In recent years, the expedition of the Moscow State University under the leadership of SA Izyumova carried out excavations at the fort with. Supruty Shchekino district of Tula region. These materials demonstrate the continued existence of the settlements — from the first centuries BC. e. to X in the. The complex finds the end I millennium BC. e. It can be interpreted as a close-Borshevsky monuments Romenskaya type. The presence in the cultural layer of the settlement black-polished ceramic flat zhalovidnyh arrows, black-polished biconical spindles, one-sided scallop with a convex back evidence of sediments Moshchinskii culture of the first centuries — the middle of I millennium BC. e.
The study of materials relating to the early period of life on the site, is complicated by the lack of precise stratigraphic data. The cultural layer of the settlement has a different power: in the center of the area, its value does not exceed 30-40 cm, and on the edges and in the western part — from the tree — up to 2 m. Intensive construction site in the late period of life on the site, its leveling led to a breach of the lower substantial mixing of strata and early and late materials. In the future, this area has contributed to prolonged plowing settlement.
The collection of ceramics from the monument has tens of thousands of fragments and 60 whole vessels. The article deals only with the early pottery, which is both typological and in a number of technological features differs significantly from late — Romenskaya-Borshevsky type.
Ceramics early stages of life on the site, by the nature of the surface treatment is divided into screeded and polished. In turn, smoothed down divided into ceramic pottery with an impurity in the test limestone and ceramics with a mixture of the test sand or fine gravel. In quantitative terms, with a mixture of clay limestone is 19.21% (5098) of the fragments, and glazed — 4.25% (1128 pieces) of the total sample. Late ceramics is 75.15% (19,941 units) of the total amount of material (fragments 26534) registered at the statistical processing. The remaining amount (about 1.5%) is not numerous pottery clay, which is not considered here.
Number of smoothed pottery with sand not counted as some of its resemblance to dishes Romenskaya Borshevsky-type nature of the surface treatment, contaminants, methods of ornamentation made it difficult to separate the selection of this subgroup.
Among the earliest pottery from the settlement with. Supruty different categories of dishes: pots, bowls, pans, «cup». Found one lid. Unfortunately, because of the fragmentation of the material to determine the shape of certain categories of hard ware.
Smoothed with a mixture of clay limestone is presented on the site blankly: small fragments Donets, whisk walls. Limestone was used as an impurity, in most cases, a large, at least — is finely crushed limestone impurity. Along with limestone in the batter to add minor amounts of sand, making the surface of the vessel is slightly rough to the touch. Surface well smoothed, the dough is dense, medium roasting.
The only category among the ceramic dishes with a mixture of limestone were pots. This wide-mouth containers elongated shape, with a diameter of 16-20 cm corolla (form graphically reconstructed). Possibly, the pots were of different sizes. The wall thickness of less than 4-7 mm. The bottoms of pots often have a «lip» at the bottom. The average thickness of the bottom is equal to 7-10 mm. Character design whisks vessels is very diverse, there are instances of high bent rim, passing in sharply widening shoulders, while others — a tall, slightly bent and whisk slaboprofilirovannye shoulders. It took the form of direct vertical whisk without neck. It is possible that in the settlement, and the vessels were canned forms.
Ornamented fragments of pottery among the few with a touch of lime. Much of this tableware, apparently without the ornamented. The ornament was applied on the rim and a body. Among the techniques of ornamentation corolla met: finger depressions, depressions end sharpened sticks along the top edge of the corolla, rounded oblong depressions wand notches. Unfortunately, in most cases it is difficult to judge whether these fragments belonged pots, ornamented only by the rim, or whether they had along the body and ornamentation. The ornament on the body is represented by: tucks — smooth, mild finger tucks; this ornament met on only four fragments from the ancient city, in one case in combination with finger tucks on the rim; incised ornament — a narrow, deeply incised on wet clay three-row line at an acute angle; pits two types: large, deep holes with a hemispheric bottom, forming a bulge in the dent from the inside; to adjoin the ornament in the form of deep pits of very small diameter. A similar method of ornamentation is marked by only three fragments. Another type of patching ornamentation was distributed more widely — are round, shallow holes of small diameter (0.2-0.4 cm) with a flat bottom. Ornament applied on wet clay in various combinations: two rows of holes; par pit depressed triangular scallops, turn the top down under him; two vertical rows of holes.
