, the roots, getting into them die, the trees dieback occurs, and they can dry out. Ground water (not to be confused with the spring flow «perched») should be from the surface of the soil for seed species (apple and pear) no closer than 2 meters of stone —
1.5-1.75, of berry bushes — 1-1.25, zemlyaniki- 0.6-0.75 meters.
If the area grow oak, rose, legumes and grasses, in most cases, will grow well and fruit trees. Areas with high acidity of the soil in which grow alder, horsetail, sedge, sorrel, suitable for fruit plants. However, after the land reclamation (drainage, drainage, liming), they can be used, and especially under fruit and berry plantations.
Site preparation for laying the garden. For spring planting soil is prepared in the fall, autumn — 1-2 months before planting. Plantage raised to a depth of 50-60 centimeters. In the medium and strongly plowed soil to a depth of 25-30 cm with an additional loosening of 10-15 centimeters. .
On marginal, including sod-podzolic soils when lifting Plantage should be applied per hectare of manure or compost to 40-50 tons of phosphate fertilizer — 5-6 quintals, superfosfata- 4, sulfate or potassium chloride — 3 quintals. On the black soil and chestnut soils dose of organic and mineral fertilizers is reduced by one-third or half.
Most fruit trees grow best on slightly acidic soils. In podzolic soils make lime. Doses vary it depending on the acidity and texture of the soil. In acidic sandy and loamy plots for every 20 centimeters of topsoil per hectare make 4 tons of lime, with an average acidity — 3 low — 2 tons at an average of 6, 4, 5, and heavy soils, respectively 5 and 3.5 tonnes per hectare . At a deeper plowing lime dose increase.
Selection of varieties. In the Soviet Union grows up
10,000 varieties of more than 50 species of fruit and berry plants. For commercial production of fruits and berries it is recommended that about 1,500 varieties.
For individual areas set homologated assortment of fruit and berry crops, the most responsible local natural and economic conditions. The range is selected in such a way as to obtain the largest amount of cheap products, to ensure cross pollination of plants, lengthen the collection and consumption of fruits and berries, to create the best conditions for a good organization of labor, land management, and uniform loading of the labor force in gardening.
The issue of the selection of varieties and recommendations for fruit production in detail in the magazine «Gardening» № 3 for 1963.
Placing plants. The distance between rows of trees in the garden depends on the breed, rootstocks, tree vigor (strongly medium- and slaboroslye). Now revised layout trees in the direction of increasing trees per hectare.
Apple trees grafted on common rootstocks (seedlings), in the central strip of land is now recommended 8X4 meters. In the non-chernozem zone in the area of food 8X6 meters permitted seal among slaboroslyh varieties (Pepin saffron, Melba, Slavyanka and others.). Cherries and plums should be planted at a distance 5X2,5 — 3 meters.
In the southern -district apple tree grafted onto rootstocks silnoroslyh, usually planted with irrigation 9X6 m, without irrigation — 8X6 meters, respectively Dusen — 8 X 4-5 and X 4-5 6 meters, paradizke under irrigation — 4X2 — 3 meters ; cherries, plums and apricots — 8X4 — 5 meters, cherry — 6X5 — 4, peach — 6X3 and 5X3 meters.
Boarding time. In the northern region the best results are obtained by the spring planting in the southern, with long warm and rainy autumn. In the central regions of apple and pear trees are planted in spring and autumn, cherry and plum predominantly in the spring. All berries should be planted in autumn.
Autumn fruit and berry crops are planted 2-3 weeks before the frost-resistant (in the middle lane at the end of September to mid-October in most areas of the southern zone is not later than the first decade of November). Spring plants are planted to a swelling of the kidneys.
Technology planting. For the cultivation of the soil, especially podzolic in the planting hole for apple and pear trees make manure or compost of 20-30 kg, 1-1.5 superphosphate, potassium sulfate 0.1-0.15 kilograms; under the stone, respectively 10-15, 0.4-0.5, 0,05-0,075 kilograms. Fertilizers are applied to the lower half of the pit, the roots of the seedling to sleep unfertilized ground.
When planting the roots of seedlings evenly placed in the pit, compacted soil to avoid voids. If the site plowed ahead root collar was placed on light soils 3-4 cm above the soil surface, on heavy — 5-6 centimeters.
After planting, water the tree trunks (regardless of weather conditions) — 2-3 buckets in the tree and mulch loose soil, peat, manure or compost. After rainfall Soil tree root collar should be at ground level.
Immediately after the spring planting cut the branches by half their value in the autumn — leaves pruning until spring. The cut made on the outside bud.
The gardens and collective gardens is recommended to plant valuable, proven, released varieties of fruit and yagodnyh’rasteny. Sometimes gardeners plant trees insufficiently tested in local conditions, varieties. In severe winters these plants suffer and even die.
Trees and berry bushes is better to plant each breed separately, and use the aisle of potatoes and vegetables. To place them in the distance, taken in state farms and collective gardens, but it is possible to decrease by 15-20%.
If the site is located close to raw or ground water, the trees are better placed on the hill height ‘of 30-50 cm and a width of 2-2.5 m.
On private plots and collective gardens trees are usually planted in wide and deep pit: for pome rocks 1,25 — 1,5X0,6 — — 0,7 meter stone — 1.25 g-1,5X0,6 — 0 7 meters, berry bushes -l- 0.75 H0,5 -r- 1 — 0.6 meters. Pit digging is best for 1-2 months before planting for spring planting — in the autumn. Number of fertilizers in such pits and increase 2-2.5 times. Instead of potash can be used furnace ash, approximately 1-1.5 kg per pit. On acid soils, podzolic added 1.5-2 kilograms of lime in the form of ground limestone, fluff, dolomite.
Planting material is recommended to get the fall. In the middle and southern areas of horticulture is best to plant trees in autumn, undergirding the winter trunks cane, sunflower stalks, tar paper to protect them from rodents. This rail also protects the trees from strong winter frosts and spring sunburn.