ORGANIZATIONAL through the introduction of new technology in HUNGARY
TOYS AND seriously
In the USSR, the convergence of science and industry is shown, in addition to self-financing organizations in the form of research and production associations. Now there are about 200; in the current five-year plan is expected to create more such associations 200-250.
The CMEA countries are widely developed joint research and development activities, which involve several countries simultaneously. Over the past ten years, the volume of work has increased more than fivefold. Together innovators CMEA completed more than sixteen thousand theoretical and applied research, established 1600 designs machines and devices, processes 1200, 1300 new materials, products and drugs. Now bilaterally it developed about four thousand topics.
— The most interesting and economically useful invention of recent times? — Dr. Zoltan Silvashi, deputy chairman of the State Office for Inventions Hungary, for a moment, then went to the closet and pulled out what looked like a child’s toy in a plastic futlyare.- Let me give it to you — and added with a smile. — I understand that doing badly — now you will not have time to work. But first, you are asked a question, and secondly, I hope for your willpower, or the fact that this pyramid you borrow someone from acquaintances.
It really turned out to be a toy. It’s called «The Tower of Babel.» It consists of six cylindrical «floors», rotating on the same axis. Through all six floors is cut vertical grooves, which are located in six balls six colors, each in his own. It is necessary to mix and arrange the order.
Simple enough at first glance. In fact, an inexperienced person in a reasonable time — an hour, two or three — the result is almost impossible to achieve. At home in Moscow, I turned the pyramid, driven by hurt feelings and experiences fan-son. And then in the office of Dr. Silvashi with polite curiosity, I looked at the «Tower of Babel» and said something like that, which is very interesting, of course, a thing, but in fact a toy, and I ask about serious things, about inventions.
— This toy — smiled doctor Silvashi — brings many millions of Hungarian forints currency. You are unlikely to see it in the store — we barely have time to meet the very large foreign orders.
Price pyramid 99 forints (7.60 ruble exchange rate). She made of plastic molding and mass production, and it is hardly a tenth of that amount.
— No, in this case, we believe that is not profitable to sell the license, and the thing — he continued. — We found, so to speak, another national specialization. The whole world knows that Hungary — this medication is Ikarus buses, wine tourism, of course. Now we have also become a global supplier of puzzle games. You have no idea how popular they are! Previous puzzle — Magic Cube, was recognized as the best entertainment eightieth year in the United States, Britain, France and Germany. Eighty second year in Hungary will be held the world championship in the cube.
The history of this new national specialization has not been smooth. The inventor of the magic cube Rubik E., I am told, he was first raised almost laugh — nonsense person is engaged. Then he began to produce the ubiquitous toy Japanese became clear prospects of business, and the owners had to catch up. But we must pay tribute, is quickly learned from what happened with the «Tower of Babel» is not to repeat the mistake.
The status of ‘real’ inventions Hungarians, too, can not be shy. In 1975, the streamlining of Hungary gave a savings of 2.6 billion forints, 2.2-invention; in 1979, 3.9 and 3.4; in 1980 — 2.3 and 4.2. The economic performance of both types of innovations are almost equal, but in the end, even inventing sharply came forward. That is, the invention apparently are widely used in sufficient volume is not preferred shallow rationalization. (However, everything has a downside — the Hungarian comrades complain about the insufficient development of the rationalization of the country).
As a result of the eightieth year (not very «fruitful») it turns out that a resident of the country comes from the innovative savings of approximately six hundred forints (about 46 rubles) — a good indicator. However, the Hungarians do see a lot of problems in their inventive affairs. For example, in Hungary registered inventions per capita is less than in the Soviet Union and a number of socialist countries, greater activity in the innovation of the engineers would like to …
The economic successes of the Hungarian Inventors last but not least, it seems to me, can be explained by the fact that when they introduce a new remuneration system is beneficial not only to the author of the development, but also to other employees. The fact that some of the profits earned by the organization at the end of the year is divided between its employees, and this amount is not limited. Wages, therefore, is actually composed of two parts — a constant, guaranteeing a certain standard of living, and the variable «additive» that makes a man not only of the work better, but also to take care of the prosperity «of the company» as a whole. This system deserves attention, as it allows to link payment of the contribution and work of those categories of employees whose activities can not be measured by objective indicators — cubic meters, tonnes, pieces … To us it is especially interesting now when delivered important issue — align the measure of labor and measure consumption of each worker. It can be solved by shifting the center of gravity in the direction of the variable part of the salary, depending on the production achievements. Hungarian system is described, by the way, is similar to the method of team contract, we all circulated widely, but they have «team» expands to the size of the plant. In such a situation, it is clear in the introduction of cost-effective innovation is interested not only the inventor or the administration, but the whole staff of the company.
Profitably implement and because a system of domestic licenses. The invention is not property of the state in general, and its real-representative of the organization where it was created. Single ingenuity can negotiate with any company. Anyone else can not just take from the Bulletin and use — you have to pay. Again the money into the general ko- bodies. The second obvious advantage of this system is that as soon as the plant has sold a license, then at least he knows where his invention is being implemented, and by an understandable interest is watching this. On the other hand, the licensee is and who seek a solid technical support. It is better and safer than dealing directly with the inventor, who just can not afford even to develop technical documentation, not to mention the existing models. In such a situation, of course, the author does not have to get down, to whom, where and when has attracted to his offspring, do not have to rack their brains, why is it in one factory it gave significant savings and at the other the same — at all no, according to statements that are to spend years on the force and correspondence relating to the remuneration. Out of this situation and the implementation of «for show» — a self-indulgence will cost dearly.