Because of the fragmentation of the material forms and uncertainties complicate the search for analogies, and determining the time of existence of pottery with a touch of lime. Therefore, the types and methods of ornamentation it become a leading criterion in addressing these issues. Analogies can be described ornaments point out the many monuments of the Upper Basin of the Oka and the Moscow River, where they receive the most widespread in the later layers. Stratigraphic observations allowed to distinguish among similar ornaments on ceramics Dyakovo early and late. On smoothed pottery with an admixture of limestone from our settlement «old» forms of these ornaments are missing, and later dominated ornamentation techniques. Different monuments of the Upper Basin of Oka and less diverse combinations of ornamental patterns. It does not contradict this, as far as can be judged, and form vessels. So, the only reconstructed ceramic pot close, decorated with ornaments palmate Trinity fortress, where such dishes is dated III, probably the IV. n. e. On Oka monuments such forms and methods of ornamentation is also subject to no earlier than the III. n. e.
All this allows us to compare similar ceramics from our settlement with the dishes of the later layers Dyakovo settlements and synchronized them to the monuments of the Upper Basin of Oka and to date its beginning — the middle of I millennium BC. e. Interestingly, smoothed down with a mixture of clay limestone it was common, apparently, with the earliest time of life on the site. This is evidence of the predominance of ceramics in the lower, predmaterikovyh layers. In addition, fragments of it have been found in the cultural layer under the embankment of the shaft, indicating its dissemination even before they were built the first fortifications site. An indirect confirmation of this is also the similarity of pottery with an admixture of limestone with kitchenware suprutskogo Villages, the dating of which (the lower chronological limit) somewhat older dating of the settlement.
Smoothed with sand ceramic technology is very different from the above. The test of this pottery, along with an admixture of sand meets shallow gravel, at least — fine fireclay. The dough is dense, uniform, firing medium. Well smoothed surface vessels or zamytye often resembles podloschennuyu. Ceramic with sand presented on the site of the four categories of dishes: pots, pans, so-called «cup» cap. All vessels stucco, flat-bottomed.
Pots of two basic forms — the tulip and the vessels with advanced in the upper third of torso, throat constricted, without neck. Pots tulip shape — wide mouth, elongated proportions with a whisk gently unfolded and shaped neck. Corolla diameter ranges from 10-12 to 16-18 cm. The thickness 08/09/12 mm. The bottoms of some vessels were made out in the form of low tile tray. Outlines the differences in the profiling of the body tulip pots. In some vessels of the greatest expansion of the body falls on the upper third of the height. The diameter of the mouth of the body is less than the maximum extension. Others, judging from the available fragments maximum expansion of the body is in the middle height; the diameter of the mouth of the well, usually less than the maximum. Pots such proportions apparently dominated among the vessels of this form.
Tulip ornamented pots on the rim and a body. Among them are ornamented specimens are more common than in ceramics with a touch of lime. Corolla ornamented: indistinct depressions, wide notches, depressions sharp end sticks along the edges of the corolla, depressions resembling nail prints. On the body is ornament shallow pits small-diameter flat-bottomed depressions and fuzzy on the neck of the vessel.
Analogies can find these forms on the sites Moskvorechie such as the Trinity, Sherbinskaya where they are found mainly in the later layers. They are known and monuments of culture Moshchinskii pool Upper Oka: Fedyashevskoe settlement, Dong, cheap.
