Economic efficiency apiaries used in horticulture, has not yet been established.
For pollination of apple trees have recommended 2.5 bee colonies in average per hectare of plantations, so large areas of gardens need big apiary, bee pollination which to work a few days in spring. In the remainder of the season they have to provide a source of food that is not always possible. As a result, the bees give little honey, and is expensive. Therefore, the vast majority of large fruit farms yagodovodcheskih bee colonies contains less than recommended. Therefore, it is important to develop methods of intensive activity pollination bees so that a relatively small number of households per hectare garden higher efficiency pollination.
After transporting the apiary to another place the first 1-2 days the bees are working hard near the hives, gradually expanding the range of its flight of, and partially switched from the main crop to other sources of wild-bribe. To overcome this undesirable phenomenon, the staff of the Research Institute of Beekeeping in the years 1961-1962 in the gardens of the farm «Ryazhskiy», the Ryazan region, have developed a new method of pollination by bees apple trees.
The organization of this method is that the introduction into the apiary garden not advance, and when about 10% bloom flowers (inflorescence central half), and placed in separate groups family at a distance from one another by no more than 500-600 meters. Apiary in one place should be 4-5 days, that is, before blooming flowers 50-60% of the total number of buds. Then replace an apiary at night; family of bees to the garden area, for example, «A» is transported to another — «B», and from the garden of the «B» — to the area «A». Under this condition vzaimozamenennyh bee apiaries in full bloom would be hard to visit the apple. Changing time and the transport of apiaries should be installed in accordance with the terms of flowering varieties prevailing in the plantations, or commercial value of the fruit. If conditions do not allow the economy to make such a change, the family of the apple orchard bees are transported to another source of a bribe, and in their place put a new, hitherto could not be in the garden. When any replacement hives of apiaries should be transported to a distance of at least 3 kilometers since the bees can fly to the old place.
For example, in the department of «Red October» one family of bees on the average per hectare garden was operational throughout the flowering apple trees. And in the department «Central» at the same rate of bee colonies in the period of full bloom of apple apiary is replaced by another.
Accounting and monitoring was carried out on the same age, the same for the development of apple varieties Antonovka ordinary.
These observations showed that the number of bees that work on apple, increases in proportion to the number of blooming flowers. However, under this condition during the period of the full flowering, when the trees operates a huge number of flowers, the bees may not be enough for pollination.
During the full flowering of apple bees were more where replaced apiary (branch «Central»), where fruit yield was 42 quintals per hectare in 1961 and 27 in 1962, it has been higher than in the department of «Red October» (39 and 23 quintals per 1 ha), where the apiary is not replaced. This technique provided the decrease in production cost of pome fruits quintal crops on 7.2% increase in labor productivity by 11.3 gardeners and profitability growth of commodity output by 7.8%. In 1963, this method experienced in industrial plantations of apple varieties and Dr. Fish Borovinka two branches of state farm «agronomist», Krasnodar Territory.
In the control block apiary rate of 2.6 family of bees on the average per hectare garden they are not replaced. On opytnom- when placing 1.3 family apiary was replaced when the trees shed nearly 60% of flowers. In the second quarter increased attendance bees apple 2.7 times, which contributed to a better pollination of flowers.
Apple crop varieties Borovinka and Dr. Fish under the new method of pollination garden averaged 180 tons per hectare, while the old — 145 quintals, in general, the value of gross offices harvesting was respectively 294 and 265 thousand rubles. In areas where the apiary replaced, the cost of the fruit has been reduced by 14% and labor productivity growers increased by 20%.
Currently, the country has significantly expanded the area of fruit and berry plants. However, in a number of specialized farms increase the size of apiaries much inadvisable because it creates a mismatch between the number of bee colonies and the ability to secure their food supply. Therefore, widespread use of a new method of pollination of the trees in the gardens will enable farmers to increase yield, productivity and reduce the cost of the fruit.