At the same time it should not be apparently, and the desire to patent everything that will fall on the eye — for each application, the company pays an amount equal to approximately half the average wage, and then another every year is somewhat less. Not so much money, but still …
And domestic license and fee zayavku- matter to our readers are not new, they have been discussed in the press. It is not a novelty, and that speculative «pros» and «cons» of the dispute confronts living experience. Which is not bad to learn.
The author’s remuneration in Hungary invention defined by the contract between him and the administration of its business concluded before the start of implementation. The law establishes only a minimum level — two percent of the economy. The national average pay five or six, and sometimes twice. The amount is not limited to — how much work, so much work. And it works right, the invention is used, but, of course, no longer than the term of patent rights — twenty years, for the rationalization proposals — a year. Under such conditions, inventiveness, it seems, can meet the needs of not only creative, but also the material.
I really had pictured a perfect system, which led to an idyllic friendship with the inventor of implementers now, is not an episode reminded that there is no ideal systems as they perform real people. The factory «Ikarus» is expected to meet with the master, something greatly improved in the stamping body. But the master was not at the meeting, and I asked where is he. From that followed a long conversation translator told me only: «He can not come — and dobavil.- I’ll explain later.» It turned out that the master has received for his invention thousand fifty — sixty rubles (in HUF is not remembered because once counted), but believes that it is not fully paid. Therefore, the leadership did not want to advertise it …
By the way, this year’s award to the inventor in Hungary paid out of the same «common pot» as other workers. In some cases, this caused friction between the innovator and his colleagues. Now the situation has changed-paid from a special fund of the earnings are not taxed.
But do not live by bread alone, but moral incentives have significant Hungarian innovator. There are three levels of stars honors — gold, silver, bronze. Its stars for inventors, innovators for their own. They are similar to our star of the Hero of Labor, only on a metal plate. For it is given and a small star — the wear on weekdays as a block, and on holidays he wear a sign. And the good news is that for the award set exact standards — both in sports. Gold Star of the inventor, for example, can be obtained, giving his work in saving half a million forints (115 thousand rubles), or having more than forty inventions. Innovators have little differently — gold star is awarded for three million savings or if you have already received more than one hundred twenty thousand fee (9200 rubles).
Of course, to adopt the best of the Hungarian experience is not easy — it is not so much the organization of invention, as the organization of production, based on the greater autonomy of enterprises.
So copying bring little benefit.
Try the creative need to recycle — the results are worth it.
Ingenuity in the CMEA countries
Figures | Facts | Messages
| In the CMEA countries in the past decade continuously growing costs of financing science and technology. In the second half of the 70s the share of these expenditures in the national income of the European CMEA countries was in the range of 2.2 to 4.6%, with the exception of Romania, where it amounted to
Such numbers do not know the other countries of the world; on the contribution of science and technology in the socialist countries now occupy a leading place in the world. This applies particularly to the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and East Germany.
| Expenditures on science and technology in all CMEA countries make up in terms of the official exchange rate, 40 billion. Rubles per year.
| From 1970 to 1978 the number of inventions registered in the European CMEA countries for the year has almost doubled — from 44 thousand to 84. In Bulgaria in 1970 was created 0.5 thousand. Inventions, and in 1978, 1.8 thous .; Vengrii- to 0.4 thousand. and 1.5 thous., respectively; in East Germany — 5.3 thousand. and 5.0 thous., in Poland — 7.2 thousand. and 5.8 thous .; Romania — 1.4 thousand. And 7.8 thous .; USSR — 30.6 thousand. And 54.6 thousand .; Czechoslovakia — 3.2 thousand. And 7.6 thousand.
— During the same eight years, the economic effect of the introduction of inventions has increased in Bulgaria — 8 times, Czechoslovakia — 6.6 times, the Soviet Union — by 5.6 times.
| In the CMEA countries a strong trend of convergence of science and industry, as expressed in the mass transfer of research work to self-sufficiency. In Hungary, all sectoral research and development organizations removed from the budget funding and transferred to full cost accounting in 1964, Romania and Bulgaria — in 1967.
| Among the major joint international research — plasma furnace with a capacity of 30 tonnes, created the world’s first specialist USSR and the GDR for the smelting of high-alloy steel. Reach temperatures of 15,000 ° C, the degree of assimilation of alloying components — almost 100%.
| Association of scientific and technical potential of the CMEA countries in the field of computer technology has allowed for 5-6 years to achieve success, the development of equivalent previous 25 years. Internationally agreements now cover the activities of 300 companies and organizations, which employ 350 thousand. Man. The international division of labor allows each country to reduce costs by 50-70%, which would be needed to develop the theme «alone»; at the same time reduced and time — from six to seven to three years.
| Convergence Technology in CMEA countries expressed in general standards now approved about three thousand CMEA standards. In the USSR, about 15% of all state standards developed with the advice of the CMEA.
| Now in the CMEA are .120 multilateral agreements on international specialization and co-production. The agreement covers about ten thousand products.
| At the end of the 70s between the CMEA countries and Western firms signed more than a thousand agreements on scientific, technical and industrial cooperation. In the CMEA countries and the developing State shall concluded more than three hundred of cooperation agreements providing for the transfer of technology.