The second form is characterized by high direct pots rim, tapered neck and torso dramatically expanded in the upper third of the height of the vessel. Pots are usually large, with a diameter of corolla 16-20 cm, but there are small-size vessels. Many pots whisk placed almost vertically, at others — is bent at an angle. The greatest diameter of pots this form accounts for the top third and, perhaps, at mid-height. The ornament was applied on the rim and a body. Only met reception ornamentation corolla — depressions stick, wrapped with string. The ornamentation of the body is more diverse — a variety of combinations of pit ornament in conjunction with the «rope.» The ornament was located in the upper part of the body in different compositions: patterns of two rows of depressed «Rope» and the belt holes between them, such as ornamentation with dedicated reception from the main belt festooned form an acute angle, the complicated composition of the ornament.
Pots second form known on many monuments Moshchinskii type pool Upper Oka: cheap settlement, St. Nicholas slothful, Fedyashevo and others. Similar forms of utensils were found in the later layers Moskvoretskaya settlements and their simultaneous layers Villages «Pochep type» river basin. Gums. Direct analogy to Dyakovo monuments have Moskvorechie and techniques of ornamentation pots Supruty settlement, where a similar pattern is widely distributed, ranging from III-IV centuries. n. e.
«Pans». Made of a uniform, carefully promeshannogo test with sand or less — fine gravel. The surface is smooth, well smoothed down, in some cases resembles podloschennuyu. A characteristic feature of these products is low, in most cases deflected outwardly a side, a height of not more than 1.5-2 cm. The diameter of the pans is the average of 16-18 cm, thickness — 7-11 mm. These pans are very different from similar products Romenskaya Borshevsky-type on the site have to. Supruty that allows you to relate them to the early ceramics. For the latter characteristic: bad promeshannoe dough with a large admixture of fireclay, careless treatment of the surface, high (3-5 cm) ledge, often vertical, and a larger diameter (30 cm). Found early few pans, ornamentation on them is not met. Analogies they are known among the materials and Akinshinskogo Ogubskogo settlements. On Dyakovo Moskovorechya monuments such products are less common.
«Cups». There are rare — found two whole vial and a few fragments. It is possible that some of them — fragments of bowls. All vessels are small, with a diameter of 8-12 cm pavilion height is 6-8 cm. The walls of the upper part smoothly bent inwardly. At the bottom of one of the whole there is a small capillaries through the hole made on wet clay. Similar forms are found on the site cheaply and predominantly in the upper layer of the Trinity settlement.
«Covers». Among the materials presented one copy of the settlement. This product is low, on the annular sump wall with the flared upwardly, the edges of which are slightly concave inward. The researchers there is no consensus on the appointment of these products: one call them lids, others tend to regard them as vases. There are caps in the later layers Moskvoretskaya settlements — Grasshoppers, Sherbinskaya, Trinity. On the Upper Oka known one find on Ogubskom settlement.
Glazed dishes stand out among the early pottery from the settlement to have. Supruty high quality workmanship. The surface of most pieces on both sides of black burnished, rarer pieces of vessels of light polishing — yellow or gray. All glazed tableware made of homogeneous, carefully promeshannogo test, in which an impurity added fine sand or very fine gravel. Calcination is usually complete. The ornamentation on the polished ceramics available.
Glazed dishes presented on the site of two categories — pots and bowls.
Forms glazed pots are largely consonant with the forms of pottery with sand (fine gravel). Tulip pots elongated shape, with a rounded, soft deployed whisk shaped neck. According to one copy of the whole series and debris dimensions vessels reached a height of 20 cm or more in diameter corolla 8-12 to 16-18 cm. The wall thickness of 0.7-0.9 cm pots. The bottoms of some blood vessels, apparently , processed in the form of low tile tray. Traced the differences in the proportions of tulip pots: among them there are specimens with a diameter of the mouth, approximately equal to the maximum extension of the body, and the pots, which is less than the diameter of the mouth of the largest diameter of the body. The maximum diameter of the pots of this form is in the middle or the upper third of the height of the body. They include copies of the bright polishing.
Analogies glazed pots tulip shapes known on many monuments Moshchinskii type pool Upper Oka: Dun settlement, Moschino, St. Nicholas slothful, cheap, Svinuhovo, burial mounds near the villages of Shankovo and Pochepok. Related forms distributed in the later layers Dyakovo Moskvorechie monuments.
Another form of glazed pots — pots with high direct rim, tapered neck, the neck is not selected, torso sharply expands in the upper third of the height. The diameter of the mouth is less than the maximum diameter of the body. Observed differences in the design of the corolla: some pots straight corolla put vertically to the body there, at the other — bent outward at an angle. Usually whisk round, sometimes flat cut on the edge. All pots of this form of black-polished. This form of vascular was distributed, apparently much less than tulip. Analogies pots with straight vertical whisk available on the sites of St. Nicholas slothful, Moschino. Direct analogy pots with bent at an angle whisk known among the materials of the upper layer Scherbinsky settlement.
Bowls among burnished ware on the site have to. Supruty common. They include copies of black and light polishing. Their sizes vary — along with a very large and there are miniature. There are two main forms of bowls — reberchatye and without fins. The first form is characterized by the presence of sharp edges, always clear-cut. This is usually the vessels low — 12-16 cm tall with a wide mouth and narrow bottom. The walls of the lower rib narrows down. Edge cut a side plane or thinned. There are differences in profiling bowls of forms depending on the formulation of a side: bowls with top «funnel» — the sharp edge in the lower part of the body; bowls with high cylinder riding; bowl closed molds in which the rim above the rib has an inclination inwards.
Reberchatye glazed bowls are common in monuments such as the pool Moshchinskii Upper Oka: Moschino settlement, St. Nicholas slothful, Dong, burial mounds near the villages of Shankovo and Pochepok. Bowls with high walls and a cylindrical top «socket» known among the materials pozdnezarubinetskih Villages River basin. Gums, where they date from the beginning — the middle of I millennium BC. e. On Dyakovo monuments Moskvorechie known only bowls «closed» forms.
The second form of bowls — bowls without fins — is less common. Their walls are rounded, tapering gradually to the Donets. The wall thickness usually does not exceed 4-7 mm. The diameter of the mouth ranging from 10-12 to 20 cm. The edge of a side rounded or cut inside. Among these bowls are instances of both light and black burnished. Analogies bowls without fins known on monuments middle of I millennium BC. e. The upper basin of the Oka and Moscow River. At this time desninskih settlements close forms occur less frequently.
The study of the early pottery from the settlement with. Supruty allows selected date on technological grounds the group and set the base and the first stages of life in the settlement, which is especially important for the monument, where the ceramic material is not stratigraphic division. Forms and methods of ornamentation smoothed pottery with an admixture of limestone is the nearest analogy among the materials Dyakovo Moskvorechie monuments and Verhneokskih settlements. The absence of this ceramics from our settlement of certain types of ornamentation characteristic of the early Dyakovo monuments such as socket, bipartite stamp et al., Own techniques of ornamentation allow to compare it with dishes of the later layers Dyakovo settlements and the start date — the middle of I millennium BC. e.
Utensils made of dough with a mixture of sand (fine gravel), according to some stratigraphic observations and comparisons with materials other monuments, appears on the site later, apparently, along with glossy ceramics. The earliest date of dissemination of polished dishes on the monuments of the Upper Basin of Oka, including on the site have to. Supruty should be regarded as the end of III — the beginning of the IV. By analogy with the findings from the Fedyashevskogo and Ogubskogo settlements. Both groups of ceramics found in the same layers with things from the so-called enamels Moshchinskii type that allows to date this dish with our settlement IV-VI, can be VII century. Glazed tableware and ceramics with sand (fine gravel) from the settlement to have. Supruty on some forms (pots, bowls) closest to the pan pozdnezarubinetskih monuments river basin. Gums than the dishes synchronous layers Moskvorechie settlements, while the techniques of ornamentation pottery smoothed with sand closest analogy is to Dyakovo monuments and almost never occur on the gums.